Process Mining - Chapter 2 - Process Modeling and Analysis

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Slides supporting the book "Process Mining: Discovery, Conformance, and Enhancement of Business Processes" by Wil van der Aalst. See also http://springer.com/978-3-642-19344-6 (ISBN 978-3-642-19344-6) and the website http://www.processmining.org/book/start providing sample logs.

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Process Mining - Chapter 2 - Process Modeling and Analysis

  1. 1. Chapter 2Process Modeling and Analysis prof.dr.ir. Wil van der Aalst www.processmining.org
  2. 2. OverviewChapter 1IntroductionPart I: PreliminariesChapter 2 Chapter 3Process Modeling and Data MiningAnalysisPart II: From Event Logs to Process ModelsChapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6Getting the Data Process Discovery: An Advanced Process Introduction Discovery TechniquesPart III: Beyond Process DiscoveryChapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9Conformance Mining Additional Operational SupportChecking PerspectivesPart IV: Putting Process Mining to WorkChapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12Tool Support Analyzing “Lasagna Analyzing “Spaghetti Processes” Processes”Part V: ReflectionChapter 13 Chapter 14Cartography and EpilogueNavigation PAGE 1
  3. 3. Productivity improvements• Adam Smith (1723-1790) showed the advantages of the division of labor.• Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) introduced the initial principles of scientific management.• Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced the production line for the mass production of “black T-Fords”.• Since 1950 computers and digital communication infrastructures are the most dominant factor influencing business processes and their management. PAGE 2
  4. 4. Role of models• Operations management, and in particular operation research, is a branch of management science heavily relying on modeling.• Models are used to reason about processes (redesign) and to make decisions inside processes (planning and control).• A process model may be used to discuss responsibilities, analyze compliance, predict performance using simulation, and configure a WFM system. PAGE 3
  5. 5. Problems of models• The model describes an idealized version of reality.• Inability to adequately capture human behavior.• The model is at the wrong abstraction level.• Therefore, we advocate the use of event data: − Process mining allows for the extraction of models based on facts. − Moreover, process mining does not aim at creating a single model of the process. − Instead, it provides various views on the same reality at different abstraction levels. − For example, users can decide to look at the most frequent behavior to get a simple model (“80% model”). − However, they can also inspect the full behavior by deriving the “100% model” covering all cases observed. PAGE 4
  6. 6. Transition systems examine pay reinitiate thoroughly compensation request register examine check reject request casually ticket [c5] request[start] [c1,c2] [c2,c3] [end] check decide ticket examine casually [c1,c4] [c3,c4] examine thoroughly PAGE 5
  7. 7. Petri nets XOR-split XOR-join XOR-split b AND-split examine AND-join thoroughly g c1 c3 pay c compensation a examine estart register casually decide c5 end request h c2 d c4 reject check ticket request f reinitiate request XOR-join t transition AND-split p place token PAGE 6
  8. 8. Reachability graph XOR-split XOR-join XOR-split b AND-split examine AND-join thoroughly g c1 c3 pay c compensation a examine e start register casually decide c5 end request h c2 d c4 reject check ticket request f reinitiate request XOR-join t transition AND-split p place token examine pay reinitiate thoroughly compensation request register examine check reject request casually ticket [c5] request[start] [c1,c2] [c2,c3] [end] check decide ticket examine casually [c1,c4] [c3,c4] examine thoroughly PAGE 7
  9. 9. How many states? i1 t1 i2 t2 t t i3 t3 out i4 t4 p p i5 t5 (a) (b) (c) PAGE 8
  10. 10. WF-nets and soundnessstart end PAGE 9
  11. 11. condition (like a place in a Petri net) YAWL task (i.e., an atomic activity) AND-split AND-join XOR-split XOR-join OR-split OR-join start end multiple composite instance task task examine thoroughly cancelation pay region OR-split OR-join compensation register request c1 examine casuallystart decide end check c2 ticket reject request new information PAGE 10 c3
  12. 12. task/activity AND-split AND-join BPMN gateway gateway XOR-split XOR-join gateway gateway OR-split OR-join gateway gateway start end event event intermediate events y x z examine thoroughly deferred choice pattern using the event-based XOR gateway pay examine compensation casually register decide requeststart reject end check ticket request reinitiate request PAGE 11
  13. 13. Event-Driven Process Chains (EPCs) function AND-split AND-join AND AND connector connector XOR-split XOR-join XOR XOR connector connector OR-split OR-join OR OR connector connector start end event event intermediate event examine e1 thoroughly start OR OR e4 pay e5 end compensation examine e2 casuallyregister XOR AND AND deciderequest check e3 ticket reject XOR e6 end request PAGE 12
  14. 14. Vicious cycle paradox e1 e2 OR OR f1 f2 e3 e4 AND AND PAGE 13
  15. 15. Causal nets (C-nets) b examine thoroughly g pay c compensation a e z examineregister casually decide endrequest h d reject check request ticket f reinitiate request XOR-split AND-split OR-split XOR-join AND-join OR-join PAGE 14
  16. 16. Why C-nets?• Similar to heuristic nets and representation used by genetic miners.• Fits well with mainstream languages (BPMN, EPCs, YAWL, BPEL, etc.).• Model XOR, AND, and OR, but no silent steps or duplicate activities needed.• Loose interpretation (focus on replay semantics rather than execution semantics). PAGE 15
  17. 17. Another C-net b book flight a c e start book complete booking car booking d book hotel PAGE 16
  18. 18. WF-net interpretation of C-nets(only valid sequences!) b book flight a c e start book complete booking car booking d book hotel b book flight a c e start book completebooking car booking d book hotel PAGE 17
  19. 19. b book Non-sound C-nets flight a c e start book complete booking car booking d book hotel (a) unsound because there are no valid sequences b book flight a c e start book completebooking car booking d book hotel PAGE 18 (b) unsound although there exist valid sequences
  20. 20. Unbounded C-net ca b d e PAGE 19
  21. 21. Verification b examine deadlock thoroughly g c1 c3 pay c compensation a examine c6 estart register casually decide c5 end request h c2 d c4 reject check ticket request f reinitiate request PAGE 20
  22. 22. Example: YAWL PAGE 21
  23. 23. Performance analysis,e.g., simulation in BPM|one PAGE 22
  24. 24. Limitations of model-based analysis• Verification and performance analysis heavily rely on the availability of high quality models.• When the models and reality have little in common, model-based analysis does not make much sense.• There is often a lack of alignment between hand- made models and reality• Process mining aims to address these problems by establishing a direct connection between the models and actual low-level event data about the process.• Process discovery techniques allow for viewing the same reality from different angles and at different levels of abstraction. PAGE 23

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