Lect 2 15 2

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Lect 2 15 2

  1. 2. Soil Mechanics I CE-205 By Dr. S. Muhammad Jamil School of Civil and Environment Engineering National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad
  2. 3. Karl Terzaghi
  3. 4. K. Terzaghi <ul><li>“ UNFORTUNATELY, SOILS ARE MADE BY NATURE AND NOT BY MAN, AND THE PRODUCTS OF NATURE ARE ALWAYS COMPLEX… AS SOON AS WE PASS FROM STEEL AND CONCRETE TO EARTH, THE OMNIPOTENCE OF THEORY CEASES TO EXIST. NATURAL SOIL IS NEVER UNIFORM. ITS PROPERTIES CHANGE FROM POINT TO POINT WHILE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF ITS PROPERTIES ARE LIMITED TO THOSE FEW SPOTS AT WHICH THE SAMPLES HAVE BEEN COLLECTED. IN SOIL MECHANICS THE ACCURACY OF COMPUTED RESULTS NEVER EXCEEDS THAT OF A CRUDE ESTIMATE, AND THE PRINCIPAL FUNCTION OF THEORY CONSISTS IN TEACHING US WHAT AND HOW TO OBSERVE IN THE FIELD ” </li></ul>
  4. 6. SOIL MECHANICS In general sense of engineering, soil is defined as the un-cemented aggregate (or granular material) of mineral grains and decayed organic matter along with the liquid and gas that occupy empty spaces between the solid particles. All man made structures, except those which floats as fly, are supported by natural soil or rock deposits . What is Soil?
  5. 7. Soil mechanics is the branch of science that deals with the study of the physical and mechanical properties of soils and the behavior of soil subjected to various types of forces. In other words, soil mechanics is the study of both solids and fluid mechanical characteristics of soil. What is Soil Mechanics?
  6. 8. <ul><li>How much soil will deform when it is loaded? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the rate of deformation? </li></ul><ul><li>How much load can be applied before it fails? </li></ul><ul><li>How does soil ‘fail’? </li></ul>Solid Mechanics Issues
  7. 9. <ul><li>How does water flow through soil (how fast)? </li></ul><ul><li>How can fluid flow through soil cause it to fail? </li></ul>Fluid Mechanics Issues
  8. 10. <ul><li>All branches of civil engineering require an understanding of soil and its behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic Engineering </li></ul>Why do, as Civil Engineers, Study ‘Soil Mechanics’?
  9. 11. <ul><li>Virtually all civil engineering type structures eventually come into contact with soil via their foundation (bridge, buildings, town etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of soil mechanics is essential to ensure that structures are properly supported. This can help in averting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural damage and failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial loss. </li></ul></ul>Structural Engineering
  10. 12. Road beds are often built of soil and the roadways themselves can often pass through mountain, cuts, fill etc. Understanding soil mechanics can preclude problems with pavement potholing and cracking, as well embankment and slope failure that can wipe out entire roadways . Transportation Engineering
  11. 13. <ul><li>Liquid toxins or pollutants often spilled or released inadvertently onto or into soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Land filling of solid wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Important questions to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>Will the pollutants remain in place, or possibly be transported through soil? If so at what rate? </li></ul><ul><li>Can anything be done to clean-up the pollution? </li></ul>Environmental Engineering
  12. 14. The design of earthen flow retention structures such as dams, levees, dikes, storage ponds require knowledge of how water is transported through soil. How water flowing through soil can cause failure by mechanisms as boiling, piping, erosion and scouring. Hydraulic Engineering
  13. 15. SOIL MECHANICS Behavior of the Structure depends upon Properties of Soil on which the structure rests Properties of the rocks from which they are derived
  14. 16. <ul><li>Civil Engineers must study the properties of soil, such as its: </li></ul><ul><li>Origin </li></ul><ul><li>Grain Size Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Drain Water </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of the Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Behavior of the soil when they are sheared or compressed or when water flows through it. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>The rocks that form the earth’s surface are classified as to origin as: </li></ul><ul><li>Igneous </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Igneous Rocks are those which formed directly from the molten state of magma. </li></ul><ul><li>If the molten rock cools very slowly, the different materials segregate into large crystals forming a coarse-grained or granular structure. </li></ul><ul><li>For e.g. GRANITE – (which consists of quartz and feldspar) </li></ul><ul><li>Because of high silica content these rocks are classified as ACIDIC </li></ul><ul><li>GABBRO – (Dark Ferromagnesium materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks whose minerals contain Fe. Mg. Ca or Na but little silica are classified as BASIC </li></ul>Igneous Rocks
  17. 19. When the solution of minerals is cooled more rapidly, tiny crystals of the minerals are formed in a vitreous matrix. For e.g. FELCITE – Extremely fine grained rocks. BASALT – When formed with ferromagnesium material s Igneous Rocks
  18. 20. Sedimentary rocks are from accumulated deposits of soil particles or remains of certain organisms that have become hardened by pressure or cemented by minerals. Due to abundant availability of cementing minerals such as silica, carbonates, iron oxides. For e.g. Limestones, Sandstone, Shale, Conglomerate and Breccia Sedimentary Rocks
  19. 21. Results when any type of existing rock is subject to metamorphism, the change brought about by combinations of heat, pressure and plastic flow so that the original rock structure and mineral composition are changed. [ -> Plastic flow – slow viscous movement and rearrangement within the rock mass due to external forces] Limestone -> -> MARBLE; Shale -> -> SLATE; Granite -> -> GNEISS; Sandstone -> -> QUARTZITE Metamorphic Rocks
  20. 22. SOIL MECHANICS ROCKS (IGNEOUS, SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC) WEATHERING (PHYSICAL / CHEMICAL) TRANSPORTED BOULDERS, GRAVEL, SAND, SILT AND CLAY SOIL
  21. 23. Rocks whose chief mineral is quartz minerals with high silica content, decomposes to predominantly sandy or gravelly soil with little clay. [Acidic rocks are light-coloured] Basic rocks decompose to the fine-textured silt and clay soils. The clays are not small fragments of the original materials that existed in the parent rock [-> result of primary rock minerals decomposing to form secondary minerals]
  22. 24. <ul><li>Residual – Formed from weathering of rock and remain at the location of their origin. </li></ul><ul><li>(a material which may possess little mineralogical resemblance to the parent rock) </li></ul><ul><li>Transported – those materials that have been moved from their place of origin. </li></ul><ul><li>By agencies like, gravity, water, glaciers, or man – either singularly or in combination. </li></ul>Soils can be grouped into two broad categories (depending on the method of deposition):
  23. 25. <ul><li>Climate Conditions – humidity, temp., rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Natural drainage pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Form and extent of vegetation cover </li></ul><ul><li>[A warm and humid climate is favourable to the formation of residual soils and nature of residual soil differs markedly at different depths below ground surface and constantly changes with time] </li></ul>Characteristics of Residual soils are dependent on:
  24. 26. <ul><li>Alluvial – transported in running water [rivers] </li></ul><ul><li>Lacustrine – deposited in quiet lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Marine – deposited in sea water </li></ul><ul><li>Aeolin – transported by wind </li></ul><ul><li>Glacial – by ice [Glaciation – massive moving sheets of ice] </li></ul><ul><li>Colluvial – deposited through action of landslide and slope wash </li></ul>Transported Soils are classified according to the transporting agency and method of deposition:
  25. 27. Examples of Transported Soils: <ul><li>LOESS </li></ul>- Wind blown deposit with very uniform fine silt particles (possesses slight cementation properties) - Formed in Arid and Semi-Arid regions with yellowish light brown colour <ul><li>Tuff </li></ul>- Fine-grained slightly cemented volcanic ash [by wind/water] <ul><li>Glacial till </li></ul>- Heterogeneous mixture of boulders, gravel, sand, silt and clay (Hilly regions)
  26. 28. Examples of Transported Soils: <ul><li>Varved Clay </li></ul>- Alternate layers of silt and clay deposited in fresh water glacial lakes. - One band of silt and clay deposited each year [each layer is approx. 10 mm thk.] <ul><li>Marl </li></ul>- Very fine grained soil of marine origin [impermeable, greenish colour] <ul><li>Peat </li></ul>- A highly organic soil consisting almost entirely of vegetable matter in varying stages of decomposition, Fibrous, brown to black in colour and highly compressible.
  27. 29. f (Ambience, Geography and Topography) Major Soil Deposits: <ul><li>Expansive </li></ul>- High shrink-swell characteristics (attributed to the minerals) Colour-Black (Presence of Fe, Mg and Ti) <ul><li>Marine </li></ul>- Very soft and may contain organic matter <ul><li>Laterite </li></ul>- Red in colour due to Fe 2 O 3 (Laterization-Leaching of Silica – due to intense chemical weathering) <ul><li>Alluvial </li></ul>- Alternate layers of Sand, Silt and Clay <ul><li>Desert </li></ul>- Wind blown, uniformly graded <ul><li>Glacial </li></ul>- Boulder clay (all ranges of particle sizes)
  28. 30. <ul><li>Formation of soils from the weathering of the parent rock </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of sizes of soil solids </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior of soil mass under stress is a function of material properties, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) size and shape of grains, (ii) gradation, </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) mineralogical composition, (iv) arrangement of grain, </li></ul><ul><li>(v) inter-particle forces, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Material properties -> f (constituents of the soil mass) </li></ul>Constituents of the soil mass
  29. 31. <ul><li>Soil is a particulate material. </li></ul><ul><li>Which means that a soil mass consists of accumulation of individual particles that are bonded together by mechanical or attractive means, though not strongly as for rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Spaces in between solid particles -> Voids or pore space </li></ul>Constituents of the soil mass
  30. 32. In Soil (in most rock), voids exist between particles, and voids may be filled with a liquid, usually water or gas, usually air .
  31. 33. <ul><li>Soil is a inherently multipurpose material </li></ul><ul><li>(Generally consists of three phases) </li></ul><ul><li>- Solid phase </li></ul><ul><li>- Liquid phase </li></ul><ul><li>- Gaseous phase </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be TWO PHASE material: </li></ul><ul><li>With solid + Gaseous (DRY STATE) </li></ul><ul><li>With solid + Liquid (SATURATED STATE) </li></ul>Constituents of the soil mass
  32. 34. <ul><li>Primary rock forming minerals (Size > 2µm, Poor Reactivity, Prone to disintegration) </li></ul><ul><li>Clay minerals (Basic materials that form the soil mass, Size < 2µm, High Reactivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Cementing material (Carbonates) </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter (High water absorption, Compressible, unstable) </li></ul>Solid phase consists of:

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