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CIF16: Building the Superfluid Cloud with Unikernels (Simon Kuenzer, NEC Europe)

The confluence of a number of relatively recent trends including the development of virtualization technologies, the deployment of micro datacenters at PoPs, and the availability of microservers, opens up the possibility of evolving the cloud, and the network it is connected to, towards a superfluid cloud: a model where parties other than infrastructure owners can quickly deploy and migrate virtualized services throughout the network (in the core, at aggregation points and at the edge), enabling a number of novel use cases including virtualized CPEs and on-the-fly services, among others. Towards this goal, we identify a number of required mechanisms and present early evaluation results of their implementation.
On an inexpensive commodity server, we are able to concurrently run up to 10,000 specialized virtual machines (based on unikernels), instantiate a VM in as little as 10 milliseconds, and migrate it in under 100 milliseconds.

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CIF16: Building the Superfluid Cloud with Unikernels (Simon Kuenzer, NEC Europe)

  1. 1. Building the Superfluid Cloud with Unikernels SCALE 14X, January 2016 Simon Kuenzer, NEC Europe Ltd.
  2. 2. Building the Superfluid Cloud with Unikernels • The Superfluid Cloud • Implementation and Results • Future Work • Open Source
  3. 3. The Superfluid Cloud The Vision
  4. 4. 5 © NEC Corporation 2016 The Superfluid Cloud ACCESS NETWORK AGGREGATION NETWORK CORE NETWORK low delay low compute/storage capacity higher delay high compute/storage capacity LTE Multi-cell aggregation site PoP PoP PoP Point-of- Presence site Internet Data center DC platform 5G base station site micro-DC platform micro-DC platform micro-DC platform microserver platform microserver platform microserver platform microserver platform DSLAM deploy deploy deploy deploy
  5. 5. 6 © NEC Corporation 2016 New Use Cases ▌Personalized edge services e.g., parental control, firewalls ▌Virtual CDNs e.g., temporary, on-demand scaling, and (live-)event-driven CDNs: baseball match, OS update roll-out ▌Hierarchical data processing and aggregation e.g., on-the-fly video surveillance ▌Virtualized access to Smart City sensors and actuators e.g., traffic management, public building safety ▌and many others...
  6. 6. 7 © NEC Corporation 2016 Technology Enabler: Unikernels ▌Light-weight service deployment with Unikernels based on Mini-OS, OSv, MirageOS, HaLVM, rumprun, ... driver1 driver2 app1 GENERAL-PURPOSE OPERATING SYSTEM KERNELSPACEUSERSPACE app2 appNdriverN Vdriver1 vdriver2 app MINIMALISTIC OPERATING SYSTEM SINGLEADDRESS SPACE vs. Standard OS Unikernel
  7. 7. 8 © NEC Corporation 2016 Unikernels we work on... ▌In numbers (Xen)... High throughput/performance Fast instantiation, migration Low memory footprint Isolation 10GBit/s throughput <20ms instantiation time 5MB or less when running Provided by Virtualization app MiniOS ▌On Xen... app OSv ▌On KVM...
  8. 8. 9 © NEC Corporation 2016 CubieBoard 2 Technology Enabler: Microservers ▌New powerful single board computers Low physical space Low power supply Can operate at areas where it is difficult to carry out maintenance ARM x86 MIPS Edge Router Lite Minnowboard Max Gizmo 2 Raspberry Pi 2 Can be operated at the Network Edge Initial support by hypervisors
  9. 9. Implementation and Results Numbers, numbers, numbers!
  10. 10. 11 © NEC Corporation 2016 1. HIGH PERFORMANCE I/O 2. FAST INSTANTIATION AND MASSIVE CONSOLIDATION 3. SMALL MEMORY FOOTPRINT, SPECIALIZATION Our Superfluid Platform based on XEN 1. HIGH PERFORMANCE I/O 2. FAST INSTANTIATION AND MASSIVE CONSOLIDATION 3. SMALL MEMORY FOOTPRINT, SPECIALIZATION
  11. 11. High Performance I/O
  12. 12. 13 © NEC Corporation 2016 Fast Unikernel I/O with ClickOS ▌Fast network I/O Support for many VMs on a single host 10 Gbit/s network throughput or higher Low delay for processing packets: ~45µs Mostly introduced with ClickOS[1] work [1] MARTINS, J., AHMED, M., RAICIU, C., OLTEANU, V., HONDA, M., BIFULCO, R., AND HUICI, F. ClickOS and the art of network function virtualization. In 11th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 14) (Seattle, WA, Apr 2014), USENIX Association, pp. 459–473. Click MiniOS ClickOS
  13. 13. 14 © NEC Corporation 2016 ClickOS: Network Middlebox performance: Scaling out Intel Xeon E1650 6-core 3.2GHz, 16GB RAM, dual-port Intel x520 10Gb/s NIC. 3 cores assigned to VMs, 3 cores for dom0 ClickOS Host 2 6x 10Gb/s direct cable6x 10Gb/s direct cable Host 1
  14. 14. 15 © NEC Corporation 2016 ClickOS: Network Middlebox Performance (single VM)
  15. 15. 16 © NEC Corporation 2016 ClickOS: Network Middlebox performance: Delays Unikernel Linux guestsBaseline
  16. 16. Massive Consolidation and Fast Instantiation
  17. 17. 18 © NEC Corporation 2016 What We Optimized ▌Following numbers are achieved by various optimizations on the platform[1] LiXS (LIghtweight XenStore) •2500 lines of C++ code, Based on std::map Toolstack XCL (XenCtrl Light) •600 lines of C code, simplified XenConsoled •Faster Domain creation by more efficient handling of the Domain polling (1-per domain) XenDevd •Faster virtual device creation [1] MANCO, F., MARTINS, J., YASUKATA, K., MENDES, J., KUENZER, S., AND HUICI, F. The Case for the Superfluid Cloud. In 7th USENIX Workshop on Hot Topics in Cloud Computing (HotCloud 15) (Santa Clara, CA, Jul 2015), USENIX Association
  18. 18. 19 © NEC Corporation 2016 Massive Unikernel Consolidation ▌Mini-OS guests on Xen 135ms 20ms 12ms 30ms 4x AMD Opteron 6376 16-core 2.3 GHz, 128GB RAM. CPU assignment in round-robin fashion
  19. 19. 20 © NEC Corporation 2016 Massive Container Consolidation ▌Massive consolidation with LXC containers (as comparison) 3500ms 270ms210ms 70ms
  20. 20. 21 © NEC Corporation 2016 Unikernel Boot-up ▌Following unikernel boot-up measurement is done with our HTTP-Server Unikernel on Mini-OS, called MiniCache: ▌We are porting it currently also to KVM with OSv: MiniCacheonXen HTTP-Server Mini-OS lwIP SHFS MiniCacheonKVM HTTP-Server OSv lwIP SHFS
  21. 21. 22 © NEC Corporation 2016 Unikernel Boot-up Breakdown ▌Content Cache example with HTTP-Server with file system mounted Debian+lighttpd Stripped-down Linux + lighttpd MiniCache on Mini-OS (XEN) MiniCache on Mini-OS (XEN, ARM) MiniCache on OSv (KVM) Unikernels ​Intel Xeon E5-1630v3 4-core 3.7 GHz, 32 GB RAM
  22. 22. Unikernel Memory Footprint
  23. 23. 24 © NEC Corporation 2016 Unikernel Memory Footprint ▌Comparison of different Content Cache VMs Image size (MiB) Min. Memory MiniCache on Mini-OS (Xen) 0.3*/0.7 8 MiniCache on OSv (KVM) 5.9*/8.9 31 OSv + lighttpd 6.1*/9.4 34 Stripped-down Linux + lighttpd 1.8*/5.9 23 Debian + lighttpd 627 82 * compressed image Unikernels
  24. 24. Microserver Platforms Survey
  25. 25. 26 © NEC Corporation 2016 Arch Cores GHz RAM GB Price EUR Others CubieBoard 2 ARMv7 Allwinner A20 2x 1.0 1 70 SATA; CubieTruck ARMv7 Allwinner A20 2x 1.0 2 100 SATA; WiFi; BT; Wandboard Quad ARMv7 Freescal i.MX 6 4x 1.0 2 120 SATA; WiFi; ODroid XU3 ARMv7 Samsung Exynos-5422 4x 2.1 4x 1.5 2 180 ARM big.LITTLE; USB 3.0; Raspberry Pi 2 ARMv7 Broadcom BCM2709 4x 0.9 1 40 Intel NUC x86 Intel Core i5 2x 1.3 8 350 mSATA; SATA; USB 3.0; GbE; Gizmo 2 x86 AMD GX-210HA 2x 2.0 1 180 USB3; Fan; Intel Edison x86 Intel Quark 2x 0.4 1 100 Wearable; WiFi; BT; Minnowboard Max x86 Intel Atom E3825 2x 1.3 2 170 SATA; USB 3.0; GbE; Edge Router Lite MIPS64 Cavium Octeon+ 2x 0.5 0.5 100 Embedded 3 Port Switch; Data center server x86 Intel Xeon E5 4x 3.7 16 3000 SATA; GbE; Fan; USB 3.0 Wide Range of Devices Tested parameters: (1) Basic hardware performance, (2) Power consumption, (3) Network throughput, (4) Virtualized network throughput
  26. 26. 27 © NEC Corporation 2016 Arch Cores GHz RAM GB Price EUR Others CubieBoard 2 ARMv7 Allwinner A20 2x 1.0 1 70 SATA; CubieTruck ARMv7 Allwinner A20 2x 1.0 2 100 SATA; WiFi; BT; Wandboard Quad ARMv7 Freescal i.MX 6 4x 1.0 2 120 SATA; WiFi; ODroid XU3 ARMv7 Samsung Exynos-5422 4x 2.1 4x 1.5 2 180 ARM big.LITTLE; USB 3.0; Raspberry Pi 2 ARMv7 Broadcom BCM2709 4x 0.9 1 40 Intel NUC x86 Intel Core i5 2x 1.3 8 350 mSATA; SATA; USB 3.0; GbE; Gizmo 2 x86 AMD GX-210HA 2x 2.0 1 180 USB3; Fan; Intel Edison x86 Intel Quark 2x 0.4 1 100 Wearable; WiFi; BT; Minnowboard Max x86 Intel Atom E3825 2x 1.3 2 170 SATA; USB 3.0; GbE; Edge Router Lite MIPS64 Cavium Octeon+ 2x 0.5 0.5 100 Embedded 3 Port Switch; Data center server x86 Intel Xeon E5 4x 3.7 16 3000 SATA; GbE; Fan; USB 3.0 Wide Range of Devices Tested parameters: (1) Basic hardware performance, (2) Power consumption, (3) Network throughput, (4) Virtualized network throughput
  27. 27. 28 © NEC Corporation 2016 Test Results Power Consumption (W) Bare Metal Performance TCP Throughput (Mb/s) Idle 100% CPU Integer mult. (ns) Double mult. (ns) Memory Latency (ns) Bare Metal KVM L1 L2 Main Raspberry Pi 2 B 2.6 3.2 5.17 11.80 5.06 15.50 55.40 94 48 Cubietruck 2.7 4.0 3.22 7.31 3.16 10.20 58.70 940 160 Intel NUC 9.9 13.7 1.20 1.94 1.54 4.76 16.50 941 940 Datacenter Server 66.0 135.0 0.84 1.35 1.08 4.38 22.60 942 942 Arch Cores GHz RAM GB Price EUR Raspberry Pi 2 ARMv7 Broadcom BCM2709 4x 0.9 1 40 CubieTruck ARMv7 Allwinner A20 2x 1.0 2 100 Intel NUC x86 Intel Core i5 2x 1.3 8 350 Datacenter Server x86 Intel Xeon E5 4x 3.7 16 3000
  28. 28. Future Work
  29. 29. 30 © NEC Corporation 2016 Future Work ▌Management Framework …has to with thousands to millions of guests spread across multiple locations …needs to: • Be extremely scalable but also extremely lean • Preserve the properties of the underlying framework • Understand the properties of each network location ▌Performance evaluation and optimization on embedded devices mostly ARM ▌Efficient scheduling of massive numbers of guests, potentially hundreds of unikernels per CPU core ▌Back-end software switch performance dealing with a massive number of guests
  30. 30. Join us! Try it out, participate, contribute, …
  31. 31. 32 © NEC Corporation 2016 Open Source ▌Join our projects: http://cnp.neclab.eu ▌Register to our mailing list
  32. 32. 33 © NEC Corporation 2016 Acknowledgement ▌This work has been partially funded under the EU Horizon 2020 Superfluidity project.

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