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Slides Ph D Xavier De Pedro 2007

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Those are the slides of my Ph.D. defense. Licensed under Creative Commons, Atribution Share Alike 2.5 Spain.
http://gclub.ub.es/xdp07

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Slides Ph D Xavier De Pedro 2007

  1. 1. Situacions d'anòxia en zones estuàriques sense forçament mareal <ul><ul><li>una aproximació als balanços de producció/consum d'oxigen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xavier de Pedro Puente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tesi doctoral. 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departament d'Ecologia. Universitat de Barcelona </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://gclub.ub.es/xdp07 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Anoxic situations in estuarine zones without tidal forcing <ul><ul><li>an approach to the oxygen production/consumption budgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xavier de Pedro Puente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ph. D. Thesis. 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecology Department. University of Barcelona </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://gclub.ub.es/xdp07 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing <ul><li>0. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hydrodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>2. Physics-Chemistry & Meteorology </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Water column </li></ul><ul><li>5. Benthos </li></ul><ul><li>6. Oxygen budgets </li></ul><ul><li>7. Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>(Annexes [4] + CD with software) </li></ul>Alfacs Bay Ebre River Delta
  4. 4. <ul><li>0. Introduction </li></ul>ALFACS BAY (Ebro Delta, Spain) Length 13 Km Width 4 Km Surface 40x10 6 m 2 Mean Depth 3.13 m Max. Depth 6.5 m Anoxic events in estu ari ne zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos Waste Treatment Plant Town Sand Bar (= “ Alfac ”) MEDITERRANEAN SEA Alfacs Peninsula Rice Fields Brackish Lagoons FW Canals Salt Factory “ S1” “ S2” “ S3” Mussel platforms x x x “ Boca” “ Mig” “ Cua”
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Oxygen concentration in water may become lower than 3 mg l -1 (“ hypoxia ”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anoxic events: rare, but exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative effects on biota (Diaz & Rosenberg 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The problem: hypoxic events (just some summers) </li></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos “ S2” - Alfacs Bay
  6. 6. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos “ OMMEL” O xygen M odel for M icrotidal E stuaries & L agoons + GPP Phytoplankton - Water column respiration + NPP macroalgae +/- Exchange with atm. +/- Transport (advection and exchange) - Sediment & benthic fauna respiration Conceptual Framework - DO > 150% sat. 0 2km { DO = o.m.
  7. 7. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phy-Chemistry & Meteor. 5. Benthos <ul><li>1. Hydrodynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially: Wind > Freshwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually: Freshwater > Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Physics-Chemistry & Meteorology in the nineties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any changes in variables? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temp., wind speed, solar radiation, net rainfall, nutrients, ... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results not consistent, in general </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phy-Chemistry & Meteor. 5. Benthos
  9. 9. <ul><li>3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16-21 September </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiparametric sonde (data every 10') </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Days 16-19: stratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day 20: Wind=>Mixing </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos S1 S2 S3 S1 S2 S3 “ S2” Sal. (psu) Temp. (ºC) DO. (mgO 2 l -1 )
  10. 10. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos <ul><li>4. Water column processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal dynamics for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4a. Plankton production: Gross (PGP), Net (PNP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll a (Chl.a: mg m -3 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity (pp_chla: mg O 2 mg -1 Chla h -1 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PGP (mg O 2 h -1 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4b. Physical processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange with atmosphere, Hydrodynamics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4c. Water column respiration </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos <ul><ul><li>4a. Plankton Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity of Chl a (pp_chla): estimation processes (A) and (B) </li></ul></ul></ul>(A) through all net diel changes (B) through net diel changes minus “physics” average pp_chla (net) = 38 mgO 2 mgChla -1 h -1 DO (mg l -1 ) days “ Net diel change”
  12. 12. <ul><li>4b. Exchange with atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind aeration (DO wae ): f(T, S, WS ) (Wanninkhof, 1992) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ca= [DO] in water at 100% sat. of O 2 , given a T. and S. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cw=[DO] in water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>k=O 2 transfer coefficient (L T -1 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>u= wind speed (m s -1 ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sc=Schmidt number </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T=temperature (C), S=salinity (psu) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos
  13. 13. <ul><li>4c. Water column respiration (BOD 5 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BOD 5 through incubation of field water samples in sealed bottles for 5 days in 2 Temp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BOD rate per hour linearly interpolated, and corrected to field temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same range as nightly change in dissolved oxygen in field water column, in general </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos
  14. 14. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4. Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos <ul><ul><li>Overall results for Water column (4a + 4b + 4c) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter: active [Chl. a] (correlated with DO, p<0.05) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summer: 54% variance in POC explained by Chl.a, but Chl.a not correlated with DO: detritic phytoplankton </li></ul></ul></ul>upper layer
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>5. Benthos 5a. Changes in benthic vegetation in 90's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New colonization by 2 macroalgae species!: Changes in Temp.? Nut.?... </li></ul></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos Caulerpa prolifera Alsidium corallinum 1986 1997-Spring <ul><li>Chemically defended: Caulerpenine , Domoic acid </li></ul>
  16. 16. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos <ul><ul><li>5b. Benthic production & respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>field measurements (light, DO, Sed. resp.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>laboratory P-I incubations of macroalgae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macroalgae selfshading </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>(5b) Sediment respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3h Incubations of sediment with benthic PVC chambers: base rigid cilinder + flexible conus on top. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear and dark chambers. </li></ul></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>(5b) Macroalgae selfshading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a function of Biomass </li></ul></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos K b =0,00274 m 2 gPS -1 Experiment: 5 Light level and 5 Biomass simulations
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>(5b) Summary of results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time needed to reach anoxia in simulated scenarios in Alfacs Bay. End of Summer, Station “S3”, lower layer </li></ul></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos Hurricane Bob (USA) (Peckol & Rivers 1995)
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>(5b) Summary of results (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anoxia?: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to infinite </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen Budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5. Benthos
  21. 21. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos <ul><li>6. Oxygen budgets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarks & Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and biological processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics in space and time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General equation: </li></ul></ul></ul>DO upp. mgO 2 l -1 DO low. mgO 2 l -1
  22. 22. <ul><li>Sensitivity analyses: </li></ul><ul><li>(Jørgensen’93, Beck’83) </li></ul><ul><li>(time averaged) </li></ul><ul><li>Calibration for Chl.a, Rsed (S2, Summer, lower layer): </li></ul><ul><li>Chl.a*0.21 </li></ul><ul><li>Rsed*1.67 </li></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos S2 S3 o.m. in sediment (Palacin 1990)
  23. 23. Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos Annually averaged budget: 26.5 mgO 2 m -2 d -1 Net biological production: 326 gC m -2 y -1 “mesotrophic – eutrophic”; (Nixon 1995)
  24. 24. <ul><li>7. Conclusions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most saltwater net inflow: by freshwater inflow (+50% speed); and lesser: wind, atmospheric pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient concentrations: not much change in 90's, but an increase in DIN (respect to 1986-87) in drainage channels from the rice paddies. Attributed to changes in the agricultural practices at the Ebro River delta. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoxic-anoxic situations do not occur every year. Reason: not a single cause alone. </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Macrophytes: important role controlling anoxic events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from a few days to infinite is the time needed to reach anoxia, depending on light and biomass scenarios. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole ecosystem O 2 budget: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly positive in anual basis: 26.5 mg O 2 m -2 d -1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(+++) Winter & Summer, and (-----) Spring & (--) Autumn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main producers: phytoplankton > Macroalgae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main sinks: Sediment Resp. > Exchange with Atm., Plankton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 exportation to air and open sea. </li></ul></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Model (OMMEL) fit: good for most 1997. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible source of discrepancies: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underestimation of advective and exchange processes (seiches, internal waves, real freshwater inflows through channels or phreatic water) from November to March. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved Oxygen most sensitive to water turbidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plus: phytoplankton biomass and productivity, sediment respiration (lower layer) | wind speed, saturation irradiance, BOD (upper layer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of Chl.a end summer lower layer: inactive </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>The presence of macroalgae: shift in sign of oxygen balance in the lower layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In annual basis, whole ecosystem (including physical processes) has oxygen incomes and outcomes quite balanced, for the whole bay and all water column. Only benthos in station “S3” (“Cua”) is slightly heterotrophic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net biological production in Alfacs: 326 g C m -2 y -1 ( “mesotrophic – eutrophic”; Nixon 1995 ) </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos
  28. 28. <ul><ul><li>Hypoxic events are not caused by an only factor, isolated and identifiable, but for the coincidence in space and time of a set of them: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high temperature, water column turbidity, high macrophyte biomass and sediment respiration and wind absence, among others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoxic situation seems to be kept while these conditions do not substantially change and there is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>little deep water renewal, lack of advective flow by intrusion of salt water from the exterior, or by lack of non-advective flow with the upper layer. </li></ul></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Hypoxia decreases and can end up disappearing when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>either occasional strong winds or weaker winds but more continued, which break or erode water column stratification, or when there is deep water renewal by external marine water entrance, caused by, for instance, freshwater inflow through the channels. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of maneuver to reduce risk of anoxia is low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management chance: freshwater inflows to the bay </li></ul></ul>Anoxic events in estuarine zones without tidal forcing 0. Introduction 3. Hypoxic episode in 1997 6. Oxygen budgets 1. Hydrodynamics 4 . Water column 7. Conclusions 2. Phys.-Chemistry & Meteorology 5 . Benthos
  30. 30. Acknowledgements <ul><ul><li>Department of Ecology. University of Barcelona. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Javier Romero (head and Ph.D. supervisor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborators: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Marta Pérez, Marta Manzanera, Olga Invers, Pere Renom, Fiona Tomàs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This Ph. D. work has been possible due to a 4 year grant from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, and a 7 month Marie Curie (EU - FP5) Fellowship in Norway </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Marine Sciences. “Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas” (ICM-CSIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Jordi Camp (head and Ph.D. supervisor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborator: Mercedes Masó </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>And thanks to many many more... ;-) See: http://gclub.ub.es/xdp07

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