Sgp Power Point 2nd Submission


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  • The Honda clarity is the greatest example of an efficient and environmentally friendly car. In gasoline-powered vehicles, gasoline is used to heat and expand air, which then drives the engine’s pistons and crankshaft. Fuel cell vehicles, on the other hand, are much more efficient, because the conversion of hydrogen to electricity, used to power the electric drive motor, is a more direct electrochemical process. Water is a by-product. And since the FCX Clarity FCEV has significantly fewer components in the drive system, no pistons and no camshafts, the energy loss from these systems is eliminated. Sensors are located throughout the vehicle to provide a warning in the unlikely event of a hydrogen leak. Should such a leak occur, the ventilation system is activated and an automatic system closes the main cut-off valves on the hydrogen tank or supply lines as necessary. The high-voltage lines are electrically isolated. In the event of a collision, the system controller automatically shuts off the flow of hydrogen and electric current.
  • 1. The piston starts at the top, the intake valve opens, and the piston moves down to allow the engine take in a cylinder-full of air and gasoline into the chamber . This is called the intake stroke. Only a very small drop of gasoline needs to be mixed into the oxygen for this to work. 2. Then the piston moves back up to compress this fuel and oxygen mixture. Compression makes the explosion more powerful. 3. When the piston reaches the top of its stroke, the spark plug gives off a spark to ignite the gasoline and oxygen mixture. The mixture inside the cylinder explodes and pushes the piston down. 4. Once the piston hits the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust leaves the cylinder to go out the tailpipe. 5. Once this is done the cycle restarts itself.
  • A fuel cell is made up of a thin membrane wedged between two electrode layers in between two separators. Several hundred layers of these cells are connected in series. Hydrogen fuel is fed into the anode of the fuel cell. Helped by a catalyst, hydrogen molecules are split into electrons and protons.2. Electrons are channeled through a circuit to produce electricity. Protons pass through the polymer electrolyte membrane. Oxygen enters the cathode and combines with the electrons and protons to form water. Water vapor and heat are released as by products of this reaction. Fuel cell is a zero emission's system. This system only emit’s water vapor’s and heat, which means zero carbon dioxide. Fuel cell has 45% better energy efficiency. In gasoline-powered vehicle’s fuel is used to heat and expand air, which then drives the engine’s pistons and crankshaft. Fuel cell vehicles are much more efficient, because the conversion of hydrogen to electricity used to power the electric drive motor, Water is a by-product. Because these vehicle’s do not have the components found in a gasoline car the noise is greatly reduced.
  • A hydrogen fuel cell produces electricity for the vehicle. The fuel cell combines hydrogen, which is stored in a fuel tank onboard the vehicle, with oxygen from the air to make electricity. The electricity then powers the electric motor, which in turn drives the front wheels. Water vapor and heat are the only byproducts.
  • The electric engines inside hybrid vehicles is based on a lower emissions standard because have this extra power inside the car allows for about 20 to 30 more miles per gallon.
  • The Toyota prius is a great advancement to the automotive industry. The electric engine itself is capable of about 20 miles per hour. But the toyota prius is capable of much more. The prius uses a split power device- a gearbox that hooks the gasoline engine, generator and electric motor together. It allows the car to operate like a parallel hybrid. the electric motor can power the car by itself, the gas engine can power the car by itself or they can power the car together. The power split device also allows the car to operate like a series hybrid. the gasoline engine can operate independently of the vehicle speed, charging the batteries or providing power to the wheels as needed. It also acts as a continuously variable transmission eliminating the need for a manual or automatic transmission, and the car does not need a starter.
  • Planetary gear system-The electric motor is connected to the ring gear of the gear set. It is also directly connected to the differential, which drives the wheels. So, whatever speed the electric motor and ring gear spin at determines the speed of the car. When you accelerate, initially the electric motor and batteries provide all of the power. The ring gear of the power split device is connected to the electric motor, so it starts to spin with the motor. The planet carrier, which is connected to the engine, is stationary because the engine is not running. Since the ring gear is spinning, the planets have to spin, which causes the sun gear and generator to spin. As the car accelerates, the generator spins at whatever speed it needs to in order for the engine to remain off. Once you reach about 40 mph the gasoline engine will turn on. The generator suddenly changes speed, causing the planet carrier to turn and start the engine. Once the engine is running, it settles into a constant speed while the generator varies its speed to match the output speed with the electric motor. If you are really accelerating hard, the motor will draw extra power from the batteries. Once you are up to freeway speed, the car will move under a combination of gas and electric power, with all of the electricity coming from the generator. the Prius never needs to be recharged; the onboard generator automatically maintains the proper level of charge in the batteries.
  • As of right now all hydrogen powered vehicles are available on the west coast specifically California for the reason that only hydrogen gas pumps are made their, but it will not be long before we se this in are neighborhood at less than $2.00 per gallon.
  • The oldest and most common way to separate things into various components called fractions, is to do it using the differences in boiling temperature. This process is called fractional distillation. You basically heat crude oil up, let it vaporize and then condense the vapor. Newer techniques use Chemical processing on some of the fractions to make others, in a process called conversion. Chemical processing, for example, can break longer chains into shorter ones. This allows a refinery to turn diesel fuel into gasoline depending on the demand for gasoline. Refineries must treat the fractions to remove impurities. Refineries combine the various fractions processed, unprocessed into mixtures to make desired products. For example, different mixtures of chains can create gasoline's with different octane ratings.
  • high temperature steam, about1500 degrees Fahrenheit is used to break ethane, butane and naphtha into ethylene and benzene, which are used to manufacture chemicals. Visbreaking residual from the distillation tower is heated 900 degrees Fahrenheit cooled with gas oil and rapidly burned in a distillation tower. This process reduces the viscosity of heavy weight oils and produces tar. Coking residual from the distillation tower is heated to temperatures above 900 degrees Fahrenheit until it cracks into heavy oil, gasoline and naphtha. When the process is done, a heavy, almost pure carbon residue is left is cleaned from the cokers and sold.
  • There are many different types of gasoline powered engines used in the automotive industry, and all have their advantages, and disadvantages but all are very good choices now obviously curtain cars or other types of vehicles need curtain engines, like large trucks and suv’s run off of a diesel engine. Most cars run off of a four stroke v6 or v8, that would be a 6 or 8 valve engine.
  • Gas prices have really bounced around in the last nine years, and it seems like the farther west you go the higher the gas price is. When comparing all three of these choices a hydrogen powered vehicle is you best bet to save money and help the environment even though it is only available in the west coast right now it cost about half of what gasoline does per gallon, and having a hybrid vehicle does save you money but not per gallon the only advantage of a hybrid car is the fuel efficiency, you will not have to fill your tank up as much .
  • Gas powered cars are getting better well it all started out as 10 to 15 mpg now that ratings are about 20 to 30 at average but that is not entirely true. That is a factory rating for example 2010 Honda civic gets 40 mpg at a factory rating when really if you average it you will only get 33 to 35 out of it. Hydrogen powered cars are not considered under a mpg rating because these types of cars run off of fuel cells which is the conversion of hydrogen, and oxygen to electricity. Hybrid cars like the Toyota prius get about 50 to 60 mpg because it is crossed between gas and electric.
  • All hydrogen powered cars are the most environmentally friendly car available. The only thing that comes from the exhaust is heat and 100% water. The hydrogen inside the tank mixes with oxygen, and that mixture is used to create an electrical current, so it is basically an electric car.
  • Even though gasoline emission standards are getting better it is still at an unsafe level and this is really hurting the environment china is a great example of this the pictures above show smog. Hybrid vehicle still have emissions but at smaller amounts because of being partly electric. Emissions-high levels of co2
  • Car exhaust is creating toxic levels of co2 in the air that we breathe. This is creating a lot of health hazards in our society today, This is also creating global problems as well. This is changing are atmosphere, the plants and trees cant handle the higher levels of co2 they are over working. This is also polluting the oceans.
  • All automotive manufacturers have they are the most fuel efficient, and the most environmentally friendly. They are all fuel efficient, and their cars may be healthier for the environment then they used to be, but the factories where these cars are being built are doing more harm then the cars their making. Everything can be traced back. The machines are kept in good shape, but not made to be efficient.
  • Sgp Power Point 2nd Submission

    1. 1. By Dan Keefauver
    2. 2. thesis <ul><li>The fuel economy of automobiles has changed a great deal economically and environmentally since the early 1900s, becoming more efficient and environmentally friendly due to advances in gasoline, electric vehicles, and fuel cells. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    3. 3. Honda clarity <ul><li>Zero emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen powered. </li></ul><ul><li>Full electric engine. </li></ul>
    4. 4. How a combustion gasoline engine works
    5. 5. The future is fuel cell <ul><li>Zero emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Better energy efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Low noise. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. How it Works <ul><li>How does the fuel cell system work? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Hybrid vehicles – electric engine <ul><li>67 Horsepower. </li></ul><ul><li>1200 to 1540 rpm’s. </li></ul><ul><li>295 pound feet of </li></ul><ul><li>Torque. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Toyota prius <ul><li>Power split device </li></ul><ul><li>20 mph limit </li></ul><ul><li>Lower emissions </li></ul>
    9. 9. Toyota prius <ul><li>Planetary gear system. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Hydrogen at the pump <ul><li>Limited availability </li></ul><ul><li>Lower prices </li></ul>
    11. 11. gasoline <ul><li>Made from oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Refining process. </li></ul><ul><li>liquid mix of alkanes and cycloalkanes (5 to 12 carbon atoms) boiling range = 104 to 401 degrees Fahrenheit / 40 to 205 degrees Celsius </li></ul>www
    12. 12. gasoline <ul><li>The chemical process </li></ul>
    13. 13. Gas powered engines <ul><li>Hemi engines </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel engines </li></ul><ul><li>Two stroke engines </li></ul><ul><li>Rotary engines </li></ul><ul><li>Gas turbine engines </li></ul><ul><li>Four stroke engines </li></ul>
    14. 14. prices <ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline in a electric vehicle </li></ul>
    15. 15. Fuel efficiency <ul><li>Gas powered cars </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>hybrid cars </li></ul>
    16. 16. Environmental status <ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero emissions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recyclable parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made from recycled materials </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Environmental status <ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unsafe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower emissions level </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Environmental Status <ul><li>Local effects -e.g. poisoning humans breathing bad air. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional effects - fallout from airborne pathogens - infections, particles, chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Global effects - changing interactions between the atmosphere and sun, weather effects, effects on plants and oceans. </li></ul>
    19. 19. The False Facts <ul><li>Factory pollution. </li></ul>