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A&P Basic Elements Of Anatomy 2009


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A&P Basic Elements Of Anatomy 2009

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech and Hearing Mechanisms: Basic Elements of Anatomy Wilhelmina Wright-Harp, Ph.D. Associate Professor: Howard University Department of Communication of Sciences and Disorders 2009 Fall Semester
  2. 2. Lecture Outline <ul><li>Systems of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Sections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basic Elements of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments and Tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Systems Involved in the Communication Process <ul><li>Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory/Resonatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Phonatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Articulatory/Resonatory System </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory System </li></ul>Auditory Articulatory Respiratory Phonatory Nervous
  4. 4. Systems Involved in the Communication Process cont.,
  5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>Anatomy = the study of the structure of an organism (Seikel, 2005 p. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology = “the study of the function of the living organism and its parts, as well as the chemical processes involved.” (Seikel, 2005 p. 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Specializations of anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>applied anatomy (clinical anatomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>descriptive anatomy (systematic anatomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathological anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative anatomy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Terminology continued... <ul><li>Neuroanatomy - involves the study of the anatomy of the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology - involves the study of the function of the neuron and other aspects of the nervous system. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Directional Terms <ul><li>anterior (ventral) </li></ul><ul><li>posterior (dorsal) </li></ul><ul><li>superior </li></ul><ul><li>inferior </li></ul><ul><li>cranial </li></ul><ul><li>caudal </li></ul><ul><li>medial </li></ul><ul><li>lateral </li></ul><ul><li>distal </li></ul><ul><li>proximal </li></ul>
  8. 8. Body Sections <ul><li>Midsagittial Section </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal Section </li></ul>
  9. 9. Body Sections <ul><li>Coronal Section </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal or (transverse) section) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Terms for Body Movements <ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Basic building blocks of the human body <ul><li>The body is comprised of four levels of organization: </li></ul><ul><li>cells </li></ul><ul><li>tissues </li></ul><ul><li>organs </li></ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul>
  12. 12. Building Blocks: Cell Types <ul><li>Three types of cells are: </li></ul><ul><li>muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>bone cells </li></ul>
  13. 13. Muscle Cells
  14. 14. Nerve Cells
  15. 15. Bone Cells <ul><li>Bone cells are of two major types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Building Blocks: Tissue Types <ul><li>Cells of common structure and function are organized into tissues. There are four primary types of tissues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neural </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Building Blocks: Tissue Types <ul><li>I. EPITHELIAL TISSUE is comprised of the following two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Simple - consisting of a single layer of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound - consisting of two or more layers of cells. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Epithelium Tissue Types: Simple <ul><li>Types of simple epithelium include: </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboidal epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Columnar epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Ciliated Columnar epithelium </li></ul>
  19. 19. Simple Squamous Epithelium
  20. 20. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
  21. 21. Simple Columnar Epithelium
  22. 22. Simple Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
  23. 23. Epithelium Tissue Types: Compound <ul><li>Types of compound epithelium include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudostratified columnar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified Squamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratified Cuboidal/Columnar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional Epithelium </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Epithelium Tissue Types: <ul><li>Reference: </li></ul>
  25. 25. Tissue Types (continued) Connective Tissue <ul><li>II. CONNECTIVE TISSUE- functions to bind structures together. The following are types of connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adipose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collagenous or white fibrous tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic or yellow tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphoid tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular (blood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Connective Tissue cont., <ul><li>Areolar </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose </li></ul>
  27. 27. Connective Tissue cont., <ul><li>Collagenous/White Fibrous </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic Yellow Tissue </li></ul>
  28. 28. Connective Tissue Cont., <ul><li>Lymphoid </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul>
  29. 29. Connective Tissue cont., <ul><li>Vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul>
  30. 30. Tissue Types (continued) Connective Tissue <ul><li>Compact Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy Bone </li></ul>. .
  31. 31. Compact and Spongy Bone cont.,
  32. 32. Tissue Types (continued) Connective Tissue <ul><li>Blood plasma </li></ul>
  33. 33. Connective Tissue: Cartilage <ul><li>Types of cartilage include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibro cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow-elastic </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Connective Tissue: Cartilage <ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul>
  35. 35. Tissue Types (continued) Cartilage <ul><li>Types of cartilage include: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyaline - which is smooth and has a glassy, bluish white color. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Cartilage cont., <ul><li>Fibro-cartilage - this is a dense white cartilage. </li></ul> Anatomy&Physiology/A&P201/201_Slides.htm
  37. 37. Cartilage cont., <ul><li>Yellow elastic cartilage - is firm elastic cartilage. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Tissue Types (continued) Muscular Tissue <ul><li>III. MUSCULAR TISSUE - is capable of contraction once stimulated, e.g. muscles of VFs, tongue, etc... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some types of muscle fibers are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cardiac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skeletal or striated </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Muscle Types <ul><li>Smooth Muscle </li></ul>
  40. 40. Muscle Types <ul><li>Cardiac Muscle </li></ul>
  41. 41. Muscle Types <ul><li>Skeletal (Striated) Muscle </li></ul>
  42. 42. Tissue Types (continued) Nervous Tissue <ul><li>IV. NERVOUS TISSUE - consists of neurons or nerve cells. The three types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internuncial </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Tissue Types (continued) Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Neurons - The function of neurons is to transmit neural impulses from: </li></ul><ul><li>one neuron to another </li></ul><ul><li>from neuron to muscle </li></ul><ul><li>from sensory receptors to other neural structures (e.g. muscles, brain). </li></ul><ul><li>Glial Cells - Another type of cell found in the NS are glial cells which serve as supportive cells for neurons and form the blood brain barrier. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Neuron
  45. 45. Neuron cont., <ul><li>Motor Neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Internuncial </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ligaments and Tendons <ul><li>Ligaments bind structures together. There are several types of ligaments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visceral ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skeletal ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons usually bind muscles to other structures. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Ligament vs. Tendon
  48. 48. Types of Joints <ul><li>The junction of bones with other bones or cartilage with cartilage occurs by means of joints. Joints are generally classified by the degree of movement they allow. The three types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diarthrodial - which are high mobility joints. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amphiarthrodial - are joints with limited mobility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synarthrodial - are immobile joints. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Fibrous Joints <ul><li>Types of fibrous or synarthrodial joints: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>syndesmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sutures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gomphosis </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Cartilaginous Joints <ul><li>Synchrondrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Symphisis </li></ul>
  51. 51. Synovial Joints <ul><li>These joints are unique in that they are comprised of a joint cavity containing synovial fluid. Some types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthrodial (gliding joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spheroid (cotyloid joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condylar (ball and socket joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ellipsoid (ball and socket joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trochoid (pivoting joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sellar (saddle joint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ginglymus (hinge joint) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Synovial Joints cont.,
  53. 53. Types of joints cont.,
  54. 54. Origin and Insertions <ul><li>origin - the point of attachment with the least mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>insertion - the point of attachment with the most mobility, which moves due to muscle contraction. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Origins and Insertions <ul><li>Origin and Insertions of Suprahyoid muscles of the larynx . </li></ul>
  56. 56. Muscles (continued) <ul><li>agonists - are muscles that move a structure. </li></ul><ul><li>antagonists - are muscles that oppose a movement </li></ul><ul><li>synergists - are muscles used to stabilize structures. </li></ul><ul><li>muscle innervations may be sensory (afferent) or motor (efferent). </li></ul><ul><li>motor unit is the efferent nerve fiber and the muscle it innervates. Muscles are innervated by a single nerve. </li></ul>