Punctuation

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  • CHAPTER 5 05/29/12 English & Communication for Colleges
  • Punctuation

    1. 1. Fourth Edition MeansEnglish & Communication for Colleges 5 Developing the Mechanics of Writing 5.1 Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points 5.2 Commas 5.3 Semicolons, Colons, Dashes, and Hyphens 5.4 Quotation Marks, Parentheses, Underscores, and Apostrophes © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 1
    2. 2. 5.1 Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points OBJECTIVES  Use punctuation correctly to help readers interpret your ideas and inquiries precisely as you intended.  Determine when to use periods, question marks, and exclamation points in your writing. © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 2
    3. 3. 5.1 INTERNAL PUNCTUATION Punctuation comma , EXTERNAL PUNCTUATION semicolon ; period . colon : question mark ? quotation marks “ ” exclamation point ! parentheses ( ) dash — apostrophe ’ hyphen - © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 3
    4. 4. 5.1 Periods  Periods at the ends of sentences  Declarative sentence  Mild command  Indirect question  Courteous request  Periods with abbreviations  Periods in enumerations © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 4
    5. 5. 5.1 Question Marks  Question marks after direct questions  Question marks in a series © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 5
    6. 6. 5.1 Exclamation Points  An exclamation point is a mark of punctuation that follows a word, a group of words, or a sentence that shows strong emotion. © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 6
    7. 7. 5.2 Commas OBJECTIVES  Use commas correctly with introductory elements in sentences and with independent clauses.  Apply comma guidelines with nonessential elements, with direct address, in a series, with a measurement or weight, between adjectives, with omission of words, and in numbers.  Use commas for clarity, with abbreviations, and between repeated words.  Avoid comma pitfalls in writing. © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 7
    8. 8. 5.2 Uses of the Comma  With introductory elements in sentences  Introductory word  Introductory phrase  Introductory clause  With independent clauses in compound sentences (Continued on next slide) © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 8
    9. 9. 5.2(Continued from previous slide) Uses of the Comma  With nonessential elements  Interrupting expression  Nonrestrictive element  Appositive  With direct address  In a series (Continued on next slide) © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 9
    10. 10. 5.2(Continued from previous slide) Uses of the Comma  With parts of one measurement or weight  Between adjectives  With omission of words  In numbers  For clarity  With abbreviations  Between repeated words © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 10
    11. 11. 5.2 Pitfalls in Using Commas  With conjunctions in a series  Between subjects and verbs  With two words or phrases  Between two independent clauses  With dates  With addresses © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 11
    12. 12. 5.3 Semicolons, Colons, Dashes, and Hyphens OBJECTIVES  Use semicolons correctly in your writing.  Apply the guidelines for using colons.  Enliven sentences by using dashes where appropriate.  Use hyphens accurately. © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 12
    13. 13. 5.3 Semicolons  Between independent clauses  Before conjunctive adverbs  In a series  In compound sentences  In a series containing commas © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 13
    14. 14. 5.3 Colons  Before a series  Before a list  Before a long quotation  Between special independent clauses  After a salutation  In time designations © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 14
    15. 15. 5.3 Dashes  With nonessential elements  Before a summarizing statement  With a sudden change of thought  Before a detailed listing © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 15
    16. 16. 5.3 Hyphens  In word division  After prefixes  In compound words © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 16
    17. 17. 5.4 Quotation Marks, Parentheses, Underscores, and Apostrophes OBJECTIVES  Apply the guidelines for using quotation marks.  Use parentheses correctly in your writing.  Use underscores where appropriate.  Use the apostrophe accurately in your communications. © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 17
    18. 18. 5.4 Quotation Marks  With direct quotations  Within quotations  With other punctuation marks  With special or unconventional words  With titles © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 18
    19. 19. 5.4 Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation Marks RULE EXAMPLE Place periods and commas “I concur,” said Mr. Remenaric, within ending quotation marks. “with your suggestion.” Place semicolons and colons His best lecture is called outside ending quotation marks. “Orangutan Survival”; have you had an opportunity to hear it? This is the “beauty of San Diego”: ideal temperatures and clear skies. (Continued on next slide) © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 19
    20. 20. 5.4(Continued from previous slide) Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation Marks RULE EXAMPLE Place question marks and She shouted, “Watch out!” exclamation points inside the He replied, “What’s happening?” ending quotation marks when the quoted material is a question or an exclamation. Place question marks and Did Lynda actually say, “I will exclamation points outside the attend the seminar”? ending quotation marks when What a deplorable situation; he’s the sentence, but not the quoted just “goofing off”! material, is a question or an exclamation. © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 20
    21. 21. 5.4 Parentheses  With nonessential elements  With monetary designations and abbreviations  With references and directions  With numerals and letters accompanying a list © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 21
    22. 22. 5.4 Underscores  With titles  With foreign expressions © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 22
    23. 23. 5.4 Apostrophes  In contractions  In possession  In time and money  In plurals © Thomson South-Western English & Communication for Colleges Slide 23

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