An analysis of chinese tourists’ experiences in Milan and Florence


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An analysis of Chinese tourists’ experiences in Milan and Florence - Managerial guidelines for the Improvement
of the Chinese Tourist Experience
Project Work of the students of the Master in Tourism Management of IULM Uiniversity (milan, Italy), with the methodologicl support of Andrea Rossi, lecturer and co-author of the Tourist Experience Design Methodology

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An analysis of chinese tourists’ experiences in Milan and Florence

  1. 1. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012An analysis of Chinese tourists’ experiencesin Milan and FlorenceManagerial guidelines for the Improvementof the Chinese Tourist Experience1Faculty Tutor: A. RossiTeam Group: A. Cini, A. Corti, F. Di Muoio, V. Passalacqua, V. Polloni, M. RegaWith the support of: F. Mencarelli, Z. YuMilan, May 27th 2013
  2. 2. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Table of Contents• Objectives• Methodology• Results– Direct interviews– Direct experience assessment• Managerial guidelines• Conclusions2
  3. 3. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Objectives /13The objectives of the project are:• to assess the experience of Chinese tourists in large Italian cultural destinationsaccording to theoretical models on tourist experience design;• to identify areas for experience improvement for Chinese travellers in ItalianCultural destinations;• to provide Italian operators with useful guidelines to redesign their tourist offer;
  4. 4. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Objectives /24• The project has been focused on the Chinese travelers’ visiting experiencein the Duomo sites of Milan and Florence• The Chinese travellers’ experience has been evaluated, both with directinterviews and a direct assessment based on two theoretical models;• A SWOT analysis has been made in order to identify the improvementopportunities for the experience of these attractions;• Some useful guidelines have been written, taking into account the SWOTanalysis, to provide suggestions for improving the tourist experience in theDuomo sites of both Milan and Florence ;• The guidelines have shown general results that can be used by Italianoperators also for other tourist attractions .
  5. 5. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 5Methodology /11. Literature review and selection of the theoretical framework• Orchestra model of on-site experience (Pearce 2011)• Destination appraisal model (Pritchard, Havitz, 2006)2. Field analysis of the attraction experience in Milan and Florence*• Direct interviews (supported by a Chinese speaking person) at the end of the visit,based on a questionnaire by Philip L. Pearce and Mao-Ying Wu• Direct experience assessment of the attraction areas according to the two theoreticalmodels, adapted and combined together3. Analysis of results• Direct interview evaluation• Direct experience assessment evaluation• SWOT analysis based on the two field analyses4. Definition of guidelines to improve the experience• Prescriptions of improvement according to the SWOT analysis*June-July 2012
  6. 6. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012VisualHearingSmellTouchTasteRelationship withemployeesRelationship amongChinese etc.LearningPerceivingThinkingetc.HappinessSurpriseFearIndifferenceAnxietyetc.Movement in spaceTechnology linked tobehaviour etc.6(Pearce 2011) Philip L. Pearce “Tourist behaviour and the contemporary world”, Channel View Publications, 2011The orchestra model of on-site experience (Pearce 2011)For the participant, experience is a holisticand integrated flow of reactions andemotions as they move through spaceand time.Tourists experiences can be understood asanalogous to the multiple contributionswhich make up listening to an orchestra.The contributing elements to touristexperience include:•the sensory inputs,•the affective reactions,•the cognitive mechanisms,•the behaviours available,•the relevant relationships.Methodology /2
  7. 7. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 7Destination appraisal model (Pritchard, Havitz, 2006)(Pritchard, Havitz, 2006) Mark P. Pritchard, Mark E. Havitz, “Destination Appraisal - An Analysis of Critical Incidents”,Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 25–46, 2006,The destination appraisal model is based on two main aspects:critical incident technique and importance-performance analysis .Critical incident techniqueRequesting open-ended responses about positive or negative experiences hasbeen referred to as the critical incident technique, that is the recounting of‘spectacular case stories’ or ‘critical events in the tourists’ own words andproviding a coherent interpretation of their complaints.Importance-performance analysisImportance-performance analysis (IPA) is a frequently used quantitativeapproach to rate consumer (product) evaluations.Consumers are surveyed and asked two questions about each attribute,•‘How important is this feature?’•‘How well did the particular product feature perform?’Responses are typically recorded on quantitative bipolar rating scales.Methodology /3
  8. 8. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 8SAMPLE PROFILE•Chinese interviewed: 141 in Milan, 130 in Florence•Main city of origin: Beijing (30%), Shanghai (27%) and Hong Kong (10%)•Gender: 50% female – 50% male•Age range: between 20 and 34 years old (65%), between 35 and 49 y.o. (22%), 50 y.o.and older (9%), 19 y.o. and younger (4%)•Independent vs. tour group: Independent travellers (67%) – Tour group (37%).Actually, it was difficult to approach the groups, so maybe our data regarding thispoint is constrained.•Main duration of the stay in the city: 1 day (37%), 2 days (26%)•Main duration of the visit (cathedral and shopping site ): 1-2 hours (39%), 0,5-1 hour(25%), 3-5 hours (20%)Direct interviews
  9. 9. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 9For the Chinese both culture and Italian lifestyle are important: visiting heritage sites(73%), experiencing the Italian culture and lifestyle (64%), shopping and fashion (48%)In particular for Milan, Football Games are a source of motivation for Chinese tourists(25%)Question: What are your motivations for visiting the city?Direct interviews
  10. 10. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Question: Please evaluate your sensory experience in Milan Duomo and the shoppinggallery10The visual aspect is the most pleasant of all the experiences, while thesound, space and weather conditions represent the least pleasantThe experience redesign must take into account all the sensory componentsFlorence evaluation is slightly better in every aspect1 “very pleasant” – 5 “not pleasant at all”Direct interviews
  11. 11. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Question: Which activities did/do you enjoy most at this site?11Photography is the activity that the Chinese tourists enjoyed most in both cities (59%)Food experience is another aspect enjoyed by Chinese (30%), especially in Florence (35%)The fashion shopping experience (enjoyed by only 24% of tourists) should be improved, expeciallyin Florence, in order to exploit the full potential of the Italian fashion iconsThe souvenir shopping experience should be redesigned, as the evaluation is very low for thecities (only 10% of the tourists enjoyed it).Direct interviews
  12. 12. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 12Open question: What kind of facilities and services do you think the Duomo andShopping Gallery should consider to provide you a better experience?It’s important to use the Chinese language in information points as well as insignposting, printed materials and in guided tours (34 comments)Safety is the major concern of Chinese tourists: illegal vendors and personal securityrepresent the main issues (32 comments); pigeons are perceived as dangerous forhealthMain resultsDirect interviews
  13. 13. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012The direct experience assessment was carried out by the research team giving anevaluation of the specific experiential points.Experiential points are the most important aspects that tourists encounter during thevisit.We defined:•30 experiential points in Milan (from the arrival at Duomo underground station toDuomo terraces and the shopping tour in Corso Vittorio Emanuele) (1),•26 experiential points in Florence (from the arrival at Duomo Square to the Giotto Belltower and the shopping tour in Via de Tornabuoni )(1)The evaluation of each experiential point was given along the 5 dimensions of “theorchestra model of on-site experience” (sensory, affective, cognitive, behavioural,relationship) (Pearce 2011).For each dimension of each experiential point, an appraisal was given of the(experiential) performance and of the importance (Pritchard, Havitz, 2006) based onthe research team’s direct observation and judgment(2) on a scale -3/+3.The evaluation of the critical incidents (Pritchard, Havitz, 2006) which happened to theChinese tourists (and documented with pictures) have also been taken into account.13(1) See annex I for the complete list of the experiential points(2) Instead of the use of a questionnaire-based interview, as in (Pritchard, Havitz, 2006)Direct experienceassessment
  14. 14. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 14Performance scale Importance scale+3 Very positive experience +3 Highly important for the experience+2 Positive experience +2 Important for the experience+1 Quite positive experience +1 Quite important for the experience0Neither positive nor negativeexperience 0 Irrelevant-1 Quite a negative experience -1 Slight obstacle for the experience-2 Negative experience -2 Obstacle for the experience-3 Very negative experience -3 Significant obstacle for the experienceThe average of the performance of the 5 Pearce dimensions gave the overallperfomace value of each experiential point.The average of the importance of the 5 Pearce dimensions gave the overallimportance value of each experiential point.The following tables show the perfomance and importance scales.Direct experienceassessment
  15. 15. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Underground exitPerformance: -1,8Importance: 1,0Approach to the attractionPerformance: 2,4Importance: 2,6Duomo squarePerformance : 2,6Importance: 2,8Illegal VendorsPerformance: -3,0Importance: 3,0Duomo info pointPerformance:-2,2Importance: 1,0Performance: 0,4Importance: 1,2Duomo porchPerformance: 2,0Importance: 2,8Duomo entrancePerformance: -0,2Importance: 0,6EntryPerformance: 0,8Importance: 0,8Audioguide pointPerformance: 0,4Importance: 1,2Arrival at Duomounderground station15Some examples of the 30 experiential points in Milan /1Direct experienceassessment
  16. 16. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Souvenir shop Right side of the CathedralPerformance: 2,2Importance: 1,2Performance: -0,2Importance: 1,2Performance: 1,2Importance: 0,6Middle of the churchPerformance: 2,4Importance: 2,8Staying in front the churchwindowPerformance: 2,4Importance: 2,4S.Carlo cryptand TreasurePerformance: 0,4Importance: 0,6Performance: 0,2Importance: -0,4Forced stop behindthe altar only audioguideequippedPerformance: -1,0Importance: 1,8Performance: 1,6Importance: 1,2Guided tours just foraudioguidesPerformance: 1,8Importance: 1,4Visit to Glorie dellaVergineDuomo terracesPerformance: 2,6Importance: 2,4Santa CaterinadAlessandrias church window16Some examples of the experiential points in Milan /2Direct experienceassessment
  17. 17. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Arrival at Duomo Square Duomo squarePerformance: 0,6Importance: 2,2Performance: 1,4Importance: 1,8Stop at BaptisteryPerformance: 2,4Importance: 2,8Duomo church squarePerformance: 2,2Importance: 2,8Entrance (queue)Performance: -2,2Importance: 3,0GypsiesPerformance: -2,2Importance: 1,6Coach RidesPerformance: 1,0Importance: 1,6Audio Guide(Not in Chinese)Performance: -1,0Importance: 1,4Left aislePerformance: 1,2Importance: 1,2Central navePerformance: 1,2Importance: 1,217Some examples of the 26 experiential points in Florence /1Direct experienceassessment
  18. 18. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012High altarPerformance: 1,2Importance: 2,2Right aislePerformance: 0,2Importance: 1,4Performance: 1,4Importance: 1,6Performance: 0,2Importance: 1,2Brunelleschi DomeExitPerformance: -0,2Importance: 0,8Giotto Bell towerPerformance: 2,2Importance: 1,4Performance: 2,8Importance: 2,8Santa Reparata Crypt(Souvenir shop)Shopping Tour in viaTornabuoni18Some examples of the experiential points in Florence /2Direct experienceassessment
  19. 19. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012ImportancePerformanceAccessibilityAttractionsActivitiesInfo/serviceDisturbing factorsAttractions aroundthe DuomoMILAN122835Approach to the attraction10116Duomo Square91321151617 S.Caterina window251819202627142329Duomo Terrace4 Wi-fi8 Info Point12 Audioguides7 illegal vendors &pigeons222410 Vittorio Emanuele Gallery19See Annex IThe positioning of the experiential points in the importance-performancespace gave us a clear understanding of the strength and the weakness of theMilan Duomo area.The results were synthesized , together with the results of the direct interviews,in the following SWOT analysis.Some examples of strength elements are the attraction itself and the shoppingarea, some examples of weakness elements are illegal vendors, pigeons andthe absence of the free wi-fi connection (many Chinese tourists had mobiledevices).Direct experienceassessment
  20. 20. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Importance128 Entrance (queue)2437 DuomoChurch squareFLORENCE15171825192021222311Souvenirs26 Shopping105 Baptistery9 Gypsies12Illegalvendors13 Entrance Controls6 Duomo infopoint 4 Wi-fiaccess14 Guide book16 Audioguide20The positioning of the experiential points in the importance-performancespace gave us a clear understanding of the strengths and the weaknesses ofthe Florence Duomo area.The results were synthesized , together with the results of the direct interviews,in the following SWOT analysisSome examples of strength elements are the attraction itself , the shoppingarea and the free wi-fi connection, some examples of weakness elements arethe queue to enter the Duomo, the absence of the accessibility for disabledpeople and gypsies.Accessibility for disabled peopleDirect experienceassessmentSee Annex IPerformanceAccessibilityAttractionsActivitiesInfo/serviceDisturbing factorsAttractions aroundthe Duomo
  21. 21. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012STRENGTHS• heritage sites;• magnificent cathedral;• visual experience;• beautiful architecture and panoramic view;• love for Italian culture and lifestyle;• shopping sites (mostly in Milan);• good cuisine (mostly in Florence);• romantic and relaxing atmosphere;• free Wi-Fi (working well only in Florence).WEAKNESSES• impolite staff and local vendors;• lack of Chinese speaking staff;• lack of information materials and signsin Chinese;• noisy and overcrowded places;• space experience;• weather conditions;• short average length of stay (around 1 day);• little time spent in visiting the Duomo sites(1-2 hours in Milan, 0.5-1 hour in Florence).21The main strength elements are:1.the attraction itself and the visualexperience of the surrounding area;2.the made in Italy icons (lifestyle,shopping, food);3.the romantic and relaxingatmosphere;4.the free wi-fi (Florence only),We suggest to continue working onthem in order to maintain the standardof excellence.The main weakness elements are:1.lack of politeness of people(according to the Chinese culture) andno use of Chinese language;2.sensorial disturbing aspects andweather conditions;We suggest to develop strategiesand projects to raise the standards andto improve the present situation.SWOT analysis
  22. 22. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012OPPORTUNITIES• photography;• shopping addicts:• mobile devices;• brand lovers;• better consideration of heritage sites(compared to Europe);• high revisiting intention;• majority of independent travelers;• surprise as one of the main feelings.THREATS• unsafe environment (e.g. pickpockets,aggressions);• some tourists feel stressed, bored andannoyed;• counterfeit goods;• negative perception of smell and sound;• many consider these sites as similar to otherEuropean cities (around 35%);• cultural distance between Chineseand Italian.22The main opportunities are:1.leverage on activities which Chinese love(e.g. photography, shopping);2.communicate effectively the common DNAshared by the attraction and the Italian iconsas a unique lifestyle that tourists canexperience only in Italy.The main threats require the followingactions:1.Improve safety for tourists , according toChinese culture;2.Create a cultural bridge, usingstorytelling and printed material;3.Limit disturbing noise and smell,according to Chinese culture;4.Design specific experiential elementsminimize stress, boredom and annoyance.SWOT analysis
  23. 23. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-201223• The analysis of the direct interviews and the direct experience assessment, togetherwith the SWOT analysis synthesis, gave us the elements to define some specificactions in order to improve the attractions and the surrounding area experience.• The comparison between “what is already done” in the Milan and Florenceattractionsand “what should be done” to improve the experience, gave us some practicalmanagerial guidelines, which can be applied to a wide range of Italian attractions.• The guidelines are divided into specific chapters, as shown in the following slide.Mangerial guidelines
  24. 24. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 241.Tourist information and signposting1a. Tourist information service1b. Info point location and characteristics1c. Information board1d. Information material1e. Personnel2.Internet2a. Attractions website2b. Additional services3.Attraction4. Accessibility and transportation4a. Subway4b. Bus5. Additional Services5a. Public toilet5b. Lighting system5c. Maintenance of the site5d. Safety5e. Relaxation areas5f. Customer satisfaction and complaintgathering6. Shopping experienceContents of the guidelinesThe guidelines are in Annex IISome examples will be shown in the next slidesMangerial guidelines
  25. 25. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 251a. Tourist information service• efficient service providing the client with ad hocassistance and indications in their mother tongue(Chinese) in order to facilitate comprehension. ✗✗• […]1d. Information material:A good selection of information includes:• a map/brochure with itineraries of the mostbeautiful sceneries to shoot, in order to exploitChinese tourists’ passion for photography. ✗✗• brief with storytelling of the importance of the foodin Italian culture and a list of the most interestingrestaurants nearby together with suggestions todiscover and experience the typical Italian lifestyle;✗✗•[…]MILAN: ✔ Present; ✗ Not PresentFLORENCE: ✔Present; ✗Not PresentGuideline exampleThe lack of Chinese speakingpersonnel and Chineseprinted materials andsignposting is a relevantweakness that must be solvedThe great passion of Chinese touristsfor photography is an opportunity thatmust be exploited designing for themspecific photographic itineraries,maps of interesting places/elements toshoot, etc.The food experience is a strengthelement. Leverage on this, designingspecific itineraries and, above all,telling an engaging story about food,Italian lifestyle, in order to connectItalian culture with Chinese cultureand stimulate interest and passionEXAMPLESSWOT analysis elementMangerial guidelines
  26. 26. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-20123.Attraction• It is useful to create Chinese captions inside theattraction at least for the most famouspaintings/sculptures and generate similaritiesand links between Italian culture and theancient Chinese one (cultural bridge). It’sbetter not to insist with too many works ofart, but to create a fascinating storytelling toenrich the experience;✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• QR codes which refer directly to explanationsof the work of art in the Chinese language, withthe possibility to select the level of informationdesired; ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗26The cultural distance betweenChinese and Italian is arelevant threat that must bemanaged, for example withcaptions creating a linkbetween the two cultures…… and, leveraging on theopportunity given by mobiledevices of Chinese tourists,preparing QR codes withricher information than in thecaptions(1) G. Dall’Ara “Come accogliere i turisti cinesi” FrancoangeliMangerial guidelinesGuideline exampleEXAMPLESSWOT analysis element
  27. 27. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012275d. Safety: ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• Activate serious measures to solve the disturbingfactors’ problem(illegal vendors, pigeons, gypsies).• Provide more police control in order to preventfrauds and illegal vendors impolite manners.• Provide a vade-mecum including suggestionson how not to encounter frauds .• […]Unsafe environment is arelevant threat that must bemanaged. Chinese are notused to dealing with illegalvendors and gypsies and alsopigeons represent, for them, ahealth risk.Mangerial guidelinesGuideline exampleEXAMPLESSWOT analysis element
  28. 28. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-201228• The tourist experience is a complex issue that needs to be managed with a holisticapproach, trying to go beyond the single attraction and looking into a wider system oftourist experience management;• The final objective of the project was to improve each dimension of the experience inorder to reach an excellent level of satisfaction in every aspect;• The use of the guidelines will be useful to improve the Chinese tourists’ experience witha great advantage for the overall satisfaction and a positive word-of-mouth by:• Minimizing negative elements such as the lack of Chinese language capabilities,the scarce sense of safety, the disturbing sensorial aspects, etc;• Bridging the cultural gap, allowing them to understand our culture in more depthand to make a comparison with their own ;• Leveraging on Chinese tourists’ passions such as photography or Italian icons(fashion, food , shopping, lifestyle);• Developing an integrated experience, putting together operators that usuallywork autonomously (info point, attraction managers, public works, public security,guides, tour operators, restaurants, shop manager, etc);• The adoption of the managerial guidelines requires a change of mentality andbehavior of tourism and non-tourism operators, in particular about collaboration.Conclusions
  29. 29. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Annex I:Experiential points29
  30. 30. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-20121. Arrival at Duomo underground station2. Disabled access3. Underground exit4. Wi fi access5. Approach to the attraction6. Duomo square7. Presence of illegal vendors and pigeons8. Duomo info point9. Duomo square10. Duomo entrance11. Entry12. Audioguide point13. Starting point of itinerary14. Shop15. Right side of the Cathedral16. Middle of the church17. Stop at Santa Caterina dAlessandriaschurch window18. Staying in front the church window19. Downstairs at Carlo Borromeocrypt and treasure20. San Carlo Borromeo crypt21. Treasure22. Forced stop behind the altar (onlyaudioguide equipped)23. Guided tours just for those withaudioguides24. Closed walk after the semi-corridor,allowed only for prayer andconfessions (available in English,Spanish, Italian)25. Visit of the left side of the church26. Visit of Glorie della Vergine27. Visitof S. Giuseppe28. Exit from the main door29. Climb up to Duomo terraces (onpayment of 7€) and visit,“Madonnina” under restoration30. Start of the shopping tour mainly inV. Emanuele Gallery30Milan Experiential points:
  31. 31. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-20121. Arrival at Duomo Square2. Accessibility for disabled people3. Duomo square4. Wifi Access5. Stop at Baptistery6. Duomo Infopoint7. Duomo church area8. Entrance (queue)9. Gypsies10. Coach Rides11. Souvenir shop at the square12. Illegal vendors13. Entrance controls14. Free guide book (not in Chinese)English version not available at certain moments15. Paolo Uccello Painted Clock16. Audio Guide (Not in Chinese)17. Left aisle18. Temporary display (Restored glass window)19. Central Nave20. High altar21. Right aisle22. Santa Reparata Crypt (Souvenir shop)23. Brunelleschi Dome24. Exit25. Giotto Bell tower26. Shopping Tour in via de Tornabuoni31Florence Experiential points:
  32. 32. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Annex II:Welcome Guidelines32
  33. 33. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 331.Tourist information and signposting1a. Offering tourist information:• presence of a designated area for Chinese tourists welcome and managementof information flows (increasing awareness of the wide range ofopportunities, services and resources available on request); ✗✗• efficient service providing the client with ad hoc assistance and indications intheir mother tongue (Chinese) in order to facilitate comprehension. ✗✗Areas of improvement: Cognitive, Relationship (with employees)1b. Info point location and characteristics:• strategic location (on the main access or right in front of the attraction); ✗✔• be visible in order to identify the Chinese client’s arrival and thus prepare forhim/her the first step of the itinerary; ✗✗MILAN: ✔ Present; ✗ Not PresentFLORENCE: ✔Present; ✗Not PresentPrinciples for a greatWelcome:
  34. 34. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012• guarantee the tourist the right kind of info to let him/her experience the attraction ina pleasant manner; ✗✗• should provide free water, coffee and comfortable seats; ✗✗• visible and up-to-date information (even if the info point is closed);✗✗• point of sale of tickets (both for the attractions and other available activities) in orderto improve the purchase cycle experience; ✗✗Areas of impact: Cognitive and Affective1c. Information board. ✗✗• Detailed maps of the attraction and the destination in general; the board shouldinclude info about public services with related numbers(transportation, pharmacy, ATM, health assistance, free public toilet).Other essential info:• ticket prices;• reductions and facilitations for group visits;• up-to-date events calendar;Particular attention should be given to the Chinese language.34Areas of impact: Cognitive and AffectiveAreas of impact: Cognitive and AffectivePrinciples for a greatWelcome:
  35. 35. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-20121d. Information material: should be updated, comprehensive and complete andmust be available and on display not only upon request.A good selection of information includes:• a map/brochure with itineraries of the most beautiful sceneries to (shoot at) film orphotograph in order to exploit the Chinese tourists’ passion for photography; ✗✗• brief with storytelling about the importance of food in Italian culture and a list of themost interesting restaurants nearby together with suggestions to discover andexperience the typical Italian lifestyle (see Annex I sample); ✗✗• map of the attraction; ✔ ✔• visiting cards of the attraction (particularly appreciated by Chinese); ✗✗• audio-guide information in Chinese; ✗✗• suggestions for possible itineraries inside the attractions; ✗✗• leaflets about shopping for quality brands nearby with opening hours and location✗✗• all kinds of information should be available also on a relevant touch screen aroundthe attraction (at least 2); they have to develop a FAQ section available in alllanguages in order to rapidly solve the most common tourists problems. ✗✗35Areas of improvement: Cognitive, Affective and BehaviouralPrinciples for a greatWelcome:
  36. 36. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 361e. Personnel:• availability, competence, credibility and a customer-oriented attitude arenecessary skills for the personnel working in tourism information offices; ✔ ✔• the personnel represents the first point of contact with tourists and so it isfundamental that everyone involved in tourist welcoming is qualified and able tobehave with a positive attitude, manage problematic situations, speak bothEnglish and Chinese fluently; ✗✗• training courses on how to deal with Chinese guests and Chinese language andculture courses for all the tourism staff involved. ✗✗Areas of improvement: Relationship and CognitivePrinciples for a greatWelcome:
  37. 37. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-20122.Internet2a. Attractions website: it is fundamental to have an up-to-date and clear website ofthe attraction, to promote initiatives, offer useful information and provide guests with aglobal idea of the attraction, in order to kindle interest and curiosity in the potentialvisitor. The website has to follow these rules:• Presence on the main Chinese social networks (sina weiboo, douban, renren, kaixin001, tencent weibo); ✗✗• Clear summary of contents with the most searched voices in evidence; ✔ ✔• Good selection of events and special appointments given as suggestions(linked to the Duomo); ✔✗• Effective and suggestive screen-shoot; ✔✗• Clear information regarding contacts and the location of the main offices andattractions; ✔ ✔• Useful suggestions for other cultural activities; ✔ ✔• Provide translation in other languages (apart from Italian and English); ✗✗• Move tourist information to a more visible area on the home page; ✗✗• Smart on-line booking section; ✔ ✔• Creation of an application (App) dedicated to smartphones. ✗✗37Principles for a greatWelcome:Areas of improvement: Cognitive and Relationship
  38. 38. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-20122b. Additional services• presence and positioning of QR code in strategic areas in order to besimultaneously linked to the attraction site; ✗✗• free Wi-Fi service in the attraction area (properly working); ✔ ✗• creation of an application (App) dedicated to smartphones in the Chineselanguage; ✗✗• newsletter to maintain contact with the tourists ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗3.Attraction• It is useful to create Chinese captions inside the attraction at least for the mostfamous paintings/sculptures and generate similarities and links between Italianand the ancient Chinese culture (cultural bridge). It’s better not to insist withtoo many works of art, but to create a fascinating storytelling to enrich theexperience; ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗38Areas of improvement: Cognitive and RelationshipPrinciples for a greatWelcome:
  39. 39. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012• QR codes which refer directly to explanations of the work of art in the Chineselanguage, with the possibility to select the level of information desired; ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• At the end of the attraction tour, the Chinese tourists will appreciate a certificateof proof for the visit. ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• Introduction of mist cooling system and public water distributors during the queuephase, providing, especially during summer months, a cover to protect touristsfrom the heat of the sun. ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• Supply a free paper cloak in order to be allowed to enter the attraction; ✔ ✗• The attraction should have a disabled access ramp; ✔ ✗✗✗✗• The attraction should provide a tour-guide service with Chinese speakingpersonnel (at least one);✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• The attraction needs to be cared for and cleaned, including all the surroundingarea; ✔ ✔• Provide umbrellas and k-ways on payment outside the attraction in case of badweather. ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗Areas of improvement: Cognitive, Behavioural and Relationship39Principles for a greatWelcome:
  40. 40. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-20124. Accessibility and transportation4a. Subway:• Introduction of access facilities, both escalators and lifts in the most crowded exitsof the subway; ✗✗✗✗• Improvement of air-conditioned systems on all underground lines; ✔• Adoption of effective and clear direction maps, available also in Chinese, with theusage of new technologies like interactive panels. ✗✗✗✗4b. Bus:• The panels showing the timetables and routes of buses must be well preserved andlocated at each bus stop; information should be visible, readable and updated.✔ ✗✗✗✗40Areas of improvement: Cognitive and BehaviouralPrinciples for a greatWelcome:
  41. 41. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012415. Additional Services5a. Public toilets: they represent a fundamental service for tourists, they need to beclean, accessible and correctly located with visible signs. Moreover, they must beaccessible for disabled people. ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗5b. Lighting system: it has to be improved in most of the visited areas of the attraction;✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗5c. Avoid the maintenance of the site if it is open to the public and, above all, duringthe most crowded days; it is preferable to do it during the night. ✗✗✗✗ ✔5d. Safety: ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• Activate serious measures to solve the disturbing factors related to the problem of(illegal vendors, pigeons, gypsies);• Provide more police control in order to prevent the sale of counterfeit goods andillegal vendors impolite manners;• Provide a vade-mecum including suggestions on how not to encounter frauds (seeAnnex I sample).Principles for a greatWelcome:
  42. 42. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012 425e. Relaxing areas: The site should be surrounded by comfortable benches and greenareas. ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗5f. Customer satisfaction and complaint gathering: the site should organize attractionratings (available on the website) and provide a free-phone number to assist touristswhile on vacation (see Annex I sample). ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗6. Shopping experience• importance of a shopping site built around the attraction in order to enrich theexperience; ✔ ✔• Chinese speaking staff in the famous brand shops; ✔ ✔• create a real Italian brand to promote and make tourists aware of Italy abroad; ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗• it is better not to give importance to souvenir shops since they are not so relevant forthe Chinese. ✗✗✗✗✗✗✗✗Areas of improvement: Cognitive, Affective and RelationshipAreas of improvement: Affective and RelationshipPrinciples for a greatWelcome:
  43. 43. Master in Tourism Management – VIII edition – 2011-2012Thank you for your attention!43