Building services i report


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Building services i report

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) QSB1714 – Building Services 1 Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies August Semester 2013 Building Services Report Submission Date: 18th November 2013 Name StudentID Yam Yih Hwan 0305861 Low RongTzuoo 0304924 Ng Jun Keat 0314368 Lim Yee Leng 0314516 Tan JiaJia 0306613 FatinAtiqahPutribinti A Razak 0308496 Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 1
  2. 2. Table of Content Page Cover Page 1 Table of Content 2 Chapter 1: Introduction 3 Chapter 2: Theoretical Research 4-7 Importance of Chemical Coagulation Possible Drinking Water Problems Chapter 3: Case Study 8 - 20 Installation Process Management System Recommendations for Future Improvement Conclusion 21 Learning Outcomes 22 References 23 - 25 Appendices 26 - 27 Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 2
  3. 3. Chapter 1: Introduction Not all ground water requires treatment before consumption, but when it does, the design of a complete, effective, and safe home water system must be taken under consideration. Water treatment involves a series of separate treatment processes in a standard sequence to producea safe and quality product. This treatment processes improves the quality ofthe water by providing a multi-barrier, water treatment system. For surface water supplies,treatment must include steps to remove particulate and organic matter through chemical coagulations, followed by disinfection. Watertreatment equipment can be expensive and always requires good maintenance practices to operateeffectively over the longterm.(Unknown, n.d.) Traditionally for domestic use, water treatment has consisted of either no treatment at all, or acombination of chlorination, rapid sand filtration, or granular activated carbon filtration. These typesof treatmentshave not been successful on producing high water quality product. Therefore, the water produced from this type of treatment system can only be considered as utility water andshould not be consumed. (Unknown, n.d.) Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 3
  4. 4. Chapter 2: Theoretical Research Importance of Chemical Coagulation in Water Treatment Process Chemical methods, such as chemical coagulation or flocculation are commonly used for water treatment on community water systems. These methods are grouped into several main categories with respect to their purpose and the nature of the technology. The main categories to consider here are: (1) Chemical pre-treatments by coagulation or flocculation (2) Adsorption process (3) Ion exchange processes (4) Chemical disinfection processes. All of these processes contribute to microbial reductions from water, but the chemical disinfection processes are specifically intended to inactivate pathogens and other microbes in water. Other chemical methods for water treatment will be examined for their efficacy in microbial reductions and their applicability to household water treatment. (Sobsey, M. D., n.d.) Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 4
  5. 5. Chemical coagulation and flocculationuses various types of salt, such as aluminum, iron, lime and other inorganic or organic chemicals.They are widely used to process and treat water for the removal of colloidal particles and microbes. (Sobsey, M. D., n.d.) Below table listed some of the coagulants that have been and are being used for water treatment at the community and household level, the advantages and disadvantages of each coagulant. Coagulant Household Use Advantages Disadvantages Alum, alum Yes/rare- Community use common; Difficult to optimize without potash moderate simple technology training and equipment Iron salts Yes/rare Community use common; Difficult to optimize without simple technology training and equipment Lime, lime+ soda Yes/rare- Community use common; Difficult to optimize without ash, caustic moderate simple technology training and equipment; soda pH control and neutralization a problem; hazardous chemicals Soluble synthetic Yes/no-rare Improve coagulation with Difficult to optimize without alum and iron salts training and equipment; organic hard to dose; polymers need training & equipment; hazardous chemicals (Sobsey, M. D., n.d.) Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 5
  6. 6. Possible Drinking Water Problems Drinking water in the Malaysia is usually of very high standards. Sometimes, drinking water is not up to standard and causes health problems to consumers. Therefore, consumers must be aware of the possible problems that might occur in drinking water. (Water, n.d.) The following table has shown some common problems with metals and minerals in drinking water and suggestions for suitable form of water treatment. Problem Effect on Water pH Suggested Treatment Low alkalinity water tends 1. Use Soda Ash to raise to dissolve minerals and 2. Use white vinegar or metals. citric acid to lower Water with high alkalinity tend to precipitate minerals and metals Aluminum Discolored water Reverse Osmosis Distillation Chloride Salty taste Reverse Osmosis Distillation Color Visible Tint Reverse Osmosis Distillation Copper Blue-green coloration, metallic taste 1. Activated Carbon Filtration 2. Reverse Osmosis Distillation Corrosion Metallic Taste 1. Calcite Filter Corrosion 2. Soda Ash Chemical Fixture Staining Feed 3. Polyphosphate Feed Sodium Silicate Feed Fluoride Spotting and mottling of teeth 1. Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 6
  7. 7. Distillation 2. Chlorination Hard Water Lime scale deposits in plumbing 1. Water Conditioner and water appliances, 2. Water Softener Reduced heating efficiency, Lowers lifespan of boiler units, Requires more soap Iron Rusty colour 1. Oxidizing Filter Sediment 2. Chlorination ->AC Reddish or orange stains Filter Metallic taste Manganese Dark brown / Black stains Odor Rotten egg Oxidizing Filter Activated Carbon Filtration Musty Garlic Chemical Smell Silver Skin discoloration Grey tint in white part of eye 1. Activated Carbon Filtration 2. Reverse Osmosis Distillation Sulfate Reverse Osmosis Acts as a laxative Total Dissolved Solids Medicinal taste Distillation Hard Water Deposits on glass and fixtures 1. Reverse Osmosis Distillation 2. Water Conditioner 3. Water Softener Zinc Metallic taste Reverse Osmosis Distillation (Water, n.d.) Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 7
  8. 8. Chapter 3a: Case Study Local Water Treatment: SYABAS SYABAS is a company assigned by the State and Federal Government in order to upgrade and enhance the water supply system within the State of Selangor.SYABAS managed, and operated the water supply system to distribute quality clean water. Moreover, SYABAS is committed to deliver water supply within the highest level of quality, expertise and prompt services to the people who live in Selangor.SYABAS providing maintenance of infrastructure and water-related assets repair and restore aging pipes and water meters. (Jawatan Kosong Kini, 2013) According to (Eunice Au, 2013), it proved that the SYABAS manage to clean up the diesel oil spill in Sungai Selangor which means that they perform their responsibility well. They perform a good service to consumers such as offers a simple way for payment and provide necessary assistance. Based on (New Straits Times, 2013), SYABAS perform their responsibility to find out the location and problem of the burst pipe and they will provide services like repair works of the burst pipe once the location of the burst pipe to be identified. They present awareness on water-related problems to the consumers to make the highest level quality of life is maintained. It is necessary for SYABAS to save the environment for future property, protect and promote in the areas of unpolluted water resources, comfort environment, appropriate waste management to avoid pollutions. In reference to (The Star, 2012), SYABAS wants to make sure supply of clear and high standard quality water could be channeled to consumers so consumers are advised not to organize any activities that can lead to river pollution. Furthermore, SYABAS are protecting the environment for the future property. Besides that, (SYABAS, 2011) also state that SYABAS can deliver of high quality of water. It is clean and safe to drink directly from tap as the threated water supply by SYABAS. Sometimes, the water treatment plants have to close their operations due to maintenance works which carry out by SYABAS and will result the consumers encountered in the unscheduled water disruptions. With regard to the (SYABAS, 2011) state that SYABAS wants consumers to shut down the mains at the stopcocks during the air scouring programme to be distributed. It will bring much inconvenient not only for consumers, but also factories and restaurants. This is because they can certify this is being done by checking and shutting them provided the stopcocks are accessible before the air scouring programme finish. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 8
  9. 9. Installation Process Step 1 – Intake The intake screens prevent debris from entering the treatment facility. The screens are located off the bottom of the river to avoid bringing sediments into the treatment plant and below the surface to avoid bringing oils or other floating material into the treatment plant. Step 2 – Aeration Aeration process involves bringing air to contact with water to transfer volatile substances from the liquid to the gaseous phase, thus increase the dissolved air in water. It will improve taste and odor and also oxidize iron and manganese. Step 3 – Coagulation and Flocculation Chemicalcoagulants are added to react with the remaining small particles in the water to form particles large enough to settle out. Rapid mixing distributes the coagulant evenly throughout the water. While, flocculation basins gently mix the water with large submerged paddles so smaller particles collide to form large particles called ―floc‖. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 9
  10. 10. (It’s ―floc‖) Step 4 – Sedimentation Sedimentation is physical treatment process that utilizes gravity to separated suspended solid from water. ―Floc‖ settles by gravity to the bottom of a sedimentation basin. Then, clean water spills over to the filters. Step 5 – Filtration Filtration is to remove any remaining particles that carried over after sedimentation. The force of gravity moves the water through filter media usually, sand. Step 6 – Disinfection Chlorine is added to prevent bacterial contamination as the treated water flows through the distribution system to customers. Step 7 – Fluoridation Additional fluoride is added to prevent dental caries and tooth decay. Step 8 – PH Correction The pH is adjusted to 7.0 at the outlet of contact tank by adding lime. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 10
  11. 11. SYABAS Water Integrated Management System (SWIMS) SYABAS has invested millions in its Information Communication Technology (ICT) to ensure its services meet with the present requirement and quality that rivals the international acceptance standards, SYABAS has invested millions in its Information Communication Technology (ICT) to ensure that it equips its critical departments and personnel with advanced technology to meet and if possible exceed, the increasing sophisticated demand of its consumers in terms of turnaround response time as well as providing solution to resolve all impending problems. SYABAS has deployed a computerized framework namely Integrated SYABAS Water Management Information System (SWIMS) to meet the efficiency demand of the massive work processes after the takeover, SYABAS has deployed a computerized framework namely Integrated SYABAS Water Management Information System (SWIMS) with state of-the-art computer integrated system with the objective to centralize the computer system with integrated architectural design. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 11
  12. 12. There are five management systems developed for SYABAS: (SYABAS, n.d.)[1]  Supporting System Process (Finance, Administration, Legal, Human Resource, Procurement, Technology and R&D Management);  Process Management System (Program and Project & Contract Management);  Core Business Process System (Supply, Operations & Maintenance, Billing & Collections, Development Plan Approval and Customer Service);  Quality Management System (Training and Client Charter Compliance Management); and  Product Information System (Distribution Infra-Structure Assets) Apart from this, SYABAS has developed and deployed a Computer Data Centre Redundancy Infrastructure that is equipped with fault-tolerance high availability system. SYABAS System application and Computer Servers on the other hand, are supported by the Data Centre’s fiber optics that acts as a backbone to ensure that it is up and running 24 hours without failed, which in turn enable the Data Centre to resolve future major computer catastrophe involving loss of information and operation down-time. In order to facilitate better work correspondence and synchronization, SYABAS has deployed VPN Network Infrastructure that runs on 1.5 mega-bits per second bandwidth speed so as to connect all our district offices with the HQ.(SYABAS, n.d.)[1] With GIS–based (Geographical Information System) mapping and water distribution asset registration system, it helps to:(SYABAS, n.d.)[1]  Improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the operational control and management of the complex water distribution with centralised information on the water distribution system;  Assist in the planning and expansion of the water supply system to meet rapid development in the State; Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 12
  13. 13. Chapter 3b: Case Study International Water Treatment: American Water American Water is a specialist in serving communities, builders and developers to overcome their water and wastewater system operation, management,and supply, delivery challenges. The vocational of American Water were providing uninterrupted services to consumer, operational excellence and effective waste treatment, deliver and different wasterelated management services. American Water enhanced efficient usage of the natural resources, as well as energy, in both operations and through construction. (American Water, 2013) American Water attempted to realize a high standard of energy efficiency and decrease the release of the greenhouse gas. They decreasedthe resource consumption and unnecessary production in capital projects and others construction.Besides that, American Water replaced portable water provides for several common uses like landscape irrigation during reusing treated wastewater reduces the discharge of contaminants into lakes, streams and also rivers.They guard the watersheds, develop sustainable water resources and then increase water conservation and use efficiency.Recycle water are often used for many functions, like irrigation, bathroom flushing, facilities cooling and industrial appliances. It may be to recharge ground waters or streams.(American Water, 2013) (New York American Water, 2013) has said that fire hydrants accessibility is one of the main factors in fighting fires successfully. In order to avoid delays the fire fighters connect their equipment to the fire hydrants, American Water always remind citizens taking the time to ensure the area surrounding fire hydrants clear, especially during winter season. According to (Water Sense,n.d.),sometimes, American Water failed to deliver the high quality of water to the consumers, especially in the rural areas of the United State, which cause millions people do not get the enough amounts of high quality of water. Also, in some region of the country, the consumers experience the shortage of the water due to American Water poor maintenance of water treatment plants. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 13
  14. 14. Installation Process Follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located underground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Stop at each treatment point to show where the water is along the treatment path. Step 1 – Coagulation It removes dirt and other particles suspended in water. Alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky particles called "floc" which attract the dirt particles. The combined weight of the dirt and the alum (floc) become heavy enough to sink to the bottom during sedimentation. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 14
  15. 15. Step 2 – Sedimentation Waters exiting the flocculation basin may enter the sedimentation basin, or also be known as a clarifier or settling basin. It is a large tank with low water velocities, allowing (floc) to settle to the bottom. The sedimentation basin is best located close to the flocculation basin so the transit between the two processes does not permit settlement or (floc) break up. Sedimentation basins may be rectangular, where water flows from starting to the end or circular where flow is from the center outward. Sedimentation basin outflow is typically over a weir so only a thin top layer of water—that furthest from the sludge—exits.The heavy particles (floc) settle to the bottom and the clear water moves to filtration. Step 3 – Filtration After separating most heavy particles (floc), the water is filtered, some made of layers of sand, gravel, and charcoal, as the final step to remove remaining suspended particles and unsettled (floc). Step 4 – Disinfection Disinfection is a accomplished both by filtering a small amount of chlorine is added or some other disinfection method is used to kill any bacteria or harmful micro-organism that may be in the water, and also, by adding disinfectant chemicals. Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens which is pass through the filters and to provide a residual dose of disinfectant to kill or inactivate potentially harmful micro-organisms in the storage and distribution systems. Step 5 – Storage Water is placed in a closed tank or reservoir in order for disinfection to take place. The water then flows through pipes to homes and businesses in the community. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 15
  16. 16. Integrated Water Resource Management Clean water is an essential component forhuman’s health, therefore our economy, and environment, managed this resource demands a more holistic and integrated approach which considers the whole water cycle. Integrated water resource management (IWRM) focuses on understanding all of the water resources available to the communities we serve and the surrounding regions, actively caring for those resources, and providing solutions that best match an area’s water needs and constraints. It is a more holistic assessment of water solutions than traditional, single solutions by individual entities. Key components of IWRM are identified below:(Chevallier, M. L. Director, Innovation & Environmental Stewardship, n.d.)  Identifying and giving balanced consideration to supply and demand management planning alternatives. This could include evaluation of water resource use and demands from agriculture, industry, power generation or other significant users of the regional watershed resources. Coordinated drought management planning is often included in the scope of IWRM;  Considering the availability and use of alternative or distributed supplies (re-use, groundwater recharge, storm water retention/treatment, non-potable supplies, etc.) as appropriate. Green solutions such as low impact development techniques, bio-swales, rain barrels and gardens, infiltration basins, etc. would also be included;  Analysis of engineering, economic, societal, and environmental costs and considerations while balancing the needs of competing users and multiple objectives of the use of the resources;  Inviting an open and participatory process involving all stakeholders and striving for consensus, while encompassing least-cost analysis of short- and long-term planning options, and satisfying utility and regulatory policy goals;  Identifying and managing risk and uncertainty including emerging guidance on relevant issues such as the potential impacts of climate change;  Encouraging coordination of planning between water and wastewater utilities, environmental agencies/NGOs, land use planners, transportation planning, etc. in a specific region. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 16
  17. 17. Water Resources and Planning In their long-term planning, it evaluates quality, quantity, growth needs, and alternate sources of water supply as well as transmission and distribution capacity. Sources of supply are seasonal in nature and weather conditions can have a pronounced effect on supply. In order to ensure that we have adequate sources of water supply, we use Comprehensive Planning Studies (CPS) and maintain drought and contingency plans to minimize the potential impact on service through a wide range of weather fluctuations. In connection with supply planning for most surface or groundwater sources, we employ sophisticated models to determine safe yields under different rainfall and drought conditions. Surface and groundwater levels are routinely monitored for all supplies so that supply capacity may be predicted and mitigated, as needed, through demand management and additional supply development.(Chevallier, M. L. Director, Innovation &Environmental Stewardship, n.d.) Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 17
  18. 18. Through our CPS process we regularly evaluate water systems to assess:(Chevallier, M. L. Director, Innovation &Environmental Stewardship, n.d.)  Quantity and quality of available supplies  Adequacy and effectiveness of treatment processes and waste handling systems  Adequacy and efficiency of distribution pipeline networks and pumping facilities in delivering safe, adequate water while minimizing water losses  Those proper permits are maintained to ensure legal authorization of withdrawal of supplies from both groundwater and surface water sources. On-going attention to the maintenance, repair, and development of water infrastructure is necessary to ensure safe, clean water, and efficient and sustainable water use. For example, water management through leak detection and repairs results in reduced water losses (and therefore, reduced energy use and cost). In areas where water resources are relatively scarce, then reducing water losses leads to the availability of more water for our customers. Metering provides an accurate accounting of water flowing through the system, thereby helping to determine where losses and excess usage may occur. American Water's practice is to meter all customers. (Amwater, n.d.)[2] Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 18
  19. 19. Recommendations for Future Improvement Why SYABAS need to improve? Over time, many of the water treatment method that SYABAS used have been outdated. The demand for water has increased as the service area has expanded due to the growth of residential housing and business. This increasing demand, along with the advent of new water treatment technology and an aging infrastructure at the plant, makes the decision logical, necessary and correct. After improvement, it will have the ability to reliably supply customers with more water per day, but the treatment process will be improved to deliver an even better water supply to consumers who have come to expect the very best drinking water possible. Water resources development has been a catalyst for socioeconomic development of the country. However, the water situation for some parts of the country has changed from one of relative abundance to one of scarcity. The growth in population and expansion in urbanization and industrialization are imposing growing demands and pressure on water resources, besides contributing to rising water pollution. Any new development of water resources incurs rising costs, besides facing examination from environmentalists and conservationists. The fact that the volume of water available is limited and the demand for water is increasing, indicates that the supply approach in water management is unsustainable. Example of future water treatment The first part of the process involves cleaning the rough and fine solid parts of the wastewater, combined with four primary settling tanks and the second part of the process takes place in eight biological tanks. This biological treatment is mainly intended for removing carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen.(Liz, 2009) For the biological treatment, activated sludge treatment is used. This method requires the aeration tanks to be provided with air after which the solid parts in the water can settle in the clarification tanks. The treated effluent will be pumped straight into the sea with the level of purification being checked several times a day. (Liz, 2009)The treatment process makes sludge into a bi-product which has to be dewatered away from the plant for storage or other purposes. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 19
  20. 20. Sludge treatment is the third step of the wastewater treatment and also covers the sludge from the primary settling tanks. To reduce the amount of sludge that has to be stored and transported, this treatment includes sludge thickeners, sludge digestion and dewatering equipment. The dewatered sludge is temporarily stored within the plant and will subsequently be disposed in lorry and skips. While the plant is primarily focused on the treatment of influent water and sludge, almost every part of it also produces dirty gas. To reduce the odor both inside and outside the buildings, an air treatment system has been installed, which combines the foul air extraction and the inlet of fresh air at any required moment. The foul air is biologically filtered before it is returned into the atmosphere. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 20
  21. 21. Chapter 4: Conclusion In conclusion, water treatment is an important process, not only with the purpose to purify water, but also to take care of the environmental and nature. It distributed quality clean water to the people around the country for consumptions. With quality clean water, it helps to prevent diseases from spreading, and harms to consumers health. In certain countries, there weren’t any water treatment plant. The people lived around there consumed lake, or well water as their daily consumption. Therefore, as a consumer, we should appreciate that we lived under a better environment. So, we should not waste any single drops of quality clean water. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 21
  22. 22. Learning Outcomes After what we had done, we are able to identify the application, management system, installation process, the benefits of certain process in water treatment, problems that might be faced on unpurified drinking water and anything relevant to support the documentation. Through case study, they provided some recommendations on future improvement on water treatment facilities, and by their recommendations, we were able to search for some future water treatment system on the internet and put into our report. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 22
  23. 23. References 1. Unknown. (n.d.) Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies. Retrieved on November 4,2013 from$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/eng10363/$file/Module7.p df?OpenElement. 2. Sobsey, M. D. (n.d.). Water Sanitation Health. Retrieved on November 4,2013 from 3. Water (n.d.). Drinking Water Problems.Retrieved on November 4,2013 from 4. Eunice, A. (2013, August 30). 1 million water consumers to experience disruptions after oil spill. New Straits Times. Retrieved on November 3, 2013 from 5. New Straits Times. (2013, September 7). Syabas activates emergency response plan in klang, shah alam.Retrieved on November 3, 2013 from 6. (2013). JawatanKosong Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor SdnBhd(Syabas). Retrieved on November 3, 2013 from 7. Amwater. (2013). Commitment to the environment. Retrieved on November 4, 2013 from 8. New York American Water Reminds Residents To Keep Fire Hydrants Clear. (2013). New York: Pete Guaraldi, Zimmerman. P.1. Retrieved on November 4, 2013 Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 23
  24. 24. from 9. (2012, June 17). Water shortage in Petaling , KL, Hulu Langat and Sepang. Retrieved on November 4, 2013 from =3438. 10. Oracle Think Quest. (Unknown). The Environment Challenge. Retrieved on November 4, 2013 from, Web site: 11. Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor. (2011). Retrieved on November 4, 2013 from, SYABAS Web site: 12. Frequently Ask Question (FAQs). (2011). Retrieved on November 4, 2013 from, SYABAS Web site: 13. Google. (n.d.). Google. Image. Retrieved on November 2, 2013, from Water Treatment American Water Diagram: off&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=4vB0Uta0LYuMrgeavICQDQ&ved=0CAcQ_AUoA Q&biw=1092&bih=480#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=rDkdty1bGwKG1M%3A%3B65i_uY2W 0hsKrM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.epa 14. EPA. (2012, March 6). EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on November 2, 2013, from Water EPA Gov Web site : 15. Casiday, R. Noelken, G. Frey, R. (1999): Treating the Public Water Supply: What Is In Your Water, and How Is It Made Safe to Drink?. Retrieved on November 5, 2013 from r.pdf. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 24
  25. 25. 16. Liz, N. (2009, 3 18). Wastewater treatment: Energy-efficiency. Retrieved on November 5, 2013 from 17. WHO (Editor). (2008). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Third Edition. Third Edition incorporating the First and Second Addenda. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved on November 5, 2013 from 18. Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor. (n.d)[1]. ICT. SYABAS Bekalan Air Selangor Sdn Bhd. Retrieved on November 7, 2013, from 19. Chevallier, M. L. Director, Innovation & Environmental Stewardship (n.d). IWRM. American Water. Retrieved on November 7, 2013, from 20. Amwater. (n.d)[2].Retrieved on November7, 2013, from 21. Global Water Partnership. (n.d). IWEM Planning Cycle, American Water. Retrievedon November7 2013, from Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 25
  26. 26. Appendix Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 26
  27. 27. Water Treatment for Domestic Water Supplies Page 27