M COURSE: GROUP NUMER 8 MEDICAL ENGLISH.E TEACHER: TOPIC: DRA. ROSA GONZÁLES LLONTOP. CANCER SURGERY.D MEMBERS: ARBOLEDA DÍAZ OSCAR ENRIQUEI BECERRA SILVA FRANK YOWERI CARRASCO HERRERA DENIS MENDOZA HERNANDEZ ALEXC PISCOYA TENORIO JORGE LUIS TINEO TINEO DENNYI CICLE: 2011-IIN LAMBAYEQUE-PERU November, 2011E H U M A N
CANCER SURGERYCancer Surgery is the surgical specialty that deals with the treatment of solid tumors ofthe oro-esophageal tract, gastrointestinal, and endocrine parenchymal organs andskin, mesenchymal tissues, neurogenic, bone and soft tissue. It alsoincludesprevention, genetic counseling, specific diagnosis, and staging procedures,rehabilitation and follow-up care. The Surgical Oncology is focusedon multimodaltherapy.Surgery may be used to diagnose, treat, or evenhelp prevent cancer in some cases.Most people with cancer have some type ofsurgery. Often offers the best chance of cure,especially if the cancer has not spread to otherparts of the body.Basic requirements for optimal surgical care of cancer are a deep knowledge of thedisease and an excellent and experienced surgical technique in the field of thesebodies, combined with a deep understanding of their function.Basic surgical principles of oncologic surgery: Local excision of the tumor. Removal of regional lymph nodes. Management of local and regional recurrence. Possibility of surgical resection of distant metastases.Responsibilities of the Surgeon Oncologist (on treatment): 1. Protocols involved in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy using solid tumors, radio-, immuno-, and hormone therapy. 2. Involved in radio-, chemo-, immuno-, and hormone therapy in advanced tumors if surgery is part of the treatment protocol (eg neoadjuvant therapy in advanced tumors).
3. Have knowledge of regional chemotherapy (hepatic metastases, peritoneal carcinomatosis, melanoma and soft tissue tumors of the extremities). 4. Take part in the organization of inter oncology consultations with other specialties. 5. Be responsible for adherence to treatment protocols. 6. Take leadership in regard to cancer surgery among general surgeons who are partially involved in this disease. 7. Prevention of tumors. 8. Monitoring programs tumors.Responsibilities of the Surgical Oncology (with respect to research and education): 1. Organization and participation in research, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. (For example, multidisciplinary prospective randomized clinical trials). 2. Move the new concepts of research in clinical practice, whether or not combined with surgical procedures (in collaboration with basic researchers in relevant fields, particularly in the use of biological therapies, immunological, molecular and molecular genetics). 3. Oncology education into the general surgery and organ-based specialties.
THE SURGERYSeveral times, surgery is the technique used to remove cancerous growths. For severaldifferent types of cancer, surgical removal of a tumor may be enough to save thepatient. The probability of a surgical cure Depends of the size, location, and stageofdisease development. When removing a tumor, the surgeon tries to remove as muchas possible.HOW IS CANCER SURGERY TRADITIONALLY?The surgeon usually done through an incisionin the body and removing the cancer along withsome surrounding healthy tissue to ensure thatall the cancerwas removed. The surgeon mayalso remove some lymph nodes in the area todetermine if the cancer has spread. This helpsthe doctor evaluate the possibility that thecure is, as the need for additional treatment.In the case of breast cancer surgery, the doctor may remove the cancer byremovingthe entire breast (mastectomy) or by removing only the breast thatcontains cancer and some surrounding tissue (lumpectomy). In the case of lung cancersurgery, your doctor may remove part of a lung (lobectomy) or entire lung(pneumonectomy) in an attempt to ensure that all cancer has been eliminated.POST-SURGERYThe tissue is removed from the patient is usually examined by a pathologist for signsoftumor cells at the edge of the incision. This is to ensure that all detectablecancercells have been removed. If no cancer cells seen in the tissue aroundthe removed tissue, one can say that the specimen has "clean margins." This refers tothe fact that all visible tumor cells have been removed.
Using microscopes, pathologists can see veryclose to the removed tissue to see ifany cancer cells that have been leftbehind. If there are areas around theperimeter of the tissue removed withouta margin of normal cells, then some cancercells have been left behind, as shown in theanimation below. In this case, thesurgeon can go back and remove more tissue around where the tumor was.RISKS OF CANCER SURGERYSurgery poses many risks to a cancer patient. Sideeffects associated with surgical removal of tumorsare anesthesia complications, infections, andimmunosuppression.Disposal of a tumor growth mayencourage many more:A side effect of surgery of concern for cancerpatients is that removing the primary tumormay directly stimulate cancer spread (the spread ofmetastatic lesions).Surgery is usually used in combination with radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. Thecombination of treatments depends on the type, location, and size of the tumor.