Operational Manual for Production of Vermicompost


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Operational Manual for Production of Vermicompost

  2. 2. 2 Exer. No. Particulars Page No. Signature 1. Identification of earthworms 2. Collection and preparation of bedding materials 3. Preparation of beds for vermicompost and inoculation of vermiculture 4. Separation of vermiculture and vermicompost 5. Maintenance of vermiculture 6. Preservation and packing of vermicompost 7. Determination of quality standards of vermicompost: Analysis for N, P and K 8. Estimation of organic carbon in vermicompost 9. Fractionation of vermicompost 10. Drawing of flow-sheet chart of vermitechnology INDEX
  3. 3. 3 INTRODUCTION Vermicomposting is an ecofriendly, low cost effective and a effective way to recycle agricultural and kitchen waste. The application of vermicompost not only adds plant nutrients (macro and micro) and growth regulators but also increases soil water retention, microbial population, nutrient content and carbon content of the soil. Vermicompost refers to an organic manure produced by earthworms. It is mixture of worm castings, organic material including humus, live earth worms and their cocoons and other organisms. Vermicomposting is a appropriate technique for the disposal of non-toxic solid and liquid organic wastes. It helps in cost effective and efficient recycling of animal wastes agricultural residual and industrial wastes using low energy. The key role of earthworms in improving soil fertility is well known. Earthworms feed on any organic waste, consume two to five times their body weight and after using 5-10 per cent of the feed stock for their growth, excrete the mucus coated undigested matter as wormcasts worm cast consists of organic matter that has undergone physical and chemical breakdown through the activity of the muscular gizzard which grinds the material to a particle size of 1-2 micron. The nutrients presents in wormicast are readily soluble in water for the uptake of plants. Worm casts are rich source of macro and micro nutrients, vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics, growth harmones and immobilized microfloras. In Rajasthan gross cultivated area is 20.69 m ha and out of which 33.3 % area falls under irrigation. The recommended dose of FYM per hectare is 5-10 ha-1 . Therefore, the total requirement of FYM may be estimated as 34 to 68 m t per year. The availability of FYM is about 4.7 m t per year. Thus 29.3 to 63.4 m t of FYM per year is still lacking. The total organic waste material is produced 875- 1300 mt per year and this material can be processed either by vermicompositing or by other composting methods and the demand of 29.3 to 63.4 mt of FYM per year can be full filled and the whole process of vermicomposting can ensure supply of organic matter to the fields and can provide job to the persons.
  4. 4. 4 Increased usage of chemical with out adequate organic recycling has not only aggravated multinutrient deficiencies in soil plant system but also deteriorated soil health and created environmental pollution. The world market for organic food production is estimated to be worth around 35 billion annually. The annual growth rates of worldwide sales are between 10-30%. It is estimated that the market could be worth between $100 and $190 billion by 2006. More than 130 countries, currently produces commercial quantities of certified organic food and agricultural products. Strong consumer demands, high premiums and government subsidies to convent organic production methods are driving further growth in the organic production. In developing countries, where existing agricultural production techniques are depend on lower inputs and are close to being organic, could provide source of the organic production and the growth is needed to satisfy demand. Vermicompost What It is a cast of earthworms. Why It is required to full fill the following objectives. Vermi composting Agricultural waste Demand of FYM Soil & Plant pollution Sell Job & to thers Organic recycling Save chemical fertilizers Adds in national economy Sustained soil production & fertility
  5. 5. 5 Exercise No. 1 : Identification of earthworms Classification, identification of earth worm Phylum - Annelida Class - Oligochacta Order - Opisthopora Genus - Pheretima Species - Eisenia foetida - Lumbricus rubellus Characteristics Procurement of earthworm and required material: - Spade, tap, pillars, cencherus munja to made the shade / cloth for cover, sutli, plant residues, organic waste, cow / buffalo dung, gunny bag or banana leaves, necessary arrangement for water supply, worm culture (cocoon) etc. Types of earth worms India has about 3000 species of earth worms, which are adapted to a range of environment and vermiculture needs. Earthworms can be divided into the following two broad groups:- (i) Epigeic- The suface living worms (ii) Epiarecic- The burrowing worms Epigeic or manure worms are found on the surface and are reddish brown in color. They do not process the soil but are efficient in composting of organic wastes. They enhance the rate of organic manure production. Through biodegradation or mineralization and nutrient mobilization. The local species are:- Lampito mauritii Octochaetona serrata Perionyx excavatus
  6. 6. 6 Epianecic species burrow and mix the soil from different horizons in the profile. They ingest organic and mineral fractions of soil. Thus promoting the formation of organic complexes. Organic mineral crumbs are brought from deeper parts of the soil profile to the surface. In temperate regions, humus feeders (epianecic) dominate over the organic matter feeding (epigeic) worms in tropical coantries. Epianecic worms can not feed directly on partially degraded organic matter. In the tropics, a small group of 4-10 cm long worms having dark pigmentation are found in the litter heap, dung pad or near the cattle shed during monsoon. The worms do not enter the soil strata. Earthworms species for vermicompost Name place of residence 1. Lampito mauriti Sandy loam soil 2. Octochaetona serrata Clayey soil 3. Lumbricus terrestris Deep boarings 4. Allolobophora caliginosa shallow boarings 5. Eudrilus eugeniae 6. Eisenia foetida 7. Perionyx excavatus 8. Pheretima elongate The Eisenia foetida an epigeic species of earthworms is used for vermicomposting. The general characteristics of Eisenia foetida are as under : Habit : Epigeic Size : 8-10 cm Diameter : 0.8-1.0 mm Duration of life : 70 days Temperature range : 15-40 0 C Approximate weight of : 1.0-3.0 g single earthworm Mopisture tolerance range : 30-70% Habit and Habitats : Living on surface and organic matter rich areas
  7. 7. 7 Exercise No. 2 : Collection and preparation of bedding materials Bedding material : 1. Agriculture waste 2. All type of weeds 3. Litter falls of trees 4. Kitchen waste 5. Agricultural industrial waste 6. All spoiled food grain and food materials 7. Wastes of dinner or get together 8. Wastes of animal feeding All the materials which are treated as waste, only burned and that can not be utilized by human beings and animals are useful for preparation of bedding material for earthworms. (i) Initial digestion: Dig a pit of the size 6 x 6 x 3 or prepare a chamber on the ground surface of the size 6’ x 6’x 3’ or depending open number of cows /buffaloes etc or availability of cowdung and agricultural waste and put cowdung on the ground surface of pit by farming Ist larger and than put agricultural waste as a second layer the ratio of 8:5 repeat the preparation of these alternate layers of cowdung and agricultural waster till the chamber is not filled. The last layer or top layer of the chamber should be cowdung. The cowdung and agricultural wastes filed in the chamber should be appreciatively in the 8:5 ratio. Than saturate the chamber with water and than keep it for 10 days. Results 1. The materials which are collected: 2. Temperature and moisture of the bedding material is :
  8. 8. 8 Exercise No. 3: Preparation of beds for vermicompost and inoculation of vermiculture Preparation of vermicomposting bed:- Select a place in vermicomposting shed and mark an area of 3 x 10 feet and spread on it hard woody agricultural waste to form a basement layer and spray water till it is wetted well and than collected the material from initial digestion chamber and put it on the bed, prepared in the size 3 x 10 feet up to the height of 1½ -2 feed and check the moisture and after confirmation of the proper moisture, inoculate the bed by the earthworms culture which is required @ 3 kg vermiculture per bed of the size 3x10 feed. Cover the bed with green leaves/ weeds/ banana leaves/ gunny begs etc. After every 3-5 days of interval in summer or 7-10 days of interval in winters, watering should be done by spraying on the beds till vermicomposting process completed. The spraying of water should be of the pH 7.0 to 7.5 or upto 8.0. The vermicomposting process in the bed will take only 35-40 days, stop watering after 35-40 days and remove the cover and separate the vermicompost and vermiculture. RESULT: 1. The vermicompost prepared in :…………….. day 2. The test of completion of vermicompost are: A. B. 3. The moisture content and temperature at final stage of vermicomposting A. Moisture content ………………………. % B. Temperature ………………………. 0 C PRECAUTIONS: (i) Always maintain 30% moisture in each layer during whole of process of vermicomposting and watering should be done at 15
  9. 9. 9 to 20 day of interval in winter and 7 to 10 days in summer or as per requirement to maintain 30% moisture. (ii) Maintain the population of earthworms by 150/5 Sq M in IIIrd layer. (iii) During summer special care should be taken to maintain optimum moisture for that add 3-4 time of water. (iv) Avoid heavy watering during the process of composting. (v) Protect earthworm from enemies i.e. birds and ants. (vi) Use fresh dung during the preparation of lined layer because fresh dung is most desired substrate of worm. (vii) Charging and checking of earthworms once in 8-9 weeks to ensure their regular multiplication. (viii) The over all thickness of all layers must be up to 1½ feet. (ix) Worms hatch out with in a month. They start processing the organic much and produce vermi casting.
  10. 10. 10 Exercise No. 4 : Separation of vermiculture and vermicompost Separation of the vermicompost and vermiculture : Loose the bed with the help of iron Panja/ Kushi/Dantali and wait for 5-10 minutes or till earthworms reaches to lower layers. Than with the help of wooden stick, remove a layer free from earthworms and their eggs. Repeat this process of separation for three time and collect the removed material (vermicompost) and sieve it and keeping for the further use. The material remained in the bed will be vermiculture, collect it and keep it for its survival in vermiculture bed. Results: 1. The earthworms separated from vermicompost 2. The vermicompost separated and sieved and collected in heap and maintained moisture
  11. 11. 11 Exercise No. 5 : Maintenance of vermiculture Prepare a bed containing cowdung and agriculture waste containing sufficient moisture and the culture received from vermicomposting beds is stored in this beds and moisture is maintained till its further use. The culture also protected from enemies. Results
  12. 12. 12 Exercise No. 6 : Preservation and packing of vermicompost 1. Preservation: The vermicompost collected from beds is sieved by four mesh sieve and collected in a heap and moisture is maintained till it is utilized for production of crops, nurseries, trees etc. 2. Packing of vermicompost After application of sufficient moisture, the material is weighted and filled into the plastic bags and sealed. The packing bags are of 2, 5, 10 and 50 kg capacity are generally used. Results
  13. 13. 13 Exercise No.7: Determination of quality standards of vermicompost: Analysis for N, P and K Quality Standards of Vermicompost Average nutrient content of vermicompost S. No. Nutrient Vermicompost FYM 1. N% 1.6 0.75 2. P2O5 % 2.04 0.17 3. K2O 0.80 0.55 4. Ca % 0.44 0.91 5. Mg % 0.15 0.19 6. Fe (ppm) 175.2 146.5 7. Mn (ppm) 96.51 69.0 8. Zn (ppm) 24.43 14.5 9. Cu (ppm) 4.89 2.8 10. C : N 15 : 5 31 : 28 Source : Purakayastha and Bhatnagar (1997) Comparative nutrient content of composts S. No. Compost Nutrient content % of drymatter N P2O5 K2O 1. Vermicompost 1.6 2.2 0.67 2. Rural compost 1.22 1.08 1.47 3. Urban compost 1.24 1.92 1.07 4. Paddy straw compost 0.90 2.05 0.90 5. Maize stalk compost 1.09 1.30 1.01 6. Cotton waste e.g. nut full compost 1.62 1.04 1.26 Source : Venkatranum (1997)
  14. 14. 14 Vermicompost can also be called as biological manure and it contains not only mainly micronutrients like Mn, Fe, Mo, B, Zn, Cu but also contains some growth regulators and a good amount of microbial population (Singh and Rai, 1997).  Population of cocoon population of earthworms in culture should be 150 cocoon / 5 Sq.m.  Temperature for activity the most conductive temperature for the activity of worms ranges between 26-35°C.
  15. 15. 15 7.1 Determination of total N in vermicompost Principle: The material is digested with H2SO4 and salicylic aid in the presence of K2SO4ˉ, FeSO4, CuSO4 and sodium thiosulphate (NaS2O3). In this process K2SO4 acid raises the boiling point of H2SO4 and CuSO4 as a catalyst. Salicylic acid forms Nitrocompounds (nitrogen salicyclic acid) which are reduced by Na2S2O3 to amino (ammonia) compound. This ammonia is then estimated by kjeldahl method as described in estimation of N including NO3 in plant material. In the above method zinc dust can also be used in place of sodium thiosulphate to reduce nitrosalicylic acid to aminosalicylic acid. The various reactions are as : C6H4OH.COOH + HNO3 …….. C6H3OH.NO2COOH + H2O Salicylic acid Nitrogen salicylic acid The nitrosalicyclic acid is reduced to amino-salicylic acid by the action of sulphurous acid formed by the reaction between sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate. Na2 S2 O3 + H2SO4 …………… Na2SO4 + S + H2SO3 Sulphurous acid C6H3OH.NO2COOH+3H2SO3+ H2O …. C6H3OH.NH2COOH + 3H2SO4 Amino salicylic acid 2C6H3OH.NH2.COOH+27H2SO4 …. (NH4)2 SO4 + 26SO2 +14CO2 + 30H2O Reagents and apparatus:
  16. 16. 16 (i) Kjeldahl digestion and distillation assembly (ii) Concentrated H2SO4. (iii) Standard HCI solution: N/10 (iv) NaOH solution (45%): Prepared by dissolving 450 g NaOH in one litre of distilled water. (v) Mixed indicator: Dissolve 0.5 g bromocresol green and 0.1 g methyl red in 100 ml of 95 per cent ethanol. (vi) Boric acid 4% (indicator solution) : Dissolve 40 g H3BO3 in 1 litre distilled water by heating gently. Add 5 ml of mixed indicator in it and adjust pH of boric acid to 4.5 by using NaOH or HCI (colour turns from blue to slightly pink). (vii) Granulated zinc: To prevent bumping in distillation flask. (viii) Mixture: Prepare by mixing 10 parts anhydrous sodium sulphate or potassium sulphate + 0.3 parts copper sulphate. anyhydrous Na2SO4 or K2SO4, raise the boiling temperature of digestion mixture whereas CuSO4 acts as catalyst and hasten the digestion. Other catalyst which can be used are HgO, Hg, Se powder etc. (ix) Sulphuric acid + Salicylic acid mixture: Add one gram of salicylic acid to 30 ml of sulphuric acid. (x) Sodium thiosulphate, finally ground crystals or zinc dust. Method: (i) Take one gram of sample and transfer it into a kjeldhal flask. (ii) Add about 30 ml of sulphuric acid salicylic acid mixture. (iii) Shake until thoroughly mixed and keep the flask for about half an hour for the reaction to proceed. (iv) Add 5 g of sodium thiosulphate (or 2 g zinc dust) and heat over a low flame till frothing ceases. Then raise the heat and continue boiling until white fumes cease to come out.
  17. 17. 17 (v) Raise the heat to boil the contents until solution is clear and then continue digestion for at last 30 minutes. (Solution become whitish upon complete digestion) (vi) Cool and add slowly with intermittent shaking about 200 ml of water and cool again. (vii) Add few pieces of granulated zinc in the flask to prevent bumping, tilt the flask and about 80 ml of 45 per cent NaOH gently so that the contents do not mix. (viii) Immediately connect this flask to distillation assembly and see that the end of condenser tube dips into the 50 or 100 ml 4 percent boric acid solution contained in the receiving 250 or 500 ml conical flask along with mixed indicator. Mix the content of the flask by swirling. (ix) Distill ammonia at moderately high heat for about 45 minutes till at least 150 ml of distillate has been collected. Test with red litmus paper if any NH3 is still coming out. (x) Remove receiving flask with putting off the heating and rinse out-let tube into receiving flask with a small amount of distilled water. (xi) Titrate the content of receiving flask with standard 0.1 N HCl till blue color disappears. Simultaneously run blank using all reagents in the same quantity but without the sample. Observation and calculation: i. Blank reading = ii. Sample reading = When 10 ml of 1 percent fertilizer solution is taken Where T = (Sample reading – Blank reading) Per cent N in fertilizer = 0.0014 x T x 100 x 100 10
  18. 18. 18 In case on gram sample is taken directly, dilute the digest to 500 ml and take 25 ml of it for distillation and calculate percent N as follows: Note: (i) If the flame or electricity goes out off during distillation, immediately remove the receiver flask containing standard acid to prevent the contents from being sucked back into the kjeldahl flask Light the burner (or start the heater) and then replace the receiving flask. If there is severe bumping, regulate the flame or heater gradually till it is low. Continue distillation for about 45 minutes. At the end, without putting of the burner or heater, disconnect the dipped tube from the condenser. Rinse it with distilled water. (ii) The granulated zinc is added to prevent bumping during distillation. Zinc reacts with dilute sulphurinc acid producing minute bubbles of hydrogen, which help in preventing bumping. The sulphuric acid used may contain traces of ammonium sulphate and the distilled water exposed to the laboratory air may contain traces of ammonium hydroxide. Hence it become necessary to carry out a blank determination by which any extraneous nitrogen is determined and subtracted from the total value. Per cent N in V. = 0.0014 x T x 500 25 X 100
  19. 19. 19 7.2 Determination of total phosphorus in vermicompost (Volumetric ammonium molybdate method) Principle: Phosphorus is precipitated from the acidic solution as ammonium phosphomolybdate (NH4)3 PO4ˉ - 12 MoO3 ) by adding ammonium molybdate solution. The precipitate is dissolved in measured excess of the standard alkali; after filtration and washing till free from the acid. The equations involved are as follows: I. Precipitation: Na3PO4+12(NH4)2MoO4+24HNO3 … (NH4)3PO4ˉ12MoO4+3NaNO3+21NH4NO3+12H2O. II. Dissolution of precipitate in standard alkali: (NH4)3PO4. 12MoO4+23NaOH ... 11Na2MoO4+NaNH4HPO4+(NH4)2MoO4+11 H2O Reagents: (i) Ammonium molybdate solution 3 per cent: 3 g of ammonium molybdate is dissolved in hot distilled water and makes its volume to 1 litre. (ii) Standard NaOH solution: 0.1 N. (iii) Standard H2SO4 solution: 0.1 N. (iv) Sodium nitrate 2 per cent: 20 g sodium nitrate A.R. grade is dissolved in 1 litre of distilled water. (v) Phenolphthalein indicator: 1 g phenolphthalein is dissolved in 100 ml of 95.5% ethanol. (vi) Magnesium nitrate solution (9%). Dissolve 90 gram of phosphorus free Mg (NO3)2 in water and dilute to 1 litre.
  20. 20. 20 Method: Preparation of sample solution: According to the nature of fertilizer, the sample solution should be prepared with one of the following methods. (i) For materials and fertilizer mixtures containing high organic material: Take 1 g sample in evaporation dish. Add 5 ml of Mg (NO3)2 solution and evaporate to dryness. Then ignite to destroy organic matter and dissolve in 10 ml HCL. (ii) For materials containing small quantity of organic matter: Take 1 g sample in a 50 ml beaker. Add 30 ml HNO3 and 5 ml HCI and boil gently until the organic matter is destroyed and red brown fumes cease to appear. (iii) For fertilizers containing much Fe or Al phosphate and basic slag: Treat 1 gm sample with 30 ml HCI and 10 ml HO3 and boil gently until red brown fumes disappear. Cool the solution prepared by any of the three above methods, dilute to 250 ml mix and filter through dry filter if required. (i) Pipette out 5 to 25 ml aliquot depending upon the P content (containing not more than 25 mg P2O5) in a 250 ml beaker. Dilute it with 100 ml distilled water. (ii) Add approximately 5-10 ml of concentration HNO3 and about 10 g ammonium nitrate. (iii) Heat this mixture on a water bath at 55-60 OC till it is just unbearable to hand. (iv) Ad 3 per cent ammonium molybdate solution in beaker drop by drop with the help of burette. Continue stirring with a glass rod till about 5 ml of molybdate solution have been added. Stir for another few minutes till the yellow precipitate appears to become granular.
  21. 21. 21 (v) Cover the beaker with glass and allow it settle for some time. Draw the clear solution through a what man no.44 filter paper and wash the precipitate with 2 percent sodium nitrate solution agitating thoroughly and allowing the precipitate to settle. Transfer the precipitate on to the filter paper and wash with NaNO3 solution till free from acid. (vi) The precipitate and filter paper are then transferred to the beaker and two ml of 0.1 N NaOH is added at a time by pipette till the precipitate become soluble. (vii) Add 1-2 drops of 1 per cent phenolphthalein and titrate the excess of alkali against 0.1 N sulphuric acids. Observations and calculation As per equation II 23 x 40 g NaOH = 31 g P = 71 g P2O5 or 23 g equivalent of NaOH = 31 g P = 71 g P2O5. Since a normal solution contains 1 g equivalent per litre Thus 0.003088 is the factor for P2O5 corresponding to 1 ml of 1 N alkali Volume of the aliquot (solution) taken = 5 ml Total volume of fertilizer solution = 250 ml Suppose volume of 0.1 N NaOH required to dissolve the precipitate = 40 ml (V1). Volume of 0.1 N H2SO4 used for titration to neutralize excess alkali = 10 ml (V2) 31 23I equivalent of NaOH = g P = 71 23 g P2O5 1000 ml of 1 N NaOH = 71 23 1 ml of 1 N NaOH = 71 23 1 1000 g P2O5 = 0.003088 P2O5X
  22. 22. 22 Then volume of 0.1 N NaOH used for precipitate = 40-10 = 30 ml Where, N1 = Normality of the standard alkali N2 = Normality of standard acid, F = Factor for P2O5. Per cent P2O5 = F x (V1N1 – V2N2) x Vol of total fert. Solu. Aliquot taken 100 Wt.of Fert. x =0.003088 x (40 x 0.1 – 10 x 0.1) 250 5 100 1 = 46.32x
  23. 23. 23 7.3 Determination of potassium in vermicompost by cobalty nitrite method Principle Sodium cobaltinitrite {Na3 CO (NO2)6}, when added to a solution of potassium salt, forms a canary yellow precipitate of potassium sodium cobaltinitrite K2Na {CO (NO2)6} H2O. The precipitate is dissolved in a known volume of standard KmnO4 solution, the excess of which is determined by back titration with standard oxalic acid solution. 10K2Na {CO (NO2)6} H2O + 22 KmnO4 + 58 H2SO4 = 21K2SO4 + 5Na2SO4 + 10COSO4 + 22 MnSO4 + 60HNO3 + 38 H2O Reagents and apparatus (i) Sodium nitrate: 175 g NaNO3 free from K+ and NH4+ ions is dissolved in distilled water and make the volume to 500 ml. (ii) Cobalt nitrite: 100 g cobalt nitrite free from K+ and NH4+ ions is dissolved in distilled water and dilute to 500 ml. (iii) Saturated sodium chloride: 350 g NaCl is dissolved in 1 litre distilled water. Filter and cool. (Solution may be warmed during dissolution). (iv) Alcohol (35 per cent) : 420 ml of alcohol is diluted with 600 ml distilled water. (v) N/20 standard KmnO4 solution. (vi) N/20 standard oxalic acid solution. Sample preparation Weigh accurately 5 g of the sample in an evaporating dish and incinerate in muffle furnace to carbon-free ash. Heat the ash with 10 ml of concentrated HCl for 10 minutes, Cool and transfer into a beaker. Wash the dish with distilled water several times and collect the washings in the beaker. Dilute with water to about 150 ml and heat to boiling. Add powdered barium hydroxide to make the contents
  24. 24. 24 just alkaline. Cool, make volume up to 250 ml and evaporate to dryness in a porcelain dish. Heat the reside gently over a low flame with a few ml of concentrated HNO3 till all ammonium salts are expelled. Wet the residue with concentrated HCI and again evaporate to dryness. Add dilute HCI and digest on a water bath. Filter and wash free from chloride. Use the filtrate for precipitation of potassium. In the presence of NH3, Ca and Al etc. (for determination of K in NPK complexes and NPK fertilizer mixtures: Place 2.0 gram of sample in 250 ml volumetric flask. Add 125 ml water and 50 ml of 4 per cent ammonium oxalate (NH4)2 C2O4) solution,. Add 1 ml diglycon streate, to prevent foaming, if needed. Boil for 30 minutes, add light excess of NH4 OH and after cooling dilute to 250 ml, mix and pass through dry filter No.12 or equivalent. Method (i) Prepare 0.25 per cent solution of fertilizers by procedure given in a or b or c after adjusting amount of fertilizer taken and corresponding dilution. Take 10 ml of 0.25 per cent fertilizer solution in a Pyrex beaker or glazed dish. (ii) Dry the fertilizer solution on a water bath and after cooling add 1.5 ml of glacial acetic acid and 10 ml of saturated sodium chloride solution. (iii) After 4 minutes add 4 ml of 35 per cent NaNO3 solution and stir again. (iv) After 5-10 minutes (not more than that) when reaction is complete, add 5 ml of 20 per cent cobalt nitrite solution rapidly with constant stirring. (It should not take more than 3-4 seconds). (v) Stir 40-60 seconds. Cover and allow it to settle overnight in a cool place free from fumes of ammonia.
  25. 25. 25 (vi) Filter through a gooch crucible charged with asbestos or use sintered glass crucible number 4. (vii) Transfer to precipitate to the crucible and wash 4 times with 6-10 ml of 35 per cent alcohol each time. Finally wash the crucible with 3 small lots of 2 ml each of cold water to remove alcohol. (viii) Pipette out 50 ml of N/20 KmnO4 in a 400 ml beaker. Dilute it to about 150 ml with distilled water and add 5 ml of H2SO4. (ix) Add the crucible along with precipitate in this mixture and keep it submerged in the solution and warm gently. If the color appears to be discharged add further known quantity of KmnO4 solution to ensure excess. (x) Now heat nearly to boiling. Remove from the heat (flame) and after few minutes add excess of N/20 oxalic acid nearly 50 ml. (xi) Warm until all oxides of Mn have been dissolved. (xii) Titrrate excess of oxalic acid with N/20 KmnO4. The difference represents the amount of KmnO4 used for oxidation of the precipitate. Observations and calculations Amount of fertilizer solution taken = 10 ml Amount of N/20 KmnO4 solution added = 50 ml Amount of N/20 oxalic acid solution added = 50 ml Volume of N/20 KmnO4 solution required for the excess of oxalic acid= xml Volume of N/20 KmnO4 used for reacting the precipitate = (50-x) ml % of K2O = Ml of N/20 KmnO4 x Total volume of fertilizer solution Volume of solution taken 100 Wt. Of fertilizers x
  26. 26. 26 Exercise No. 8 : Estimation of organic carbon in vermicompost Determination of organic matter b1 ash ba method Method: Weight 10 g of the well-mixed manure vermicompost in a dry nickel crucible of silica basin. Heat it on a low flame, till the organic matter begins to burn. Place the crucible in a muffle furnace at dull red heat i.e. at about 550C when grayish white ash is formed; remove the crucible from the furnace. Cool in a desiccator and weigh. The residue represents the ash. The loss in weight arid represent the moisture and organic matter. Observation and calculation: Wet of the crucible = c Wet of the crucible + manure = b Wet of crucible + manure after ignition = a Ash, g/100 g = (a-c) ------------ x 100 b-c Percentage of ash on original basis = Percentage of organic matter = 100-Z-M Organic matter % = 100-% Ash %organic carbon = % organic matter 1.724 Note: Percentage of organic matter and ash is usually calculated on oven dry basis. Results The organic carbon content in giving sample of organic manure is …………………
  27. 27. 27 Exercise No. 9 : Fractionation of vermicompost Organic matter Acidity to pH 1.5 Water + domination Acidity to Ph 1.5 Soil NaOH extractable Humin Humicaue Precipitate A Fulivic acid soluble A Sonipied water expact Humic acid B Falvic acid B
  28. 28. 28 The waste-retention basin sampled for this study was constructed in 1993 and is located in north central Iowa. The basin is permitted for 1.8 million gallongs, with about 1.3 million gallongs being pumped out in the spring and fall of each year. No fresh water is added to this basin as it fills with swine waste. This basin received waste from five buildings that housed about 5700 swine at the time of sampling. The average weight per animal was about 135 pounds at this time. In an effort to reduce the adors from this basin, the operator has added paper cuttings in previous years and soybean stover in the current year (2003). Sample collection Two unfiltered 1-liter samples were collected in amber glass bottles in July, 2003. One sample was collected close to the waste in-flow pipe (north-side- sample), and one was collected on the other side of the basin opposite the waste in-flow pipe (south-side sample). The samples were chilled on ice and shipped overnight to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, and immediately analysed with minimal refrigerated storage to minimize sample degradation. Organic Matter Fractionation The north side sample was fractionated in a comprehensive scheme, presented in figure 1, designed to obtain compound class information for particulate, colloidal, and dissolved organic matter. This is the first comprehensive fractionation scheme designed to include volatile acid and particulate organic matter with the published scheme (Leenheer and others, 20000 for fractionation and analyses of colloidal and non-volatile dissolved organic matter. The south side sample was used to evaluate a non- comprehensive solvent extraction scheme (Fig. 20 for comparison of a typical solvent extraction analyses with the comprehensive analytical approach. This comparison assumes there were no significant differences between the north and south side samples as the ph and conductivity values (measured in the laboratory) were identical for these two samples.
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30 Fig. 2.Flow chart of solvent-extractable organic matter fractionation for south-side sample.
  31. 31. 31 Results :- Fraction of organic manures is 1. Humic acid---------------------------% 2. Fulvic acid ----------------------------% 3. Humin------------------------------------%
  32. 32. 32 Exercise No. 10: Drawing of flow-sheet chart of vermitechnology Chart -1
  33. 33. 33 Chart -2