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One Health and Conservation Strategies

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Pathogens such as the Ebola and Nipah viruses are circulating in animal populations and can threaten both animal and human health. Thus both animal and human health sectors have a stake in, and a responsibility for, their surveillance and control.
There is, therefore, a need for greater integration and coordination between medical researchers and practitioners, and researchers and practitioners involved in both domestic and wild animal health. This integration has been defined as the ‘One Health’ approach and is an approach that has taken hold in many developing countries where infectious diseases remain prevalent, but less so in developed countries.
The proposed session will review the One Health concept, outlining its current reach and impact, which is perceived to be greater in the wildlife/veterinary community than in the human medicine community.
Case studies, focusing especially on the human/wildlife interface, will also show how health surveillance in wildlife and humans living at the wildlife interface can act as an early warning system for deadly infectious diseases such as Ebola. Through improved health and hygiene rules in humans in close contact with wildlife as well as surveillance systems, disease transmission of zoonotic and other infectious diseases can be significantly reduced and hence profit both human and wildlife health.
Holding a dedicated session on One Health at the WHS is an opportunity to raise awareness of the One Health concept, especially among the human health practitioners, researchers, and, perhaps more importantly, decision-makers.

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One Health and Conservation Strategies

  1. 1. One Health and Conservation Strategies 1 © Metzger/TCP © Metzger/TCP © Dehling/WWF© De Nys/WWF © Grützmacher/WWF © WWF
  2. 2. WWF „Green Heart of Africa“ Projects WWF Projects WWF- Main Offices Tri-Nationale de la Sangha Lac Tumba Landscape Salonga Landscape Campo Ma‘an NP Eco-Health
  3. 3. Köndgen et al. 2008 Also Tranquilli et al. 2014 Positive Presence through Tourism & Research as most effective Conservation Strategy
  4. 4. Health Monitoring Program: Four main objectives I Disease Prevention: Improved Human Health & Reduced Risk of (Inter-species) Disease Transmission III Rapid Response: to Disease Outbreaks & Veterinary Emergencies or Interventions II Routine Health Monitoring: Regular Collection of Samples & Observational Health Data IV Diagnosis and Investigation: of Disease Outbreaks and Wildlife Fatalities & Disease and Pathogen Research
  5. 5.  Hygiene Rules  Health Rules  Potentially: Vaccination of great apes DISEASE PREVENTION © Metzger/TCP © Metzger/TCP © Metzger/TCP © Grützmacher/WWF © PuschkarskyWWF © Metzger/TCP © Metzger/TCP © Whittier/WWF © WWF
  6. 6.  Health status baseline at time of hire and annual physical exams  Ongoing surveillance & response  Routine Vaccination, deworming  Extension of EHP to family members  Health & Hygiene Education Standard Employee Health Programme (EHP) © Grützmacher/WWF © PuschkarskyWWF © Herbinger/WWF
  7. 7. Routine Health Monitoring © Metzger/TCP © Metzger/TCP © Metzger/TCP © Metzger/WWF
  8. 8. Two Main Components: I Regular collection & preservation of biological samples + Feces + Urine + Throat swabs from human project staff and visitors + Minimally invasive samples from animal carcasses II Regular observations & recording of observational health data + Presence / Absence of disease symptoms, injuries, abnormalities (coughing, nasal discharge, diarrhea..) © all Metzger/TCP © Metzger/TCP © Dehling/WWF © Wittiger/TCP © Metzger/TCP
  9. 9. Emergency Intervention & Diagnosis and Investigation © WWF © Grützmacher/WWF © Grützmacher/WWF © Grützmacher/WWF
  10. 10. Diagnosis and Investigation + Disease outbreaks and death: Necropsy/Tissue sampling by full trained and equipped veterinarian + Rapid and On-site Laboratory Analysis of samples allows the detection & diagnosis of many pathogens (Ebola, Anthrax, Respiratory viruses,…) • Portable Field Labs established since 2012 equiped for: - sample processing - DNA/RNA extraction - standard PCR - basic parasitology including microscopy © Grützmacher/WWF © WWF © Metzger/TCP© WWF
  11. 11.  Treatments during respiratory outbreaks  Studied prevalence of pathogens in environment  Sensitized local population to prevent disease transmission and provided alert to health authorities  Vaccination Campaigns against Measals & Anthrax  Need for Rapid Diagnosis & Treatment & Research on: oral vaccines, effectiveness of hygiene measures, anthropogenic impacts on disease dynamics, landscape changes… Outbreak Intervention & Investigation © Whittier/WWF © WWF © Grützmacher/WWF © Metzger/WWF
  12. 12. IMPACT:  Early warning system for deadly infectious diseases such as Ebola.  Improved health and hygiene status in local population.  Main threat to the survival of great apes is significantly reduced. © Metzger/WWF © Dehling/WWF © Dehling/WWF
  13. 13. Wear mask Be healthy and vaccinated Collect & monitor © Deschner/TCP

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