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OPENNESS
Art is Open Source!
www.artisopensource.net
INTRODUCTION
What is the Internet
your computer	

(or smartphone, or	

tablet, or…)

1001001001110…
bits transmitted physically

a wire (or a satellite, or	

some magnetic waves…)
your computer	

(or smartphone, or	

tablet, or…)

1001001001110…
bits interpreted from signals

1001001001110…
bits transmitted physically

network

your network card,	

the USB stick through	

which you connect…
a wire (or a satellite, or	

some magnetic waves…)
your computer	

(or smartphone, or	

tablet, or…)

packets of digital information

1001001001110…
bits interpreted from signals

1001001001110…
bits transmitted physically

TCP

software on your PC or	

on your provider

network

your network card,	

the USB stick through	

which you connect…
a wire (or a satellite, or	

some magnetic waves…)
your computer	

(or smartphone, or	

tablet, or…)

decides routing: this packet	

is for me, this packet is not..
packets of digital information

1001001001110…
bits interpreted from signals

1001001001110…
bits transmitted physically

IP

software on your PC or	

on your provider

TCP

software on your PC or	

on your provider

network

your network card,	

the USB stick through	

which you connect…
a wire (or a satellite, or	

some magnetic waves…)
your computer	

(or smartphone, or	

tablet, or…)
the web: defines documents.	

assembles text, images, videos	

and more from all the data you	

receive over the Internet	

(web pages, social networks…)

decides routing: this packet	

is for me, this packet is not..
packets of digital information

1001001001110…
bits interpreted from signals

1001001001110…
bits transmitted physically

http

your browser

IP

software on your PC or	

on your provider

TCP

software on your PC or	

on your provider

network

your network card,	

the USB stick through	

which you connect…
a wire (or a satellite, or	

some magnetic waves…)
http

Each layer is service
on the one below

IP
TCP
network
http

Each layer is
a form of power

IP
TCP
network
Example:

CISCO

http

produces large part of the network devices all	

over the planet.	

!

What happens if there is a backdoor on all	

its devices?	

!

The Internet stops.

IP
TCP
network
Example:

How can we avoid catastrophe?

http

solution: openness!	

!

if source code in the devices is	

Open Sources, Cisco is not able	

to hide backdoors.

IP
TCP
network
Example:

Telecom Italia

http

is the main provider of	

connectivity in Italy.	

!

What happens if they do	

not adopt Net Neutrality?	

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_neutrality	

!

anything from censorship to	

authoritarian regimes

IP
TCP
network
Example:

How can we avoid catastrophe?
solution: openness!	


http

IP

!

transparency on rules	

open, transparent protocols	

neutral, transparent infrastructure

TCP
network
Example:

This is true even at physical level
Julian Oliver (artist): images of where internet	

cables arrive on the beach, among machine guns	

and tanks	

!

http

IP
TCP

or:	

http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/07/the-creepy-long-standing-practice-of-undersea-cable-tapping/277855/	


network
each of these layers
corresponds to
!

INCREDIBLE
POLITICAL POWER
!

and/or to
!

AMAZING
BUSINESS
OPPORTUNITIES

http

IP
TCP
network
not “free” as in “free beer”, but
!

“FREE” as in “FREEDOM”
http
IP
TCP
netwo
INTERNET
does not exist
!
!

PEOPLE
exist

http
IP
TCP
netwo
for this
INTERNET
does not exist
!
!

PEOPLE
exist

http

as a tool
for expression

IP
TCP
netwo

all of this
HUMAN
BEINGS
HUMAN BEINGS
daily lives
HUMAN BEINGS
daily lives

recurring/emerging	

behaviors
HUMAN BEINGS
daily lives

RITUALS
UNDERSTAND EMERGING RITUALS
EXAMPLE:
http://www.artisopensource.net/projects/incautious-porn.html
EXAMPLE:
http://artisopensource.net/projects/enlarge-your-consciousness.html
HUMAN
BEINGS
Paul Du Gay
“Doing Cultural Studies: the story of the Sony Walkman”
http://books.google.it/books?id=Gop0dQGKm5sC&dq=paul+du+gay+walkman&hl=it&source=gbs_navlinks_s
the most influential anthropological
study of modern times
the iPhone is “empty”	

!

it is ready to be “filled”	

(with apps)

this is its value:
it is a platform for human expression
NEAR
FUTURE
DESIGN
FUTURE
does not exist

it’s a performance
HUMAN BEINGS

daily lives

RITUALS

IDEA

SIMULACRUM
SIMULACRUM
“Organize a fake holdup.Verify that your weapons are harmless, and take the most
trustworthy hostage, so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the
criminal.) Demand a ransom, and make it so that the operation creates as much
commotion as possible — in short, remain close to the “truth,” in order to test the
reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum.You won’t be able to do it: the
network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a
policeman really will fire on sight; a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart
attack; one will actually pay you the phony ransom).” [p. 20]	

!

(from Jean Beaudrillard’s “The Preecession’s of Simulacra”)
According to Bruce Sterling, Design Fiction is:	

!

“It’s the deliberate use of diegetic prototypes to suspend disbelief about
change.That’s the best definition we’ve come up with. The important word
there is diegetic. It means you’re thinking very seriously about potential
objects and services and trying to get people to concentrate on those rather
than entire worlds or political trends or geopolitical strategies. It’s not a kind
of fiction. It’s a kind of design. It tells worlds rather than stories.”
According to Kook Agency:	

!

“to produce Design Fiction means to design a campaign that is
seriously possible. An object or a service that captures and focuses
attention on a transformation without having to deal with global
trends or geopolitical scenarios. A scenography which is able to
catalyze attention and outline a possible world“. And “Design Fiction
is not a type of fiction, but rather the design of our interface with
reality.The culture of the project applied to the implementation of
possible worlds which can only get built through stories.”
http://www.artisopensource.net/2013/08/02/design-fiction-and-near-future-design-at-frontiers-of-interaction-2013/
http://www.artisopensource.net/2013/05/26/transmedia-narratives-simulacra-simulation-fake-and-design-fiction/
In William Gibson’s “Neuromancer”, a terrorist sect called The Panther
Moderns takes advantage of the fuzzy boundary between the
simulacra and the real to create chaos at the Sense/Net Corporation:	

!

Nine Moderns, scattered along two hundred miles of the Sprawl, had
simultaneously dialed MAX EMERG from pay phones.Nine different police
departments and public security agencies were absorbing the information that
an obscure subsect of militant Christian fundamentalists had just taken credit
for having introduced clinical levels of an outlawed psychoactive agent known
as Blue Nine into the ventilation system of the Sense/Net Pyramid. Blue Nine
had been shown to produce acute paranoia and homicidal psychosis in eightfive percent of experimental subjects.
In the narrative, the Panther Moderns combine multiple
media and modalities to stimulate as many perceptive
modalities as possible to make the people in the Sense/Net
building believe that a fundamentalists have infected the
building with a powerful hallucinogenic drug, thus causing
violence and horror.
Transmedia Narratives
!

a transmedia story represents the integration of
entertainment experiences across a range of different media
platforms	

!

Henry Jenkins, 2007
Transmedia storytelling represents a
process where integral elements of a fiction
get dispersed systematically across
multiple delivery channels for the purpose
of creating a unified and coordinated
entertainment experience. Ideally, each
medium makes its own unique contribution
to the unfolding of the story.
SIMULACRUM

WORLD-BUILDING
SIMULACRUM

WORLD-BUILDING
create a trans-media narrative, to suspend disbelief	

and to create a believable reality,	

to form an immersive experience
people

WORLD-BUILDING

reactions
expression	

of the	

“preferred	

future”
people

WORLD-BUILDING

reactions
expression	

of the	

“preferred	

future”

}
}

Shifts the	

perception	

of what	

is “possible”

transforms	

the future	

into a	

collaborative	

performance
The Future becomes a

performance
The Future becomes a

performance

in which people describe their preferred

futures
the Workshop
workshop
schema
partially composed narrative
describes the setup

Research:	

elements which are useful
for the story, and
background information
(society, technology, actors,
context...)

identify story functions +	

create story resolution
1)

create the map of the present

•
•
•
•

state of the arts and technologies	

market trends	

emerging rituals	

…
2)

use them to infer a concept

•
•

setup the story	

imagine world building elements (start)
3)

create the story functions

•
•
•
•
•

the story functions are the building blocks of a story	

try to make a strong, reliable, consistent story structure	

try to use classical story structures	

es.: 3 acts (setup, conflict, resolution)	

you can use the story cards (attached to slides)
use story functions as kernel
events.	

map satellite events.	

balance story logic.
4)
•
•
•
•

create the event map

the event map is the diagram of the story	

each circle is a section	

each identified story function has a section, of which it is the kernel event	

additional sections can be added, to balance the story
crafting a well structured narrative. These can be expressed as
a text, a storyboard or an enactment.
1

Far left: a schematic diagram

2

used in structural narrative
theory (Chatman, 1980:54*).
Left: the approach adapted
for design is a paper-based
Event Map.

a) Kernel event
b) Narrative “block”
c) Satellite event
d) Anticipatory event
e) Possible but unfollowed path
f) Retrospective event
3
represent story in sketch
form.	

increase granularity.	

make more concrete.
5)
•
•
•
•

create sketches

sketch the story as if they were the scenes of a movie	

sketch also satellite events, parallel events, flashbacks, flash forwards…	

give consistency, make it tangible: if it isn’t, go back to previous steps	

group sketches in sets, to be implemented as the components of the transmedia
narrative
represent in different media.	

validate.	

find best representation.	

communicate (transmedia).
6)

create representations

•
•
•
•

implement the transmedia narratives	

create the design fictions (diegetic prototypes)	

disseminate	

start the performance
on freedom:
Comprendere il mutamento è essenziale anche e soprattutto per dirigerlo, per
fare fronte alle emergenze e ai rischi effettivi di catastrofe (ambientale, nucleare,
economica) che «il corso delle cose», da solo, non ci garantisce certo di evitare. Il
lavoro di studio e di previsione sul futuro sembra essenziale per affrontare in
maniera adeguata tutti questi problemi. A condizione che questo lavoro (come in
ogni altro campo della scienza) non generi una nuova casta di super-tecnici che
si arroghino il diritto di decidere – soli o in combutta con le burocrazie che
governano – il destino di tutti. Su questo destino, non ci deve essere dubbio, la
parola spetta agli interessati.

Antonio Caronia
let’s start!
PHASE I
Duration: 5+5 minutes

Story Setup
Form groups	

Work in couples	

Each group sets up a scenario	

Present it using a single sentence	

Pass it on to your left, elaborate it
PHASE 2
Duration: 15 minutes

Q&A
Each group presents scenario: 2 minutes	

Other groups pose questions: 5 minutes
PHASE 3
Duration: 25 minutes

Story Functions
Pick three random story cards (functions)	

One card from each set (Setup, Conflict, Resolution)	

Create a story using the functions
PHASE 4
Duration: 10 minutes

Event Map
Create Event Map for the story.	

Using story functions as kernel events.
PHASE 5
Duration: 16 minutes

Q&A
Each group presents the Event Map: 3 minutes	

Other groups pose questions: 5 minutes
PHASE 6
Duration: 20 minutes

Represent
Create Sketches for story	

Think as if you are creating the storyboard for a movie	

Create sketches for side stories, too
PHASE 7
Duration: 20 minutes

Show
Each group can present their sketches in 10 minutes
www.artisopensource.net	

!
salvatore.iaconesi@artisopensource.net	

oriana.persico@artisopensource.net

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Openness Workshop at Luiss i-Lab

  • 1. OPENNESS Art is Open Source! www.artisopensource.net
  • 3. your computer (or smartphone, or tablet, or…) 1001001001110… bits transmitted physically a wire (or a satellite, or some magnetic waves…)
  • 4. your computer (or smartphone, or tablet, or…) 1001001001110… bits interpreted from signals 1001001001110… bits transmitted physically network your network card, the USB stick through which you connect… a wire (or a satellite, or some magnetic waves…)
  • 5. your computer (or smartphone, or tablet, or…) packets of digital information 1001001001110… bits interpreted from signals 1001001001110… bits transmitted physically TCP software on your PC or on your provider network your network card, the USB stick through which you connect… a wire (or a satellite, or some magnetic waves…)
  • 6. your computer (or smartphone, or tablet, or…) decides routing: this packet is for me, this packet is not.. packets of digital information 1001001001110… bits interpreted from signals 1001001001110… bits transmitted physically IP software on your PC or on your provider TCP software on your PC or on your provider network your network card, the USB stick through which you connect… a wire (or a satellite, or some magnetic waves…)
  • 7. your computer (or smartphone, or tablet, or…) the web: defines documents. assembles text, images, videos and more from all the data you receive over the Internet (web pages, social networks…) decides routing: this packet is for me, this packet is not.. packets of digital information 1001001001110… bits interpreted from signals 1001001001110… bits transmitted physically http your browser IP software on your PC or on your provider TCP software on your PC or on your provider network your network card, the USB stick through which you connect… a wire (or a satellite, or some magnetic waves…)
  • 8. http Each layer is service on the one below IP TCP network
  • 9. http Each layer is a form of power IP TCP network
  • 10. Example: CISCO http produces large part of the network devices all over the planet. ! What happens if there is a backdoor on all its devices? ! The Internet stops. IP TCP network
  • 11. Example: How can we avoid catastrophe? http solution: openness! ! if source code in the devices is Open Sources, Cisco is not able to hide backdoors. IP TCP network
  • 12. Example: Telecom Italia http is the main provider of connectivity in Italy. ! What happens if they do not adopt Net Neutrality? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_neutrality ! anything from censorship to authoritarian regimes IP TCP network
  • 13. Example: How can we avoid catastrophe? solution: openness! http IP ! transparency on rules open, transparent protocols neutral, transparent infrastructure TCP network
  • 14. Example: This is true even at physical level Julian Oliver (artist): images of where internet cables arrive on the beach, among machine guns and tanks ! http IP TCP or: http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/07/the-creepy-long-standing-practice-of-undersea-cable-tapping/277855/ network
  • 15. each of these layers corresponds to ! INCREDIBLE POLITICAL POWER ! and/or to ! AMAZING BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES http IP TCP network
  • 16. not “free” as in “free beer”, but ! “FREE” as in “FREEDOM”
  • 19. for this INTERNET does not exist ! ! PEOPLE exist http as a tool for expression IP TCP netwo all of this
  • 24.
  • 27.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 32.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 38. Paul Du Gay “Doing Cultural Studies: the story of the Sony Walkman” http://books.google.it/books?id=Gop0dQGKm5sC&dq=paul+du+gay+walkman&hl=it&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  • 39.
  • 40. the most influential anthropological study of modern times the iPhone is “empty” ! it is ready to be “filled” (with apps) this is its value: it is a platform for human expression
  • 44. SIMULACRUM “Organize a fake holdup.Verify that your weapons are harmless, and take the most trustworthy hostage, so that no human life will be in danger (or one lapses into the criminal.) Demand a ransom, and make it so that the operation creates as much commotion as possible — in short, remain close to the “truth,” in order to test the reaction of the apparatus to a perfect simulacrum.You won’t be able to do it: the network of artificial signs will become inextricably mixed up with real elements (a policeman really will fire on sight; a client of the bank will faint and die of a heart attack; one will actually pay you the phony ransom).” [p. 20] ! (from Jean Beaudrillard’s “The Preecession’s of Simulacra”)
  • 45. According to Bruce Sterling, Design Fiction is: ! “It’s the deliberate use of diegetic prototypes to suspend disbelief about change.That’s the best definition we’ve come up with. The important word there is diegetic. It means you’re thinking very seriously about potential objects and services and trying to get people to concentrate on those rather than entire worlds or political trends or geopolitical strategies. It’s not a kind of fiction. It’s a kind of design. It tells worlds rather than stories.”
  • 46. According to Kook Agency: ! “to produce Design Fiction means to design a campaign that is seriously possible. An object or a service that captures and focuses attention on a transformation without having to deal with global trends or geopolitical scenarios. A scenography which is able to catalyze attention and outline a possible world“. And “Design Fiction is not a type of fiction, but rather the design of our interface with reality.The culture of the project applied to the implementation of possible worlds which can only get built through stories.”
  • 48.
  • 50.
  • 51. In William Gibson’s “Neuromancer”, a terrorist sect called The Panther Moderns takes advantage of the fuzzy boundary between the simulacra and the real to create chaos at the Sense/Net Corporation: ! Nine Moderns, scattered along two hundred miles of the Sprawl, had simultaneously dialed MAX EMERG from pay phones.Nine different police departments and public security agencies were absorbing the information that an obscure subsect of militant Christian fundamentalists had just taken credit for having introduced clinical levels of an outlawed psychoactive agent known as Blue Nine into the ventilation system of the Sense/Net Pyramid. Blue Nine had been shown to produce acute paranoia and homicidal psychosis in eightfive percent of experimental subjects.
  • 52. In the narrative, the Panther Moderns combine multiple media and modalities to stimulate as many perceptive modalities as possible to make the people in the Sense/Net building believe that a fundamentalists have infected the building with a powerful hallucinogenic drug, thus causing violence and horror.
  • 53. Transmedia Narratives ! a transmedia story represents the integration of entertainment experiences across a range of different media platforms ! Henry Jenkins, 2007
  • 54. Transmedia storytelling represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes its own unique contribution to the unfolding of the story.
  • 56. SIMULACRUM WORLD-BUILDING create a trans-media narrative, to suspend disbelief and to create a believable reality, to form an immersive experience
  • 58. people WORLD-BUILDING reactions expression of the “preferred future” } } Shifts the perception of what is “possible” transforms the future into a collaborative performance
  • 59. The Future becomes a performance
  • 60. The Future becomes a performance in which people describe their preferred futures
  • 63. partially composed narrative describes the setup Research: elements which are useful for the story, and background information (society, technology, actors, context...) identify story functions + create story resolution
  • 64. 1) create the map of the present • • • • state of the arts and technologies market trends emerging rituals …
  • 65. 2) use them to infer a concept • • setup the story imagine world building elements (start)
  • 66. 3) create the story functions • • • • • the story functions are the building blocks of a story try to make a strong, reliable, consistent story structure try to use classical story structures es.: 3 acts (setup, conflict, resolution) you can use the story cards (attached to slides)
  • 67. use story functions as kernel events. map satellite events. balance story logic.
  • 68. 4) • • • • create the event map the event map is the diagram of the story each circle is a section each identified story function has a section, of which it is the kernel event additional sections can be added, to balance the story
  • 69. crafting a well structured narrative. These can be expressed as a text, a storyboard or an enactment. 1 Far left: a schematic diagram 2 used in structural narrative theory (Chatman, 1980:54*). Left: the approach adapted for design is a paper-based Event Map. a) Kernel event b) Narrative “block” c) Satellite event d) Anticipatory event e) Possible but unfollowed path f) Retrospective event 3
  • 70. represent story in sketch form. increase granularity. make more concrete.
  • 71. 5) • • • • create sketches sketch the story as if they were the scenes of a movie sketch also satellite events, parallel events, flashbacks, flash forwards… give consistency, make it tangible: if it isn’t, go back to previous steps group sketches in sets, to be implemented as the components of the transmedia narrative
  • 72. represent in different media. validate. find best representation. communicate (transmedia).
  • 73. 6) create representations • • • • implement the transmedia narratives create the design fictions (diegetic prototypes) disseminate start the performance
  • 75. Comprendere il mutamento è essenziale anche e soprattutto per dirigerlo, per fare fronte alle emergenze e ai rischi effettivi di catastrofe (ambientale, nucleare, economica) che «il corso delle cose», da solo, non ci garantisce certo di evitare. Il lavoro di studio e di previsione sul futuro sembra essenziale per affrontare in maniera adeguata tutti questi problemi. A condizione che questo lavoro (come in ogni altro campo della scienza) non generi una nuova casta di super-tecnici che si arroghino il diritto di decidere – soli o in combutta con le burocrazie che governano – il destino di tutti. Su questo destino, non ci deve essere dubbio, la parola spetta agli interessati. Antonio Caronia
  • 77. PHASE I Duration: 5+5 minutes Story Setup Form groups Work in couples Each group sets up a scenario Present it using a single sentence Pass it on to your left, elaborate it
  • 78. PHASE 2 Duration: 15 minutes Q&A Each group presents scenario: 2 minutes Other groups pose questions: 5 minutes
  • 79. PHASE 3 Duration: 25 minutes Story Functions Pick three random story cards (functions) One card from each set (Setup, Conflict, Resolution) Create a story using the functions
  • 80. PHASE 4 Duration: 10 minutes Event Map Create Event Map for the story. Using story functions as kernel events.
  • 81. PHASE 5 Duration: 16 minutes Q&A Each group presents the Event Map: 3 minutes Other groups pose questions: 5 minutes
  • 82. PHASE 6 Duration: 20 minutes Represent Create Sketches for story Think as if you are creating the storyboard for a movie Create sketches for side stories, too
  • 83. PHASE 7 Duration: 20 minutes Show Each group can present their sketches in 10 minutes