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CHAPTER 1
RATE OF REACTION
Contents
1.1 Understanding of Rate of Reaction
1.2 Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction
1.3 Collision Theory
1.4 Scientific ...
1.1 Understanding of Rate of Reaction
 Rate of reaction is defined as the change in the amount
of reactants or products p...
Method of Gas Collection Using a Gas
Syringe System
• The reaction is fastest at the start when the reactants are
at a maximum (steepest gradient)
• The gradient becomes prog...
 Different chemical reactions occur at different rates.
• Fast Reaction
• Slow Reaction
Fast Reaction Slow Reaction
The t...
Fast Reaction
Slow Reaction
Observable changes for measuring rate of reaction
Finding Average Rate Of Reaction
Example:
In a chemical reaction, 2.5g of calcium carbonate react
completely with excess hydrochloric acid to produce
600cm...
Finding Average Rate Of Reaction From
Measurable Quantities
 During a chemical reaction, two things happen
1. The quantit...
Example:
In a reaction, 5 g of calcium carbonate takes 250 seconds to
completely react with solution of hydrochloric acid....
Finding Average Rate Of Reaction From
Immeasurable Quantities
Example:
When the aqueous of ethanadioic is mixed with acided potassium
manganate(VII) , the reaction happen slowly at roo...
Analysing Rate of Reaction from Graph
Graph Of Product/Reactant Change Against Time
In a chemical reaction,
• the reactan...
Example:
The reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and excess
marble will produce calcium chloride and gas of carbon
d...
2.
3. 4.
Finding The Average Rate Of Reaction From A Graph
Example:
In a reaction between calcium carbonate and liquid hydrochloric...
Answer:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knAjEa4-0KM
Finding Instantaneous Rate Of Reaction From A Graph
 The rate of reaction changes from time to time as the
reaction happe...
Example:
The graph shows the volume of carbon dioxide gas
released over time in a chemical reaction. Find the
rate of reac...
Answer:
1.2 Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction
1. Size of Solid Reactants/Total Surface Area
The smaller the size of the particle, the bigger
the total surface area.
T...
Experiment 1
25 cm3
of 0.5 mol dm–3
hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate chips. The
carbon dioxide gas released is collec...
Experiment 2
25 cm3
of 0.5 mol dm–3
hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate powder.
As in experiment 1, the carbon dioxide g...
Conclusion
• The gradient of the curve for experiment 2 is greater than the curve for
experiment 1. This indicate that the...
2. Concentration Of Reactants
Experiment
By measuring the time taken for the formation of sulphur
precipitate (yellow soli...
Procedure:
•50 cm3
of 0.2 mol dm-3
sodium thiosulphate solution + 10 cm3
of 0.5 mol
dm-3
sulphuric acid.
•
from view is re...
Conclusion 1:
•The graph for concentration of sodium thiosulphate (VI), Na2S2O3 against
time taken for the sulphur precipi...
Conclusion 2:
•The graph for concentration of sodium thiosulphate (VI),
Na2S203 against 1/time taken is plotted.
•As the c...
3. Temperature Of The Reactant
Experiment
By measuring the time taken for the formation of sulphur
precipitate (yellow sol...
Procedure:
•50 cm3
of 0.2 mol dm-3
sodium thiosulphate solution at 30ºC + 10 cm3
of
0.5 mol dm-3
sulphuric acid.
•
from vi...
Conclusion 1:
• The graph for temperature of sodium thiosulphate (VI),
Na2S2O3 against time taken for the sulphur precipit...
Conclusion 2:
• The graph for temperature of sodium thiosulphate (VI),
Na2S203 against 1/time taken is plotted.
• As the t...
Pressure Of Gas
 For reactions involve gas, the rate of reaction is affected
by the pressure of the gas.
 Pressure DOES ...
4. Catalyst
 Catalyst is a chemical substance that change the rate of
chemical reaction
 Characteristics of catalyst:
Ca...
Catalysts provide a different reaction path with a low activation energy
List of Reactions and the Catalyst
Chemical Reaction Catalyst
Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide:
2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2
Mangan...
Factors Affecting Catalyst
A catalyst is a substance which can
change the rate of reaction.
There are 2 types of catalys...
Copper(II) sulphate acts as a catalyst to increase the rate of reaction between
zinc and hydrochloric acid
Conclusion
The ...
Manganese(IV) oxide acts as a catalyst to increase the rate of reaction
between zinc and hydrochloric acid
Conclusion:
The...
Application of Catalysts in Industry
Haber Process (Produces Ammonia)
• In the Haber process, a mixture of nitrogen and hy...
1.3 Collision Theory
 The collision theory states
that:
• The particles of the reacting
need to touch to enable
formation...
 According to collision theory, atoms, ions, and molecules
can react to form products when they collide with one
another,...
 Activation Energy
• The activation energy is the minimum energy that the reactants
particles must achieve at the time of...
Energy Profile Diagram
In the diagram of energy profile, the activation energy is shown by the
difference in energy betwe...
Factors Affecting Rate Of Reaction -
Explanation By Collision Theory
 Total Surface Area of Reactants
• When the size of ...
 Presence of Catalyst
• When a positive catalyst is used in a reaction, the catalyst
prepares an alternative path with lo...
 Concentration
• Solution with higher concentration has more particles per unit
volume in the solution.
• As a result, th...
 Temperature
• When the temperature of a reaction increases, the particles of
the reacting substances move faster.
• This...
Pressure of Gas
• For a reaction that involves a gas, when pressure increases,
the particles of gas are compressed to fil...
1.4 Scientific Knowledge to
Enhance Quality of Life
1. Keeping food in a refrigerator
• If food is kept in the fridge, the...
2. Cooking food in a pressure cooker
• In a pressure cooker, the high pressure causes the water in the
cooker to boil at a...
3. Cooking Food in Small Pieces
• Food in the shape of big pieces has a surface area per volume
which is small, so the hea...
4. Making Margarine
• Vegetable oil is an organic compound that is not saturated and
exists in liquid state at room temper...
5. Breakdown of
Petroleum
• Big molecules of
hydrocarbon obtained
during fractional
distillation of petroleum
have been fo...
6. Burning of Coal
• Coal contains the element carbon. Burning of coal in air that is
in excess will produce carbon dioxid...
• http://cikguwong.blogspot.my/p/chemistry-spm
• http://documents.mx/documents/chemistry-form
• http://spmchemistry.online...
SPM F5 Chapter 1 Rate of Reaction
SPM F5 Chapter 1 Rate of Reaction
SPM F5 Chapter 1 Rate of Reaction
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SPM F5 Chapter 1 Rate of Reaction

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 RATE OF REACTION
  2. 2. Contents 1.1 Understanding of Rate of Reaction 1.2 Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction 1.3 Collision Theory 1.4 Scientific Knowledge to Enhance Quality of Life
  3. 3. 1.1 Understanding of Rate of Reaction  Rate of reaction is defined as the change in the amount of reactants or products per unit time.  We usually use water displacement method to collect gas in school laboratory as shown below:
  4. 4. Method of Gas Collection Using a Gas Syringe System
  5. 5. • The reaction is fastest at the start when the reactants are at a maximum (steepest gradient) • The gradient becomes progressively less as reactants are used up and the reaction slows down. • Finally the graph levels out when one of the reactants is used up and the reaction stops. • The amount of product depends on the amount of reactants used. • The initial rate of reaction is obtained by measuring the gradient at the start of the reaction. A tangent line is drawn to measure rate of reaction at instantaneous time.
  6. 6.  Different chemical reactions occur at different rates. • Fast Reaction • Slow Reaction Fast Reaction Slow Reaction The time taken for a fast reaction is short. The time taken for a slow reaction is long. The rate of reaction is said to be high. The rate of reaction for a slow reaction is low. Example: •Fading of dyes on a shirt under hot sun •Cooking a chicken using a microwave oven •Burning of petrol in a car engine •Striking a match •Ripening of tomatoes Example: •A piece of newspaper turning yellow •The weathering of limestone by acid rain •Rusting of a water pipe
  7. 7. Fast Reaction
  8. 8. Slow Reaction
  9. 9. Observable changes for measuring rate of reaction
  10. 10. Finding Average Rate Of Reaction
  11. 11. Example: In a chemical reaction, 2.5g of calcium carbonate react completely with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 600cm³ of carbon dioxide gas in 1.5 minutes. Find the rate of reaction in term of a. decreasing mass of calcium carbonate b. increasing volume of carbon dioxide gas produced Answer:
  12. 12. Finding Average Rate Of Reaction From Measurable Quantities  During a chemical reaction, two things happen 1. The quantities of reactants reduce. 2. The quantities of products increase.  Therefore, the rate of the reaction can be determined by • measuring the decrease of the amount of the reactants over time. • measuring the increase of the amount of the products over time.  However, the quantity (or change) of the reactants/product may be measurable or immeasurable.  The easily measured quantity changes include • Mass • Concentration (Conductivity) • Volume of gas
  13. 13. Example: In a reaction, 5 g of calcium carbonate takes 250 seconds to completely react with solution of hydrochloric acid. Calculate the average rate for this reaction in units a.g s-1 and b.mol s-1 [ Relative atomic mass: C 12; O, 16; Ca, 40] Answer:
  14. 14. Finding Average Rate Of Reaction From Immeasurable Quantities
  15. 15. Example: When the aqueous of ethanadioic is mixed with acided potassium manganate(VII) , the reaction happen slowly at room temperature. The purple colour of the solution is bleached after 20 seconds. Calculate the average rate of reaction. Answer:
  16. 16. Analysing Rate of Reaction from Graph Graph Of Product/Reactant Change Against Time In a chemical reaction, • the reactants will decrease over time • the product will increase over time the rate of reaction will decrease over time owing to the decrease in concentration and total surface area of reactants. In a graph of quantity of product/reactant over time, the rate of reaction is equal to the gradient of the graph.
  17. 17. Example: The reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and excess marble will produce calcium chloride and gas of carbon dioxide. Sketch the graph of 1. the mass of the marble against time. 2. the volume of carbon dioxide against time. 3. the concentration of hydrochloric acid against time. 4. the concentration of calcium chloride against time. Answer: 1.
  18. 18. 2. 3. 4.
  19. 19. Finding The Average Rate Of Reaction From A Graph Example: In a reaction between calcium carbonate and liquid hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide gas that is released is collected in a burette. The graph shows the volume of carbon dioxide collected over time. Find the average rate of reaction in the first 60s.
  20. 20. Answer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=knAjEa4-0KM
  21. 21. Finding Instantaneous Rate Of Reaction From A Graph  The rate of reaction changes from time to time as the reaction happens.  The rate of reaction at a particular time is called the instantaneous rate.  The instantaneous rate of a reaction is equal to the gradient of tangent at a particular time.
  22. 22. Example: The graph shows the volume of carbon dioxide gas released over time in a chemical reaction. Find the rate of reaction at t = 40s
  23. 23. Answer:
  24. 24. 1.2 Factors Affecting Rate of Reaction
  25. 25. 1. Size of Solid Reactants/Total Surface Area The smaller the size of the particle, the bigger the total surface area. The bigger the total surface area, the higher the rate of reaction.
  26. 26. Experiment 1 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate chips. The carbon dioxide gas released is collected in a burrete. The volume of the gas released is recorded in every 30s. The result is plotted in a graph.
  27. 27. Experiment 2 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid + calcium carbonate powder. As in experiment 1, the carbon dioxide gas released is collected in a burrete and the volume of the gas released is recorded in every 30s. The result is plotted in the same graph in experiment 1.
  28. 28. Conclusion • The gradient of the curve for experiment 2 is greater than the curve for experiment 1. This indicate that the rate of reaction in experiment 2 is higher than experiment 1. • We can conclude that, the smaller the particle size of the reactant, the bigger the total surface area, and the bigger the total surface area, the higher the rate of the reaction will be.
  29. 29. 2. Concentration Of Reactants Experiment By measuring the time taken for the formation of sulphur precipitate (yellow solid) when sulphuric acid, H2SO4 reacts with sodium thiosulphate(VI), Na2S2O3 of different concentration , we can investigate the effect of concentration of the reactant on the rate of reaction.  The higher the concentration of the solution, the higher the rate of reaction.
  30. 30. Procedure: •50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution + 10 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. • from view is recorded. •The experiment is repeated by using sodium thiosulphate solution with concentration 0.4 mol dm-3 , 0.6 mol dm-3 , 0.8 mol dm-3 and 1.0 mol dm-3 .
  31. 31. Conclusion 1: •The graph for concentration of sodium thiosulphate (VI), Na2S2O3 against time taken for the sulphur precipitate to formed is plotted. •As the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution decreases, the
  32. 32. Conclusion 2: •The graph for concentration of sodium thiosulphate (VI), Na2S203 against 1/time taken is plotted. •As the concentration of sodium thiosulphate increases, the value of 1/time increases. We should note that 1/time = rate of reaction. •The higher the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher the rate of reaction.
  33. 33. 3. Temperature Of The Reactant Experiment By measuring the time taken for the formation of sulphur precipitate (yellow solid) when sulphuric acid, H2SO4 reacts with sodium thiosulphate(VI), Na2S2O3 of different temperature, we can investigate the effect of temperature of the reactant on the rate of reaction. The higher the temperature of the solution, the higher the rate of reaction.
  34. 34. Procedure: •50 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium thiosulphate solution at 30ºC + 10 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid. • from view is recorded. •The experiment is repeated by using sodium thiosulphate solution with temperature 35ºC, 40ºC, 45ºC and 50ºC.
  35. 35. Conclusion 1: • The graph for temperature of sodium thiosulphate (VI), Na2S2O3 against time taken for the sulphur precipitate to formed is plotted. • As the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution decreases, the
  36. 36. Conclusion 2: • The graph for temperature of sodium thiosulphate (VI), Na2S203 against 1/time taken is plotted. • As the temperature of sodium thiosulphate increases, the value of 1/time increases. We should note that 1/time = rate of reaction. • The higher the temperature of sodium thiosulphate solution, the higher the rate of reaction .
  37. 37. Pressure Of Gas  For reactions involve gas, the rate of reaction is affected by the pressure of the gas.  Pressure DOES NOT affect the rate of reaction where the reactants are in the form of solids or liquids.  The higher the pressure of the gas, the higher the rate of reaction The higher the pressure of the gas, the higher the rate of reaction
  38. 38. 4. Catalyst  Catalyst is a chemical substance that change the rate of chemical reaction  Characteristics of catalyst: Catalyst Only a small amount of catalyst is needed to increases the rate of reaction. An increase in the quantity of catalyst will increase the rate of reaction but only a very slight increase During a reaction, catalyst remains chemically unchanged but may undergo physical changes. For example, catalyst may turn into powder during the reaction Alters the rate of reaction Does not change the quantity of products formed It is specific in its action. It can only catalyse a particular reaction
  39. 39. Catalysts provide a different reaction path with a low activation energy
  40. 40. List of Reactions and the Catalyst Chemical Reaction Catalyst Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide: 2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2 Manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2 Lead(II) oxide, PbO Lead(IV) oxide, PbO2 Reaction between Zinc and Hydrochloric Acid: Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2 Manganese (IV) oxide, MnO2 Copper (II) oxide, CuO Zinc Oxide, ZnO Silicon (IV) oxide, SiO2 Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate (V): 2KClO3 + 2KCl → 3O2 Copper (II) sulphate, CuSO4 Copper (II) chloride, CuCl2 Copper (II) nitrate, Cu(NO3)2 Haber Process N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 Iron Contact Process 2SO2 + O2 → 2SO Vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 Ostwald Process 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(1) Platinum
  41. 41. Factors Affecting Catalyst A catalyst is a substance which can change the rate of reaction. There are 2 types of catalyst: • Positive catalyst – Increase the rate of reaction. • Negative catalyst – Reduce the rate of reaction.
  42. 42. Copper(II) sulphate acts as a catalyst to increase the rate of reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid Conclusion The presence of catalyst increases the rate of reaction.
  43. 43. Manganese(IV) oxide acts as a catalyst to increase the rate of reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid Conclusion: The presence of catalyst increases the rate of reaction
  44. 44. Application of Catalysts in Industry Haber Process (Produces Ammonia) • In the Haber process, a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen in the ratio 1:3 is conducted through the powdered iron as catalyst at a temperature of 450°C to 550°C and a pressure of 200 to 300 atmospheres with molybdenum as a promoter. • Powdered iron is used as the catalyst to raise the rate of reaction. • Also, the reaction is conducted at high temperature to increase the rate of reaction.
  45. 45. 1.3 Collision Theory  The collision theory states that: • The particles of the reacting need to touch to enable formation or breaking of the bonds for a reaction to happen. • Collisions of particles of a reacting substance need to achieve a certain minimum energy (Activation Energy) in order to produce a reaction. • Particles that collide also need to have the correct orientation of collision.
  46. 46.  According to collision theory, atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when they collide with one another, provided that the colliding particles have enough kinetic energy. Effective Collision Ineffective Collision
  47. 47.  Activation Energy • The activation energy is the minimum energy that the reactants particles must achieve at the time of collision in order for a chemical reaction to take place. • The value of the activation energy is different for different reactions. • A reaction with high activation energy occurs slowly whereas a reaction with a low activation energy occurs fast.
  48. 48. Energy Profile Diagram In the diagram of energy profile, the activation energy is shown by the difference in energy between the peak of the graph and the level of the energy of the reacting substance. Exothermic Reaction Endothermic Reaction
  49. 49. Factors Affecting Rate Of Reaction - Explanation By Collision Theory  Total Surface Area of Reactants • When the size of the solid substance that reacts is smaller, its total surface area exposed becomes larger. • This causes the collisions frequency between the reactants increases. • As a result, the frequency of effective collisions also increases and hence increases the rate of reaction.
  50. 50.  Presence of Catalyst • When a positive catalyst is used in a reaction, the catalyst prepares an alternative path with lower activation energy for the reaction. • As a result, the frequency of effective collisions increases and hence increases the rate of reaction.
  51. 51.  Concentration • Solution with higher concentration has more particles per unit volume in the solution. • As a result, the collisions frequency between the reactants increases. • Consequently, the frequency of effective collisions also increases and hence the rate of reaction increases.
  52. 52.  Temperature • When the temperature of a reaction increases, the particles of the reacting substances move faster. • This causes the collisions frequency between the reactants increases. • As a result, the frequency of effective collisions also increases and hence increases the rate of reaction.
  53. 53. Pressure of Gas • For a reaction that involves a gas, when pressure increases, the particles of gas are compressed to fill the spaces which are small. This makes the number of particles of gas per unit of volume to increase. • This causes the collisions frequency between the reactants increases. • As a result, the frequency of effective collisions also increases and hence increases the rate of reaction
  54. 54. 1.4 Scientific Knowledge to Enhance Quality of Life 1. Keeping food in a refrigerator • If food is kept in the fridge, the food will keep longer because the low temperature will slow down the rate of the chemical reaction which destroys food.
  55. 55. 2. Cooking food in a pressure cooker • In a pressure cooker, the high pressure causes the water in the cooker to boil at a temperature of more than 100°C. • At a higher temperature, the time for the food to get cooked is decreased.
  56. 56. 3. Cooking Food in Small Pieces • Food in the shape of big pieces has a surface area per volume which is small, so the heat takes a longer time to reach the inside of the food. So, to cook faster, the food needs to be cut into smaller pieces.
  57. 57. 4. Making Margarine • Vegetable oil is an organic compound that is not saturated and exists in liquid state at room temperature. • Through investigation and continuous development, vegetable oil can be changed to margarine through the process of hydrogenation using nickel as catalyst at a temperature of 180°C
  58. 58. 5. Breakdown of Petroleum • Big molecules of hydrocarbon obtained during fractional distillation of petroleum have been found to be less useful than small molecules of hydrocarbon. • The breakdown process with the use of the catalyst alumina produces smaller hydrocarbons.
  59. 59. 6. Burning of Coal • Coal contains the element carbon. Burning of coal in air that is in excess will produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat energy. • A big piece of coal takes a long time to burn because the total surface area that is touched by the fire is small. • The rate of burning pieces of coal which are small is higher because the total surface area is bigger. With this, it provides a lot of heat energy in a short period of time.
  60. 60. • http://cikguwong.blogspot.my/p/chemistry-spm • http://documents.mx/documents/chemistry-form • http://spmchemistry.onlinetuition.com.my/2013
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SPM F5 Chapter 1 Rate of Reaction

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