Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Basic Definitions and Terminology
Va
                            Solid
                                               Vw
                            Water

...
Va
                            Solid
                                               Vw
                            Water

...
Va
                            Solid
                                               Vw
                            Water

...
Units
•   Length        metres
•   Mass          tonnes (1 tonne = 103 kg)
•   Density       t/m3
•   Weight        kilone...
Weight and Unit weight

•   Force due to mass (weight) more important than mass
•   W = Mg

•   Unit weight
Weight and Unit weight

•   Force due to mass (weight) more important than mass
•   W = Mg
                           W
• ...
Weight and Unit weight

•   Force due to mass (weight) more important than mass
•   W = Mg
                           W
• ...
Specific Gravity
This is defined by
                     Density of Material
             G
                      Density ...
Specific Gravity
This is defined by
                     Density of Material
             G
                      Density ...
Voids ratio
•   It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the
    ratios between the volumes of the diffe...
Voids ratio
•   It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the
    ratios between the volumes of the diffe...
Voids ratio
•   It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the
    ratios between the volumes of the diffe...
Voids ratio
•   It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the
    ratios between the volumes of the diffe...
Voids ratio
•   It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the
    ratios between the volumes of the diffe...
Degree of Saturation
•   The degree of saturation, S, has an important influence on soil
    behaviour
                   ...
Degree of Saturation
•   The degree of saturation, S, has an important influence on soil
    behaviour
                   ...
Degree of Saturation
•   The degree of saturation, S, has an important influence on soil
    behaviour
•   It is defined a...
Unit Weights
•   The bulk unit weight
               W     w   Gs Vs     w   e S Vs   w   ( Gs       e S)
        bulk
   ...
Unit Weights
•   The bulk unit weight
               W       w   Gs Vs       w   e S Vs   w   ( Gs       e S)
        bulk...
Unit Weights
•   The bulk unit weight
               W         w   Gs Vs          w   e S Vs   w   ( Gs       e S)
       ...
Unit Weights
•   The bulk unit weight
                   W           w   Gs Vs          w   e S Vs   w   ( Gs       e S)
 ...
Moisture Content
•   The moisture content, m, is defined as
                  Weight of Water            Ww
           m
 ...
Moisture Content
•   The moisture content, m, is defined as
                     Weight of Water         Ww
           m
 ...
Moisture Content
•   The moisture content, m, is defined as
                     Weight of Water         Ww
            m
...
Example 1
• Distribution by mass and weight
    Phase     Trimmings Mass   Sample Mass, M   Sample Weight, Mg
            ...
Example 1
• Distribution by mass and weight
    Phase     Trimmings Mass   Sample Mass, M   Sample Weight, Mg
            ...
Example 1
• Distribution by mass and weight
    Phase     Trimmings Mass   Sample Mass, M   Sample Weight, Mg
            ...
Example 1
• Distribution by mass and weight
    Phase     Trimmings Mass   Sample Mass, M   Sample Weight, Mg
            ...
Example 1
• Distribution by mass and weight
    Phase     Trimmings Mass   Sample Mass, M   Sample Weight, Mg
            ...
Ww   10
Moisture content   m             0.222   22.2 %
                       Ws   45
Ww   10
Moisture content   m                   0.222      22.2 %
                       Ws   45
                       Vv ...
Ww   10
Moisture content       m                   0.222      22.2 %
                           Ws   45
                  ...
Ww       10
Moisture content       m                              0.222      22.2 %
                                  Ws  ...
Ww        10
Moisture content       m                               0.222      22.2 %
                                  Ws...
Ww         10
Moisture content                    m                                 0.222        22.2 %
                  ...
Example 2
Volume and weight distributions
    Phase       Volume       Dry Weight      Saturated Weight
                  ...
Example 2
Volume and weight distributions
    Phase          Volume           Dry Weight       Saturated Weight
          ...
Example 2
Volume and weight distributions
    Phase          Volume                Dry Weight            Saturated Weight
...
Example 2
Volume and weight distributions
    Phase          Volume                Dry Weight            Saturated Weight
...
Soil mechanics a[1].ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Soil mechanics a[1].ppt

  • Be the first to comment

Soil mechanics a[1].ppt

  1. 1. Basic Definitions and Terminology
  2. 2. Va Solid Vw Water Air Vs • Soil is generally a three phase material • Contains solid particles and voids • Voids can contain liquid and gas phases
  3. 3. Va Solid Vw Water Air Vs • Soil is generally a three phase material • Contains solid particles and voids • Voids can contain liquid and gas phases
  4. 4. Va Solid Vw Water Air Vs • Soil is generally a three phase material • Contains solid particles and voids • Voids can contain liquid and gas phases Phase Volume Mass Weight Air Va 0 0 Water Vw Mw Ww Solid Vs Ms Ws
  5. 5. Units • Length metres • Mass tonnes (1 tonne = 103 kg) • Density t/m3 • Weight kilonewtons (kN) • Stress kilopascals (kPa) 1 kPa= 1 kN/m2 • Unit weight kN/m3 • Accuracy Density of water, w = 1 t/m3 Stress/Strength to 0.1 kPa
  6. 6. Weight and Unit weight • Force due to mass (weight) more important than mass • W = Mg • Unit weight
  7. 7. Weight and Unit weight • Force due to mass (weight) more important than mass • W = Mg W • Unit weight V Mg V = g
  8. 8. Weight and Unit weight • Force due to mass (weight) more important than mass • W = Mg W • Unit weight V Mg V = g z v = gz v v = z
  9. 9. Specific Gravity This is defined by Density of Material G Density of Water w Unit Weight of Material G Unit Weight of Water w • Gs 2.65 for most soils • Gs is useful because it enables the volume of solid particles to be calculated from mass or weight
  10. 10. Specific Gravity This is defined by Density of Material G Density of Water w Unit Weight of Material G Unit Weight of Water w • Gs 2.65 for most soils • Gs is useful because it enables the volume of solid particles to be calculated from mass or weight Ms Ms Ws Ws Vs s Gs w s Gs w
  11. 11. Voids ratio • It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the ratios between the volumes of the different phases. This is described by the voids ratio, e, or porosity, n, and the degree of saturation, S.
  12. 12. Voids ratio • It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the ratios between the volumes of the different phases. This is described by the voids ratio, e, or porosity, n, and the degree of saturation, S. Vv • The voids ratio is defined as e Vs
  13. 13. Voids ratio • It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the ratios between the volumes of the different phases. This is described by the voids ratio, e, or porosity, n, and the degree of saturation, S. Vv • The voids ratio is defined as e Vs Vv • and the porosity as n V
  14. 14. Voids ratio • It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the ratios between the volumes of the different phases. This is described by the voids ratio, e, or porosity, n, and the degree of saturation, S. Vv • The voids ratio is defined as e Vs Vv • and the porosity as n V The relation between these quantities can be simply determined as follows Vs = V - Vv = (1 - n) V
  15. 15. Voids ratio • It is not the actual volumes that are important but rather the ratios between the volumes of the different phases. This is described by the voids ratio, e, or porosity, n, and the degree of saturation, S. Vv • The voids ratio is defined as e Vs Vv • and the porosity as n V The relation between these quantities can be simply determined as follows Vs = V - Vv = (1 - n) V Hence Vv Vv n e Vs (1 n )V 1 n
  16. 16. Degree of Saturation • The degree of saturation, S, has an important influence on soil behaviour Vw Vw • It is defined as S Va Vw Vv
  17. 17. Degree of Saturation • The degree of saturation, S, has an important influence on soil behaviour Vw Vw • It is defined as S Va Vw Vv • The phase volumes may now be expressed in terms of e, S and Vs • Vw = e S Vs Va = Vv - Vw = e Vs (1 - S)
  18. 18. Degree of Saturation • The degree of saturation, S, has an important influence on soil behaviour • It is defined as Vw Vw S Va Vw Vv • The phase volumes may now be expressed in terms of e, S and Vs • Vw = e S Vs Va = Vv - Vw = e Vs (1 - S) Assuming Vs = 1 m3, the following table can be produced Phase Volume Mass Weight Air e (1 - S) 0 0 Water eS eS w eS w Solid 1 Gs w Gs w
  19. 19. Unit Weights • The bulk unit weight W w Gs Vs w e S Vs w ( Gs e S) bulk V Vs eVs 1 e
  20. 20. Unit Weights • The bulk unit weight W w Gs Vs w e S Vs w ( Gs e S) bulk V Vs eVs 1 e • The saturated unit weight (S = 1) w ( Gs e) sat 1 e
  21. 21. Unit Weights • The bulk unit weight W w Gs Vs w e S Vs w ( Gs e S) bulk V Vs eVs 1 e • The saturated unit weight (S = 1) w ( Gs e) sat 1 e • The dry unit weight (S = 0) w Gs dry 1 e
  22. 22. Unit Weights • The bulk unit weight W w Gs Vs w e S Vs w ( Gs e S) bulk V Vs eVs 1 e • The saturated unit weight (S = 1) w ( Gs e) sat 1 e • The dry unit weight (S = 0) w Gs dry 1 e • The submerged unit weight ' sat w
  23. 23. Moisture Content • The moisture content, m, is defined as Weight of Water Ww m Weight of Solids Ws
  24. 24. Moisture Content • The moisture content, m, is defined as Weight of Water Ww m Weight of Solids Ws In terms of e, S, Gs and w Ww = w Vw = w e S Vs Ws = s Vs = w Gs Vs
  25. 25. Moisture Content • The moisture content, m, is defined as Weight of Water Ww m Weight of Solids Ws In terms of e, S, Gs and w Ww = w Vw = w e S Vs Ws = s Vs = w Gs Vs hence eS m Gs
  26. 26. Example 1 • Distribution by mass and weight Phase Trimmings Mass Sample Mass, M Sample Weight, Mg (g) (g) (kN) -6 Total 55 290 2845 10 -6 Solid 45 237.3 2327.9 10 -6 Water 10 52.7 517 10
  27. 27. Example 1 • Distribution by mass and weight Phase Trimmings Mass Sample Mass, M Sample Weight, Mg (g) (g) (kN) -6 Total 55 290 2845 10 -6 Solid 45 237.3 2327.9 10 -6 Water 10 52.7 517 10 • Distribution by volume (assume Gs = 2.65) Total Volume V = r2 l
  28. 28. Example 1 • Distribution by mass and weight Phase Trimmings Mass Sample Mass, M Sample Weight, Mg (g) (g) (kN) -6 Total 55 290 2845 10 -6 Solid 45 237.3 2327.9 10 -6 Water 10 52.7 517 10 • Distribution by volume (assume Gs = 2.65) Total Volume V = r2 l Ww Water Volume Vw w
  29. 29. Example 1 • Distribution by mass and weight Phase Trimmings Mass Sample Mass, M Sample Weight, Mg (g) (g) (kN) -6 Total 55 290 2845 10 -6 Solid 45 237.3 2327.9 10 -6 Water 10 52.7 517 10 • Distribution by volume (assume Gs = 2.65) Total Volume V = r2 l Ww Water Volume Vw w Ws Solids Volume Vs w Gs
  30. 30. Example 1 • Distribution by mass and weight Phase Trimmings Mass Sample Mass, M Sample Weight, Mg (g) (g) (kN) -6 Total 55 290 2845 10 -6 Solid 45 237.3 2327.9 10 -6 Water 10 52.7 517 10 • Distribution by volume (assume Gs = 2.65) Total Volume V = r2 l Ww Water Volume Vw w Ws Solids Volume Vs w Gs Air Volume Va = V - Vs - Vw
  31. 31. Ww 10 Moisture content m 0.222 22.2 % Ws 45
  32. 32. Ww 10 Moisture content m 0.222 22.2 % Ws 45 Vv Va Vw Voids ratio e 0.755 Vs Vs
  33. 33. Ww 10 Moisture content m 0.222 22.2 % Ws 45 Vv Va Vw Voids ratio e 0.755 Vs Vs Vw Vw Degree of Saturation S 0.780 78.0 % Vv Va Vw
  34. 34. Ww 10 Moisture content m 0.222 22.2 % Ws 45 Vv Va Vw Voids ratio e 0.755 Vs Vs Vw Vw Degree of Saturation S 0.780 78.0 % Vv Va Vw W Bulk unit weight bulk 181 kN / m3 . V
  35. 35. Ww 10 Moisture content m 0.222 22.2 % Ws 45 Vv Va Vw Voids ratio e 0.755 Vs Vs Vw Vw Degree of Saturation S 0.780 78.0 % Vv Va Vw W Bulk unit weight bulk 181 kN / m3 . V Ws Dry unit weight dry 14.8 kN / m3 V
  36. 36. Ww 10 Moisture content m 0.222 22.2 % Ws 45 Vv Va Vw Voids ratio e 0.755 Vs Vs Vw Vw Degree of Saturation S 0.780 78.0 % Vv Va Vw W Bulk unit weight bulk 181 kN / m3 . V Ws Dry unit weight dry 14.8 kN / m3 V 6 (W 14.9 10 9.81) Saturated unit weight sat 19.04 kN / m3 V Note that dry < bulk < sat
  37. 37. Example 2 Volume and weight distributions Phase Volume Dry Weight Saturated Weight 3 (m ) (kN) (kN) Voids 0.7 0 0.7 9.81 = 6.87 Solids 1.0 2.65 9.81 = 26.0 26.0
  38. 38. Example 2 Volume and weight distributions Phase Volume Dry Weight Saturated Weight 3 (m ) (kN) (kN) Voids 0.7 0 0.7 9.81 = 6.87 Solids 1.0 2.65 9.81 = 26.0 26.0 26.0 kN Dry unit weight, dry 153 kN / m3 . 17 m3 .
  39. 39. Example 2 Volume and weight distributions Phase Volume Dry Weight Saturated Weight 3 (m ) (kN) (kN) Voids 0.7 0 0.7 9.81 = 6.87 Solids 1.0 2.65 9.81 = 26.0 26.0 26.0 kN Dry unit weight, dry 153 kN / m3 . 17 m3 . (26.0 6.87 ) kN Saturated unit weight sat 19.3 kN / m3 17 m3 .
  40. 40. Example 2 Volume and weight distributions Phase Volume Dry Weight Saturated Weight 3 (m ) (kN) (kN) Voids 0.7 0 0.7 9.81 = 6.87 Solids 1.0 2.65 9.81 = 26.0 26.0 26.0 kN Dry unit weight, dry 153 kN / m3 . 17 m3 . (26.0 6.87 ) kN Saturated unit weight sat 19.3 kN / m3 17 m3 . 6.87 Moisture content (if saturated) m 0.264 26.4% 26.0

    Be the first to comment

    Login to see the comments

  • mwangolombe

    Apr. 26, 2016
  • EngrBaloch3

    May. 1, 2016
  • thakurvj84

    May. 27, 2016
  • AnujBhagat1

    Jul. 26, 2016
  • ShafqatMalik4

    Jan. 27, 2017
  • ShakoorullahSoomro

    May. 5, 2017
  • alemhagos

    May. 23, 2017
  • SajithRajapaksha2

    Oct. 12, 2017
  • aporuye

    Nov. 12, 2017
  • badharshini

    Nov. 29, 2017
  • dhirajdeka5

    May. 26, 2018
  • RidwanOlarewaju

    Sep. 11, 2018
  • MUTURIMWAMGI

    Oct. 3, 2018
  • ssuseraddd27

    Oct. 6, 2018
  • AnesuJerry

    Nov. 5, 2018
  • AbshirAbdirizak

    Dec. 10, 2018
  • MoulaliShaik32

    Jan. 4, 2019
  • AdityaChaudhary105

    May. 12, 2019
  • Venkat91

    Jun. 30, 2019
  • 9458464820

    Oct. 1, 2019

Views

Total views

42,057

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

18

Actions

Downloads

2,234

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

29

×