Sports & Society
Xavier Carmaniu Mainadé
Hiking and mountain sports
Hiking: a popular activity in
It was a cultural activity
rather than sport.
Mountain sport: skiing,
European cultural context
(XVIIIth): Man wanted
to explore, know new
Man got in touch with
Caspar David Friedrich
XIXth centur: Catalonia discovered itself (interest in
history, culture and catalan traditions grew this period
is called “La Renaixença” (“Rebirth”, like Risorgimento in
The only way to understand and love a place is to get to
know it: hiking.
Also get to know its people and customs: folklore and
ethnography (study of cultures and societies).
1876 b. Associació Catalana
(Catalan Association of Scientific
1878 (separation) b. Associació
(Catalan Assocation of Excursions)
1890 (reunification): Centre
Excursionista de Catalunya
(CEC). (Excursionist Center of
Love for the land, love for science
These assocations are tied
with catalan culture :
Explore: nature, catalan
Spread catalan language
catalan is a valuable
language to science).
in important events:
Memorial de Greuges.
Key places for hiking in Catalonia
Canigó. French catalan pyrenees
Setmana Tràgica (tragic week)
July 1909: catalan reserve soldiers were sent to fight in
Morocco (spanish colony).
Riots in Barcelona by working class people.
Set fire to convents attacked catholic hierarchy.
Strong military repression to stop the riots.
Francesc Ferrer Guardia was condemned and executed
(anarchist teacher) (nowadays Monument in
Created a divide between city vs mountain :
Catalan bourgeoise removed itself from the
city: violent, hostile, dangerous.
Mountain was mythologized peaceful
place, without conflict, with everyone living
in harmony). (Actually it was false, because
in mountain areas there was conflict).
Reflected in paintings, literature…
Paintings with mountain views
were popular (Olot School).
Due to relationship
In 1908 Mountain
Sports Section of CEC
Definition: exploration of
caves with scientific and
Pioneer in Catalonia: priest
Norbert Font Sagué.
Due to his participation in
the first french caving
exploration in Catalonia.
His first descents started in
During Franco’s dictatorship hiking associatons had
Linked with catalan nationalism (some assotiations were
There were places where hiking wasn’t allowed :
Pyrenees (military zone, bordering France).
Since the “Transición” (after Franco era), hiking is
more a sport than cultural activity. But the cultural
“Hem fet el cim!” (We did it!)
August 1985: first catalan
expedition to climb
It was an expedition with
A very popular
slogan/motto in Catalonia
: “Hem fet el cim” (“we
have arrived to the top of