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  • For latin americans
  • Fact that they are poor are realityOther instances of prejudice, such as they buy things, but shopkeeper wont serve them, need to include?
  • he was part of blacks -> speeding -> caught but resisted -> heavily beatenPolice were acquited -> people felt injustice, blacks were angry -> riots began
  • Thereby, the Latasha Harlin’s incidence along with the Rodney King’s case, grew the anger among the African American for the injustice they experience and ultimately cause the 1992 Los Angeles Riot to occur.
  • Residential areas -> different ethnic groups -
  • Such as priority given when looking for jobs
  • T10-Lost-USA

    1. 1. WISP Assignment 2 - USA<br />T10<br />Chan Wen Yi Amy<br />TayYun Xing Steffi<br />Tee Weiling<br />ZhengXiaofang<br />
    2. 2. Content <br />Section A<br />Instances of prejudice & discrimination in mid 1990s.<br />Case Study<br />Los Angeles Riot<br />Rodney King <br />Korean-American<br />
    3. 3. Content<br />Other issues arising from:<br />Race<br />Social inequality<br />Section B<br />Key similarities & differences<br />
    4. 4. Content<br />Factors that give rise to social fractures & divisions<br />Differences in ideologies & systems<br />Section C<br />Possible Solutions<br />Problems & challenges<br />
    5. 5. Identify the instances of prejudice and discrimination that existed in the USA in the mid 1990s.<br />
    6. 6. Instances of prejudices & discriminations<br />Racial discrimination<br />Income discrimination<br />Political discrimination<br />
    7. 7. Racial discrimination<br />Inferior<br />Treated unfairly<br />In terms of:<br />Obtaining a housing loan<br />Educational opportunities<br />Substandard qualities in housing facilities<br />Job opportunities<br />
    8. 8. Obtaining Housing Loans<br />18%<br />23%<br />36%<br />23%<br />
    9. 9. Job Opportunities<br />Due to the lack of education that was provided<br />Difficult for the minorities to find a job<br />Not given opportunities to hold jobs with high authority, even if they are qualified<br />
    10. 10. Prejudices and Discriminations<br />
    11. 11. Income inequality<br />Extent to which income, most commonly measured by household or individual, is distributed in an uneven manner.<br />
    12. 12. Income Inequality<br />* The percentage remained unchanged as at 1992.<br />
    13. 13. Income Inequality<br />Statistics<br />African American’s net wealth only accounted for 17.23% of that of a White family.<br />
    14. 14. Political Discrimination<br />Statistics<br />98% of the judges in US are whites<br />Insufficient education<br />Judges require specialize knowledge in law<br />High level of authority given<br />
    15. 15. Political Discrimination<br />Large portion of the jail inmates are blacks<br />Results have shown that black youths are 6 times more likely to be jailed for their first offence when compared to white youths<br />White judges are unable to maintain an impartial attitude when passing on a verdict to a black<br />
    16. 16. Case Study<br />Los Angeles Riot<br />Rodney King<br />Korean-American community<br />
    17. 17. Los Angeles Riot<br />On 29 April 1992<br />Sparked off with the acquittal of four officers who were arrested for police brutality towards a Black; Rodney King<br />African Americans felt that the punishment on the police officers were too light<br />Bias judgment<br />Along with centuries of being oppressed by the whites<br />
    18. 18. Triggers leading to LA Riot<br />Rodney King’s incident<br />Oppression faced by the Blacks<br />Economic situations<br />Discrimination due to citizenship related to Korean-American<br />
    19. 19. Rodney King’s Profile<br />Part of the Blacks<br />Criminal record of robbing a store<br />Convicted 2 years imprisonment <br />
    20. 20. Rodney King<br />On 3 March 1991<br />Speeding on the road<br />Drink driving<br />Spotted by 2 officer at Highway Patrol<br />5 officers from the Police Department tried to subdue him<br />Heavily beaten with batons<br />Kicked him in his head<br />
    21. 21. Rodney King<br />Whole incident was videotaped<br />Video was circulated <br />Eventually transformed into a media sensation<br />Ignited the anger within African American (Blacks)<br />
    22. 22. Rodney King<br />Outcome:<br />The police officers involved were acquitted<br />Blacks felt injustice<br />Within 30 minutes of the acquittal, more than 300 people gathered at the courthouse protesting the verdict.<br />24 officers tried to confront the crowd, but were severely outnumbered.<br />
    23. 23. Rodney King<br />However, the police never appeared, saying it was for their own safety. <br />Gun fights between both parties began on that day.<br />
    24. 24. Economic Situations<br />Since 1980s, there was an economic downturn which continued till the early 1990s.<br />Effects:<br />Many citizens were affected<br />High unemployment rate<br />Reduction in standard of living<br />
    25. 25. Economic Situations<br />Blacks formed the majority of the lower income group in USA<br />Hardest hit by the recession and suffered the most. <br />Insufficient cash to support their daily expenses<br />
    26. 26. Economic Situations<br />Results:<br />Most Blacks were living in poverty/ were homeless<br />Unable to provide for their families<br />Resentment increases tremendously<br />One of the main catalyze for the L.A. Riots in 1992<br />
    27. 27. Economic Situations – Vicious cycle<br />
    28. 28. Korean-American Community<br />* Therefore, they despise each other due to these prejudices<br />
    29. 29. Korean-American Community<br />African American disliked Korean American as they felt that Korean merchants are:<br />Unwilling to hire them<br />Sells inferior products to African Americans at a high price<br />Failed to contribute back to the society with the money that they earned<br />Rude (Explanation in next slide)<br />
    30. 30. Korean-American Community<br />Differences in cultural beliefs<br />
    31. 31. Latasha Vs Soon Ja Du<br />13 days before Rodney King’s incident, an African American was killed by a Korean American merchant.<br />Thought that the African American was shoplifting when she punched and knocked her to the ground.<br />
    32. 32. Latasha Vs Soon Ja Du<br />Verdict:<br />Reasonable homicide incident<br />Korean merchant, Soon Ja Du cleared all the charges<br />Released on probation for 5 years<br />
    33. 33. Compare what you have learnt from the American situation with Singapore in 2010.<br />
    34. 34. Learning Points<br />Discrimination & prejudice can lead to vast consequences<br />Racial issues is a very sensitive topic among the citizens<br />If it is not properly handled, it will lead to social issues<br />
    35. 35. Section B<br />Highlight the key similarities and differences of prejudice and discrimination. <br />
    36. 36. Similarities<br />1.Racial Issues<br />1.1 Majority Race<br />1.2 Acts of Racism<br />1.3 Education system<br />2.Citizenship rights<br />
    37. 37. 1.1 Majority Race<br />
    38. 38. 1.1 Majority Race<br />Singapore<br />Majorities: Chinese, 74.2%<br />Minorities: Others, 3.2%<br />USA<br />Majorities: Whites<br />Minorities: Blacks and others<br />
    39. 39. 1.1 Majority Race<br />Both dominant races in USA & Singapore discriminates against the minorities in their respective country. <br />
    40. 40. 1.2 Acts of Racism<br />
    41. 41. 1.2 Acts of Racism<br />
    42. 42. 1.3 Education System<br />USA’s education system<br />Bias against the whites<br />Many Blacks do not get high chances to enter college & universities<br />Singapore’s education system<br />Focuses more on the needs of the majority race<br />SAP (Special Assistance Plan) School systems<br />Only catered to the Chinese students<br />Unavailable for the minority races<br />
    43. 43. 2. Citizenship Rights<br />Stereotypes & prejudices against the foreign workers<br />
    44. 44. Differences<br />1. Efforts placed in promoting a harmonious nation<br />2. Differences in social treatments<br />
    45. 45. Efforts placed in promoting a harmonious nation<br />Housing Development Board<br />HDB Flats<br />Ethnic Quotas <br />Presence of Community Centers<br />Encourage the interaction between ethnic groups as they engage in activities held there.<br />
    46. 46. Efforts placed in promoting a harmonious nation<br />USA <br />Government did not place a strong emphasis <br />Focuses more on the economy instead<br />Since USA is the world’s superpower who is leading the global market. <br />
    47. 47. Differences in social treatments<br />Singapore<br />Everyone is given equal opportunities to receive medical treatments & obtaining loans.<br />Credibility & financial status are the key criteria in deciding whether a loan will be granted<br />Regardless of race & ethnic groups <br />
    48. 48. Differences in social treatments<br />USA<br />Minorities were denied of the opportunity to receive proper health care treatment<br />A study published in the American Journal of Public Health estimated that: “over 886 000 deaths could have been prevented from 1991 to 2000 if African Americans had received the same care as the whites <br />
    49. 49. Singapore 2061<br />* Singapore citizens includes Singaporeans & Permanent Residents.<br />
    50. 50. Social fractures & divisions<br />Singapore’s education system<br />Disputes over citizenship rights<br />Encouragement by political communists to protest against the lack of jobs<br />
    51. 51. Singapore’s education system<br />Singapore<br />Education Hub<br />Comprehensive education system<br />Attracts foreign students to pursue their studies in Singapore<br />Primary<br />Tertiary<br />Secondary<br />
    52. 52. Singapore’s education system<br />Intensify competition in getting local universities<br />Local students faces huge pressure<br />Resentment increases<br />Strong hatred towards these foreign workers<br />
    53. 53. Singapore’s education system<br />Ultimately, this resentment builds up<br />Leading to riots & strikes<br />These foreign students will be the innocent party who suffered in the riots<br />Scapegoats<br />
    54. 54. Disputes over citizenship rights<br />Singapore faces ageing population<br />Attract more foreigners<br />Boost Singapore’s economy<br />Increase birth rate<br />
    55. 55. Disputes over citizenship rights<br />High Influx of foreign workers <br />Intensify Singapore’s environment<br />Foreign immigrants are preferred<br />Why?<br />Willing to take up jobs at low wage<br />More hardworking<br />Willing to work for long hours<br />
    56. 56. Disputes over citizenship rights<br />Discrimination <br />Singapore citizens felt that they were threatened<br />Citizens feel that priority should be given to them since they own the citizenship rights<br />Increase in tensions<br />SingaporeCitizens<br />Foreignimmigrants<br />
    57. 57. Encouragement by political opportunists<br />Singapore<br />Past Riots:<br /><ul><li>1964 & 1969
    58. 58. Corrective actions were taken
    59. 59. Implementation of new laws & regulations</li></li></ul><li>Encouragement by political opportunists<br />In Singapore 2061 context, <br />Encouragement by political opportunist influences the minds of Singaporeans<br />Encourage them to go on strikes & riots <br />Display their unhappiness<br />Favorable actions to address their concerns<br />
    60. 60. Encouragement by political opportunists<br />If this issue was not properly addressed, <br />Result in the 3rd riot in Singapore<br />Racial tensions among both parties increases<br />Increase probability of conflicts that involve violence might occur in 2061<br />
    61. 61. Encouragement by political opportunists (Effects)<br />
    62. 62. Consider differences in ideologies and political systems that could play a key role in this scenario<br />
    63. 63. Ideologies & Political Systems<br />
    64. 64. Ideologies & Political Systems<br />USA: <br />Believes in using racial profiling to solve cases.<br />Prominent like in cases <br />1. September 11 case, where Iranian under scrutinize<br />2. Pearl Harbor<br />* Racial profiling occurs when race is used by law enforcements/private security officials, to any degree, as a basis for criminal suspicion in non-suspect specific investigation.<br />
    65. 65. Ideologies & Political Systems<br />Approximately 32 million Americans reported they have already been victims of racial profiling<br />Adapted from amnesty International USA<br />
    66. 66. Ideologies & Political Systems<br />Singapore<br />Maintains impartial attitude when dealing with cases<br />Act as independent party<br />Singapore Police Force’s motto:<br />We pledge to discharge our responsibilities without fear/favor, regardless of race, language or religion<br />
    67. 67. Ideologies & Political Systems<br />
    68. 68. Ideologies & Political Systems<br />
    69. 69. Explain how the identified instances of prejudice and discrimination can be addressed to minimize social divisions?<br />
    70. 70.
    71. 71. Hosting “World Ethnic Festival”<br />Commemorate the racial diversity in Singapore<br />Promote Singapore to the world<br />On a yearly basis<br />Situated at Little India & Chinatown<br />Showcase both local & foreign exhibits & performances<br />
    72. 72. Hosting “World Ethnic Festival”<br />Advantages:<br />Allows Singaporeans to appreciate them<br />Understand their respective cultural differences better<br />Further intrigued the values of diversity<br />Reinforce the importance of social cohesion<br />
    73. 73. Usage of Influential Media<br />Internet, the most powerful marketing tool in the world<br />Interactive websites can be designed <br />Used during curriculums <br />Different features such as interactive games & videos<br />Projecting possible consequences of disharmony<br />
    74. 74. Usage of Influential Media<br />Advantages:<br />Ensure that correct values are imparted to the younger generations <br />Understand the importance of maintaining a harmonious society<br />Sets them to think further<br />Reinforced the importance of harmony in a small nation, Singapore<br />
    75. 75. Selected students will undergo a 2 weeks program<br />Students of different ethnic groups will go to another student’s house whom are of the different ethnic group to stay for 2 weeks<br />Such as Chinese, going to Malay’s house<br />
    76. 76. Selected students will undergo a 2 weeks program<br />Advantages:<br />Better understanding of the allocated family’s beliefs and cultural behaviors<br />Learn how to overcome communication barrier<br />Allows them to know the importance of living together cohesively even though they are of the different races<br />
    77. 77. Establishment of Ethnic Group CCA in schools<br />Make up of students from different ethnic groups <br />Students in the committee should be made up of an equal or proportionate number from different ethnic groups<br />Organize cultural events<br />Promote racial harmony <br />
    78. 78. Establishment of Ethnic Group CCA in schools<br />Advantages:<br />Better platform for students to mingle with other ethnic groups.<br />Learn more about other races <br />Beliefs<br />Cultural differences<br />Behavior and practices<br />
    79. 79. One Day Educational Tour<br />Advantages:<br />Understand more about Singapore & its cultural heritage<br />Singapore’s culture<br />Social norms<br />Beliefs and practices<br />Better assimilate into our society<br />
    80. 80. One Day Educational Tour<br />Implementation of one day educational tour<br />Compulsory for all foreigners who are intending to work in Singapore<br />Visit various cultural spots in Singapore<br />
    81. 81. Highlight some of the problems and challenges that may prevent you from implementing your proposed measures.<br />
    82. 82. Problems & Challenges<br />1. Hosting “World Ethnic Festival” <br />2. Usage of multimedia – Internet<br />3. Students to undergo a 2 weeks program<br />4. Establishment of ethnic-group CCAs in schools <br />5. Implementation of One Day Educational Tour<br />
    83. 83. Hosting “World Ethnic Festival”<br />High cost of planning required since it is an international event <br />Government may not be willing to do so<br />Since this huge sum of money can be better used in other areas<br />Investing in bonds <br />Improving amenities and facilities for the citizens<br />
    84. 84. Usage of multimedia – Internet<br />There are other materials on the web, which may cause social divisions in Singapore.<br />Internet security<br />Hard to design website that can attract attention and also allow them to learn<br />
    85. 85. Establishment of ethnic-group CCAs in schools<br />Difficulty in convincing the students to participate<br />Students may not be interested<br />Should it fail to attract sufficient students<br />Waste of resources & funding <br />
    86. 86. Implementation of One Day Educational Tour<br />Resources & manpower required <br />Need to obtain funding<br />Problems in communicating <br />Language barrier<br />
    87. 87.
    88. 88. References<br />Siggins, Peter (March 12, 2002) Racial Profiling in an Age of Terrorism. Santa Clara University. Retrieved on 16 July 2010.http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/profiling.html<br />Randall, Vernellia R. (April 11, 2009 ) Racial Discrimination Previals - Minorities Ill Treated. The University of Dayton. Retrieved on 16 July 2010.<br />http://academic.udayton.edu/race/06hrights/georegions/northamerica/china05.htm<br /> <br />Amnesty International USA. Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, National Security, and Human Rights in the United States. Retrieved on 15 July 2010. http://www.amnestyusa.org/racial_profiling/report/index.html<br /> <br />Amnesty International USA. Racial Profilling.Retrieved on 15 July 2010.http://www.amnestyusa.org/us-human-rights/racial-profiling/page.do?id=1106650<br />
    89. 89. References<br />Hutcheon, Sarah. (April 30, 2009)  African-American Teens' Perceptions Of Racial Discrimination. Society for Research in Child Development. Retrieved on 15 July 2010.<br />http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/148135.php<br /> <br />Health Behavior News Service. (January 29, 2010) Report: Too Few Minority Doctors After Decades Of Discrimination. Medical News Today. Retrieved on 16 July.<br />http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/177487.php<br /> <br />ScienceDaily (October 30, 2006) Race-Based Discrimination Contributes To African-American Health Disparities. Science Daily. Retrieved on 18 July 2010. <br />http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/061027183652.htm<br />Callendar, Arianne (July,2004) USDA Undermines Historic Civil Rights Settlement with Black Farmers. Environmental Working Group. Retrieved on 14 July 2010.<br />http://www.ewg.org/reports/blackfarmers<br />
    90. 90. References<br />Environmental Working Group. Obstruction of Justice: African American Farmers Sue USDA for Racial Discrimination.Retrieved on 10 July 2010.<br />http://www.ewg.org/node/8480<br />Diversity Web. 11 Facts About Racial Discrimination.Retrieved on 17 July 2010.<br />http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-racial-discrimination-0<br />Anti Discrimination League.(September 10, 2009) ADL Offers Recommendations to Counter Anti-Immigrant Atmosphere in Suffolk County. Retrieved on 28 July 2010. <br />http://www.adl.org/PresRele/CvlRt_32/5598_32.htm<br />Tucker, Jr. Curtis R. (September 28,1992) To Rebuild Is Not Enough:<br />Final Report and Recommendations of the Assembly Special Committee on the Los Angeles Crisis. Retrieved on 15 July 2010.<br />http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/cityinstress/reb/summ.htm<br />Chang, Edward TaehanToward Understanding Korean and African American Relations. Organisations of American Historians.Retrieved on 17 July 2010.<br />http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/asianamerican/chang.html<br />