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Probiotics
Probiotics
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Probiotics- unfolding their potential in boosting poultry industry

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Definition:
“Living microorganisms when conferred in sufficient amount on the host, will render beneficial effects on health.”(FAO/WHO)
Lactobacillus, Candida, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, Aspergillus, and Saccharomyces spp.

History
Élie Metchnikoff (20th century)





Werner Kolath(1953)

Probiotics for poultry
Need of Probiotics?
Selection criteria
Probiotics in poultry industry
First decisive incident
Commercial vs. wild chicken



Selection criteria
Probiotic requirement in poultry (concept)
How probiotics act?
Maintain normal intestinal microflora
competitive exclusion and resistance
Change metabolism
speeding digestive enzyme activity
Perk up feed intake and digestion
Diminish bacterial enzyme activity and ammonia production
Stimulate the immune system

Evaluation of probiotics on poultry
Growth performance
Intestinal microbiota and morphology
Immune response
Meat quality/chicken caracass
Side effects(toxicity of ingredients)


Growth performance
broilers fed with two probiotic species put on more weight(Lan et al.,2003 )
weight gain significantly higher in probiotic fed birds(Kabir et al.,2004) .
inactivated probiotics have constructive actions on the production achievement (Huang et al.,2004).

Cont’d
values of giblets and dressing percentage elevated for probiotic fed broilers (Mahanjan et al.,1999)

Intestinal microbiota and morphology
Probiotics inhibited pathogens by dwelling on intestinal wall space(Kabir et al.,2005 )
Birds fed dietary B. subtilis for 28 days displayed better growth and prominent intestinal histologies. (Samanya and Yamauchi.,2002)
Chicks given Lactobacillus strains had less amount of coliforms in cecal grindings(Watkins and Kratzer.,1983 ).
Cont’d
L. salivarius 3d strain decreased the number of Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella enteritidis (Kizerwetter-Swida and Binek., 2009).
Probiotic species have an implicit action on regulation of intestinal microflora and pathogen occlusion (Higgins et al., 2007)
Immune response
Higher amount of antibody production(Kabir et al.,2005 )
Improved serum and intestinal antibodies to a foreign antigens in chickens (Haghighi et al.,2005)
Probiotics protected broilers against Eimeria acervulina infection even with a moderate dose (Dalloul et al.,2003)
Cont’d
Better local immune defenses against coccidiosis.
Splenocytes and cecal tonsil cells, STAT2 and STAT4 genes were greatly stimulated and the expression of STAT2, STAT4, IL-18, IFN-alpha, and IFN-gamma genes in cecal tonsil cells were up-regulated after treating with L. acidophilus DNA.
Additive probiotic supplements were ineffective on systemic IgG (Midilli et al.,2008 ).

Probiotics- unfolding their potential in boosting poultry industry

  1. 1. M.phil Environmental Sciences Fatima Jinnah Women University Probiotics- unfolding their potential in boosting poultry industry
  2. 2. • Introduction • Need of Probiotics for poultry • Mechanism of action • Selection criteria for probiotics • Evaluation of probiotics on poultry • side effects of probiotics on chicken • Effects on humans eating Probiotic fed chicken • Rethinking Pakistani poultry industry • Future implications • Conclusion Contents
  3. 3. Probiotics • Definition: “Living microorganisms when conferred in sufficient amount on the host, will render beneficial effects on health.”(FAO/WHO) • Lactobacillus, Candida, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, Aspergillus, and Saccharomyces spp. Word Analysis Latin(Pro):for Greek(βιωτικός):biotic
  4. 4. History • Élie Metchnikoff (20th century) • Werner Kolath(1953)
  5. 5. Probiotics for poultry • Need of Probiotics? – Selection criteria • Probiotics in poultry industry – First decisive incident – Commercial vs. wild chicken
  6. 6. Selection criteria Screening of poultry Islolation of microbial strains In vitro screening for pre- selection of probiotic strains Diagram modified from Garriga et al. (1998) In vivo evaluations of effects in the host of interest Experimental challenges Probiotic
  7. 7. Probiotic requirement in poultry (concept) Newly born chick Complete flora wild Protection Domesticated (restricted access to other hen) Direct flora (Non-protective)
  8. 8. How probiotics act? • Maintain normal intestinal microflora – competitive exclusion and resistance • Change metabolism – speeding digestive enzyme activity – Perk up feed intake and digestion • Diminish bacterial enzyme activity and ammonia production • Stimulate the immune system
  9. 9. Evaluation of probiotics on poultry • Growth performance • Intestinal microbiota and morphology • Immune response • Meat quality/chicken caracass • Side effects(toxicity of ingredients)
  10. 10. Growth performance • broilers fed with two probiotic species put on more weight(Lan et al.,2003 ) • weight gain significantly higher in probiotic fed birds(Kabir et al.,2004) . • inactivated probiotics have constructive actions on the production achievement (Huang et al.,2004).
  11. 11. Cont’d • values of giblets and dressing percentage elevated for probiotic fed broilers (Mahanjan et al.,1999)
  12. 12. Intestinal microbiota and morphology • Probiotics inhibited pathogens by dwelling on intestinal wall space(Kabir et al.,2005 ) • Birds fed dietary B. subtilis for 28 days displayed better growth and prominent intestinal histologies. (Samanya and Yamauchi.,2002) • Chicks given Lactobacillus strains had less amount of coliforms in cecal grindings(Watkins and Kratzer.,1983 ).
  13. 13. Cont’d • L. salivarius 3d strain decreased the number of Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella enteritidis (Kizerwetter-Swida and Binek., 2009). • Probiotic species have an implicit action on regulation of intestinal microflora and pathogen occlusion (Higgins et al., 2007)
  14. 14. Immune response • Higher amount of antibody production(Kabir et al.,2005 ) • Improved serum and intestinal antibodies to a foreign antigens in chickens (Haghighi et al.,2005) • Probiotics protected broilers against Eimeria acervulina infection even with a moderate dose (Dalloul et al.,2003)
  15. 15. Cont’d • Better local immune defenses against coccidiosis. • Splenocytes and cecal tonsil cells, STAT2 and STAT4 genes were greatly stimulated and the expression of STAT2, STAT4, IL-18, IFN-alpha, and IFN-gamma genes in cecal tonsil cells were up- regulated after treating with L. acidophilus DNA. • Additive probiotic supplements were ineffective on systemic IgG (Midilli et al.,2008 ).
  16. 16. Chicken caracass • Supplementation of probiotics in broiler ration enhanced the meat quality(Kabir et al.,2005) • Count for the visual attributes of the meat such as texture, juiciness and general acceptability elevated (Mahajan et al.1999 ) • Meat tenderness made better by the S. cerevisiae extract or use of whole yeast(Zhang et al.,2005 )
  17. 17. Side effects(toxicity of ingredients) • Few cases of bacteraemia and fungaemia allied with probiotic application • Interactions amid probiotics and other constituents could take place and be damaging to probiotic stability. • Addition of antimicrobial preservatives can hamper probiotic survival – organic acids, nitrates and salts can hinder performance
  18. 18. Effects on humans eating probiotic fed chicken • decreased fat content (cholesterol levels) • hygienic nutritious meat with better protein quality • no drug residues.
  19. 19. Pakistani poultry industry • 11th* in whole Asia in meat production and 2nd* largest in broiler meat production. • Poultry sector role in demand of animal protein • affordable prices as compared to mutton and beef • Poultry Farms 21674* with 141* Poultry Feed Mills • 200 billion investment and turnover of 300 billion* • per capita consumption of meat is 7 kg * • exports decreased in the recent years due to disease, supply feed imbalance, and several other factors. • decreased production, income and employment. *Ministry of Livestock and Dairy development, Federal Bureau of Statistics (Adapted from economic survey report 2011 at http://www.infopak.gov.pk/)
  20. 20. Future implications of probiotics in Pakistani poultry industry • boost the poultry production • increase the quality of the meat – reducing diet related illnesses • increase production while fulfilling criteria of environmental sustainability • Probiotics availability in market • Research • Other factors to boost production
  21. 21. Conclusion • Application of antibiotics leads to resistance • Residual of antibiotics in the body of bird and animal cause non healthy outcomes on human health. • Mounting costs of antibiotics , industry of poultry is becoming unsuccessful. • Several countries have prohibited the use of antibiotics in poultry. • Meeting up the International Standards of meat quality for export.
  22. 22. Cont’d • Poultry researchers have been toiling on the use of Probiotics in poultry and have reported very good results on the development of birds • Many farms of layer & broiler in Pakistan are using probiotics to boost production and getting very good results in short periods of time. • Farmers have reported an enhanced production in layer & in broiler (upto 90 percent in some cases) and diminished death rate.
  23. 23. References • Fuller R. Probiotics in man and animals. J Appl Bacteriol. 1989; 66:365-78. • Kabir, S.M.L. The Dynamics of Probiotics in Enhancing Poultry Meat Production and Quality . MS thesis. Department of Microbiology and Hygien e, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University. • Kabir, S.M.L.; Rahman, M.M.; Rahman, M.B.; Hosain, M.Z.; Akand, M.S.I.; Das, S.K. Viability of probiotics in balancing intestinal flora and effecting histological changes of crop and caecal tissues of broilers. Biotechnology 2005, 4, 325-330. • Kabir, S.M.L.; Rahman, M.M.; Rahman, M.B.; Rahman, M.M.; Ahmed, S.U. The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broilers. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2004, 3,361-364. • Mahajan, P.; Sahoo, J.; Panda, P.C. Effect of probiotic (Lacto-Sacc) feeding, packaging methods and season on the microbial and organoleptic qualitie s of chicken meat balls during refrigerated storage. J. Food Sci. Technol. Mysore 2000, 37, 67-71.
  24. 24. Cont’d • S. M. L. Kabir. 2009.The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 10:3531- 3546 • Trafalska, E.; Grzybowska, K. Probiotics-An alternative for antibiotics? Wiad Lek. 2004, 57, 491-498. • Ehrmann, M.A.; Kurzak, P.; Bauer, J.; Vogel, R. F. Characterization of lactobacilli towards their use as probiotic adjuncts in poultry. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2002, 92, 966-975. • Griggs, J.P.; Jacob, J.P. Alternatives to antibiotics for organic poultry production. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 2005, 14, 750-756. • Nava, G.M.; Bielke, L.R.; Callaway, T.R.; Castañeda, M.P. Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastrointestinal infections: The poultry experience. Animal Health Res. Rev. 2005, 6,105- 118. • Owings, W.J.; Reynolds, D.L.; Hasiak, R.J.; Ferket , P.R. Influence of a dietary supplementation with Streptococcus faecium M-74 on broiler body weight, feed conversion, carcass characteristics and intestinal microbial colonization. Poult. Sci. 1990, 69, 1257-1264. • Jin, L.Z.; Ho, Y.W.; Abdullah, N.; Jalaludin, S. Growth performance, intestinal microbial populations and serum cholesterol of broilers fed diets containing Lactobacillus cultures. Poult. Sci. 1998, 77, 1259-1265. • Irshad Ahmad.2006. Effect of Probiotics on Broilers Performance. Int.J. of Poultry Sci., 5 (6): 593-597

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