Reformation to Baroque 1


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Reformation to Baroque 1

  1. 1. 1 The Baroque Era (part 1)
  2. 2. 2 Europe in the 17th Century
  3. 3. Protestant Reformation By the early 1500s, many people in Western Europe were growing increasingly dissatisfied with the Christian Church. Many found the Pope too involved with secular (worldly) matters, rather than with his flocks spiritual well-being. Lower church officials were poorly educated and broke vows by living richly and keeping mistresses. Some officials practiced simony, or passing down their title as priest or bishop to their illegitimate sons. In keeping with the many social changes of the Renaissance people began to boldly challenge the authority of the Christian Church. 3
  4. 4. Martin Luther and his 95 Theses A German monk by the name of Martin Luther was particularly bothered by the selling of indulgences. An indulgence, a religious pardon that released a sinner from performing specific penalties, could be bought from a church official for various fees. Martin Luther was especially troubled because some church officials gave people the impression that they could buy their way into heaven. To express his growing concern of church corruption, Martin Luther wrote his famous 95 Theses, which called for a full reform of the Christian Church. In it, he stressed the following points: 4
  5. 5. • The Pope is a false authority. (“The Whore of Babylon”) • The bible was the one true authority. • All people with faith in Christ were equal. • People did not need priest and bishops to interpret the bible for them. They could read it themselves and make up their own minds. • People could only win salvation by faith in God's forgiveness. • The Church taught that faith, along with good works was needed for salvation. 5
  6. 6. 6 LUCAS CRANACH THE ELDER, Allegory of Law and Grace, ca. 1530. Woodcut, 10 5/8” x 1’ 3/4”. British Museum, London.
  7. 7. ICONOCLASM- Protestants criticize the cult of images to the point of destruction. 7
  8. 8. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 8
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  10. 10. Thirty Years’ War The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history. The conflict lasted, unceasing, for 30 years, making it the longest continuous war in modern history. 1648- Treaty of Westphalia grants religious freedom in Europe, conflicts subside. 10
  11. 11. The Thirty Years War 11
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  14. 14. The Counter Reformation Attempts by the Catholic church and secular Catholic authorities to stem the flow of Protestantism and reform some of the worst excesses of medieval Catholicism. Art was used as a tool of persuasion. Council of Trent 14
  15. 15. The Counter Reformation Art was used as a tool of persuasion. Catholic Church vs. Presbyterian Church 15
  16. 16. What is Baroque? Art produced from the end of the 16th to early 18th centuries Stresses emotional, rather than intellectual responses; dramatic light and shade, turbulent composition, and exaggerated expression. Used by “absolute” rulers (popes and kings) to overwhelm and awe
  17. 17. What is Baroque? The word “baroque” derives from the Portuguese and Spanish words for a large, irregularly- shaped pearl (“barroco” and “barrueco,” respectively). Eighteenth century critics were the first to apply the term to the art of the 17th century. It was not a term of praise. To the eyes of these critics, who favored the restraint and order of Neoclassicism, the works of the previous century appeared bizarre, absurd, even diseased— in other words, misshapen, like an imperfect pearl.
  18. 18. Culture of Baroque Era Science begins to challenge religion, Earth is not center of the universe (Copernicus) Workshops begin to churn out copies of popular themes Value on the original work is a modern notion Still lifes and genre paintings (everyday life) emerge (Northern Europe)
  19. 19. Bernini A child prodigy who the pope demanded an audience of Deemed the “Michelangelo” of his generation Master of stone-ability to transform into flesh, and dramatic action-decisive moments First sculpture to “freeze” moments in time.
  20. 20. St. Peters Carlo Maderno adds façade to Bramante’s original design-and Bernini designed the courtyard extending in front of the basilica from Bramante’s original central plan. Two curved porticoes extended like the “motherly arms of the Church” Incorporates Egyptian obelisk as symbol of Christian triumph. Colonnades are a dramatic gesture of embrace to all that enter the piazza. (welcoming arms of St. Peters).
  21. 21. 22 alternate view Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506–1666.
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  23. 23. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia (Royal Stairway), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666. The role of light as a symbol and design element in the Italian Baroque cannot be understated. 24
  24. 24. 25 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633. Gilded bronze, 100’ high.
  25. 25. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City. Baldacco-italian for “silk from baghdad”-for a cloth canopy 100 ft high (8 story building) High altar and tomb of St. Peter Bridges human scale to the lofty vaults and dome. Dramatic presence at the crossing of the nave. Decorative elements symbolize the power of the church. Spiral columns invoke Old St. Peters. 4 angels stand guard on canopy. Orb of the earth and cross rise from the top (symbol of Christian triumph). 26
  26. 26. Tremendous amount of bronze (much of it taken from the portico of the Pantheon)-ideologically appropriate. Bernini contracted much of the project out-but took all the credit.
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  31. 31. Divine Light 32
  32. 32. 33 Solomonic column
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  35. 35. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Apollo and Daphne, 1623–1624. Marble, 8’ high. Galleria Borghese, Rome. Bernini Master of Dramatic action-decisive moments First sculpture to “freeze” moments in time. 36
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  38. 38. Transformed into Laurel tree Metaphor for sculpture-taking one material and turning it into another. 39
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  40. 40. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Pluto and Prosperina Terror, power, brutishness Emotional sensitivity Stone like skin Another “decisive moment” captured in a 3-d snapshot. 41
  41. 41. Intense emotion, highly dramatic, theatrical 42
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  43. 43. 44 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, 5’ 7” high. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
  44. 44. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David Modeled features after own face. Expression of intense concentration. Different from earlier versions- incorporates action and time. Most dramatic of an implied sequence of poses. Time and space are united in an artistic theater. Dynamic energy, cannot be confined in a niche-must be freestanding. Baroque=theatricality and element of time. After the Renaissance, an understanding of Progress and a new embrace of change began. Thus art began to demonstrate transience, rather than permanence and timeless ideals. (Similar to the transition from High Classical to Hellenistic in Ancient Greece) 45
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  51. 51. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, inerior of the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645-1652. 52
  52. 52. 53 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”.
  53. 53. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. • Makes use of theatrical techniques-architecture, sculpture, lighting. • St. Teresa-nun of Carmelite order, “mystic”. • Fell into a series of trances, visions, voices. Felt a persistent pain, attributed it to fire-tipped arrow of divine love an angel thrust repeatedly into her heart. • Mingling of physical and spiritual passion. • Differentiation in texture among the clouds, cloth, skin, and wings. • Light from a hidden window with yellow glass shines down. Golden light of Heaven. 54
  54. 54. 55 GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”.
  55. 55. Highly Suggestive eroticism 56
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  59. 59. Teresa of Ávila In the cloister, she suffered greatly from illness. Early in her sickness, she experienced periods of religious ecstasy. "... Beside me, on the left hand, appeared an angel in bodily form... He was not tall but short, and very beautiful; and his face was so aflame that he appeared to be one of the highest rank of angels, who seem to be all on fire... In his hands I saw a great golden spear, and at the iron tip there appeared to be a point of fire. This he plunged into my heart several times ... and left me utterly consumed by the great love of God. The pain was so severe that it made me utter several moans. The sweetness caused by this intense pain is so extreme that one cannot possibly wish it to cease, nor is one's soul then content with anything but God. This is not a physical, but a spiritual pain, though the body has some share in it-even a considerable share ...” 60
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  62. 62. Cornaro family looks on from above. 63
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  65. 65. Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi di Caravaggio Outspoken disdain for Classical masters- the “anti-christ” of painting. Recast biblical scenes or themes in new light Used naturalism -did not idealize the narratives. Characters were common folk not idealized and angelic. Accentuates the “sinner” or the lower classes in his works-harsh dingy settings. Figures that were relatable. Strong use of light with deep pockets of shadow - tenebrism Action very close to surface of painting- like a “shop window”. Strong personality violent criminal-, thrived in Roman underground scene. Enormous influence on subsequent generation of painters (Caravaggista)
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  67. 67. Early work for Cardinal del Monte (Caravaggio was given residence and sponsorship by the wealthy patron for an unspecified number of paintings) Often homo-erotic undertones.
  68. 68. CARAVAGGIO, Musicians, ca. 1595. Oil on canvas, 3’ 1/4" X 3’ 10 5/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Rogers Fund, 1952). 69
  69. 69. Self portrait as Dionysus 70
  70. 70. Tenebrism From the Italian tenebroso ("murky"), (also called dramatic illumination) is a style of painting using very pronounced chiaroscuro, where there are violent contrasts of light and dark, and darkness becomes a dominating feature of the image. Spanish painters in the early seventeenth century who were influenced by the work of Caravaggio have been called Tenebrists, although they did not form a distinct group. 71
  71. 71. 72 CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  72. 72. CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew. One of 2 paintings honoring St, Mathew for the Contarelli Chapel. Commonplace setting (dingy tavern). Group of tax collectors. Shady characters. No idealization-brings the Spiritual down to an everyday level. Christ barely identifiable. Gestures Levi (later Mathew) with hand reminiscent of Michelangelo “Creation of Adam” (Christ is 2nd Adam). Light is used to dramatic effect- shines from behind Christ towards Levi who gazes upwards. 73
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  76. 76. 77 CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, ca. 1601. Oil on canvas, 7’ 6” x 5’ 9”. Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome.
  77. 77. CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul. Mysterious light pierces dark of a stable during moment of conversion. Stable hand oblivious to mystical event. Looks like stable accident. Large portion of the painting is horses ass. Places figures in shallow space close to the viewer. Low Horizon line positioned at the line of sight of average viewer. Dramatic tenebrism. Theatrical. Light stands for Divinity and revelation. (Like Bernini) 78
  78. 78. 79 CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from the chapel of Pietro Vittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oil on canvas, 9’ 10 1/8” x 6’ 7 15/16”. Musei Vaticani, Rome.
  79. 79. “falling” in to viewers space recalls Michelangelo 80
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  83. 83. ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Self- Portrait as the Allegory of Painting, ca. 1638–1639. Most celebrated female artist of the era. Taught by her father Orazio. Both strongly influenced by Caravaggio. Used tenebrism and combined with “dark” subject matter-often scenes of female empowerment. Herself a victim of rape. Struggled with unequal treatment as a painter due to her gender. 84
  84. 84. 85 ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith Slaying Holofernes, ca. 1614–1620. Oil on canvas, 6’ 6 1/3” x 5’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  85. 85. ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith Slaying Holofernes. Story from book of Judith (apocryphal text). Judith seduces Assyrian general Holofernes, and then cuts his head of when he is sleeping, thus saving the Israelites. Lots of blood, realistic spurts. Tenebrism and shallow space of Caravaggio Holofernes body foreshortened 86
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  88. 88. Spurts of blood less realistic. 89
  89. 89. Post-beheading
  90. 90. The Habsburgs Charles V abdicates Holy Roman Empire throne in 1556 The Western portion (Spain, American colonies, Netherlands, Burgundy,Milan, Naples and Sicily) go to his son Phillip II The Eastern portion (Germany and Austria) go to his brother Ferdinand
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  92. 92. Spain: Hapsburg Empire 16th century: Hapsburg Empire is the dominant power in Europe. The Golden Age of Spain However…Spain’s gold imports lessen from New World, and eventual bankruptcy in 1692. 17th Century: 1660 Hapsburg Empire has fallen Costly wars=higher taxes=revolts failure to capitalize on trade Catholic and repressive King Philip The artwork tends to support heavily the Catholic Church and the Habsburgs liked the use of strong dramatic effect and lighting Religious scenes of death and Martyrdom Religious fanaticism Realistic details and tenebrism DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 93
  93. 93. 94 JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Philip, ca. 1639. Oil on canvas, 7’ 8” x 7’ 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  94. 94. JOSÉ DE RIBERA, Martyrdom of Saint Philip. Ribera often embraced brutal themes reflecting harsh times of the Counter-Reformation. Saint Philip’s martyrdom visually echoes Christ. Swarthy plebian features- common man. St Philip who was one of the first disciples to follow Jesus. He preached the Gospel in Phrygia and died at Hierapolis, first stoned then crucified. St Philip apostle was Philip IV's patron saint and presumably Ribera painted the canvas upon royal commission. 95
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  96. 96. 97 FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint Serapion, 1628. Oil on canvas, 3’ 11 1/2” x 3’ 4 3/4”. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford (The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund).
  97. 97. FRANCISCO DE ZURBARÁN, Saint Serapion, 1628. Primary patrons were rich Spanish monastic orders Devotional image for the funerary chapel of the Order of Mercy in Seville (Mercedarians) who worked towards the rescue of captive and ransomed Christians at hands of Muslims St. Serapion suffered martyrdom while preaching Gospel to Muslims Tied to a tree, tortured and decapitated Bright light brings attention to tragic death. Two tree branches barely visible Note identifies him as St. Serapion Like Ribera, subject is depicted as common man 98
  98. 98. Diego Velazquez Leading artist in the court of King Phillip IV Because of Velasquez' great skill in merging color, light, space, rhythm of line, and mass in such a way that all have equal value, he was known as "the painter's painter.” Master realist, and few painters have surpassed him in the ability to seize essential features and fix them on canvas with a few broad, sure strokes. 99
  99. 99. 100 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Water Carrier of Seville, ca. 1619. Oil on canvas, 3’ 5 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”. Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
  100. 100. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Water Carrier of Seville. Velazquez painted at age 20 Genre scene- a painting of mundane activities of everyday life (no religious purpose) Influence of Caravaggio visible in plebian figures and deep shadow 3 ages of man 101
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  105. 105. Myth and Reality Ideal and Real 106
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  107. 107. Myth and Reality Ideal and Real 108
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  110. 110. 111 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’ 3 1/8”. The Frick Collection, New York.
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  112. 112. Court Life 113
  113. 113. 114 DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  114. 114. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor). Set in artists studio in palace Hung in the kings private quarters The Mystery of the visual world, several layers of visual reality Canvas image ? Mirror image ? Open door in background Dual theme Family portrait Genre scene Self portrait-The Artists studio Wearing illustrious order of Santiago Artist elevates status (paints himself as intimate with royal family) Paintings by Rubens in background A painting about painting 115
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