The Six Parts That Make Up anArgument Stephen Toulmin, is a modern day leader and divided arguments into sixcomponents: 1. Claims 2. Grounds 3. Warrants 4. Backing 5. Reservation (Rebuttals) 6. Qualifier
CLAIMS:- Central idea & main point.- The statement might be directly stated or implied.- Statement that you are asking the person to accept or deny.- You may often ask yourself, “ What is this person trying to prove?”- Example: Exercising is good for your health.
GROUNDS: Reasons to support the Claim The ground is where the claim is based. Consists of proof, evidence, or data. Should be supported by hard facts and true reasoning to why you stand strong to your claim . “What/ Why are they trying to prove to you?” Example: Exercising is good BECAUSE… It combats health diseases and conditions, improves mood, boosts energy, keeps your heart pumping, strengthen your muscles, and basically IMPROVES your life
WARRANT :- Logic that underlies the argument- Usually begin with all, every, any, anytime, whenever, either, if, or statements.- Warrants link the claim and the grounds together.- You may ask yourself” Where is this person coming from?” Why does the data mean the claim is true?”- Example: Every person that exercise can be expected to live long & healthy lives
BACKING: The support to an argument Gives extra support to the warrant and ground by answering questions . There must be a strong base statement to hold true to the claim. Example: If you exercise you have better way of life and it also helps reduce the probability of getting diseases and sicknesses. LA times states “ 7 Out of 10” Americans who don‟t exercise are prone to sicknesses.
RESERVATIONS(REBUTTALS):-They are the “unlesses” to the warrant.-A rebuttal is an argument itself, it may include a claim, warrant and backing, and etc…- Does not change the “ universality” of the warrant. The claim must be considered because these exceptions exist.- Example: - Unless they are lazy or sick. Unless they are injured or physically challenged.
QUALIFIER: Include words such as „most‟, „usually‟, „always‟, „sometimes‟. Usually indicated strength of the data to the warrant and may limit how the claim applies. Example: Most likely – ( You will benefit from exercising)
Toulmin Model of Argument Example: Exercising (Grounds) (Qualifier) (Claims) because it preventssickness & diseases & It most likely Exercising isreduced the chances of good for your you getting sick or health dying early (Warrant) (Reservations) (Backing) Every person that Unless they areIf you don’t exercise exercise can be lazy, injured, or you will become expected to live physically more prone to long & healthy challenged diseases and have lives higher chances of dying early (Backing) LA times states “ 7 Out of 10” Americans who don’t exercise are prone to sicknesses.
Why is this model created? Stephen Toulmin created this model to analyze the various types of arguments. It‟s not meant to judge to success or failure of an attempt to prove & argument but it helps break it down to the main points. The six parts of an argument is essential part of the overall validity and reasonable resources of the argument.