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Ethos, Pathos, and Logos

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Ethos, Pathos, and Logos

  1. 1. HUM 180: Ethical and Critical Thinking Westwood College Prof. Wylie Tidwell, III
  2. 2. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>“ the art of speaking or writing effectively” </li></ul><ul><li>According to Aristotle, rhetoric is &quot;the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes three types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pathos </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appeal based on the character of the speaker. An ethos-driven document relies on the reputation of the author </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is appeal based on logic or reason. Documents distributed by companies or corporations are logos-driven. Scholarly documents are also often logos-driven. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is appeal based on emotion. Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>appeals can be achieved through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Information Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic Images </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>Visual Information Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this includes how the text looks on the screen. This is achieved through the appearance of such things as the titles and the headings. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this includes the color of the text, the background, and the graphics. The contrast of the colors of each of these items is also important. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Art of Rhetoric <ul><li>Graphic Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this includes the other information in the document aside from the text. This is achieved through such things as icons, buttons, and photos. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. READING QUIZ 11.3: FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE <ul><li>The following are the fallacies of relevance: appeal to authority, appeal to pity, appeal to fear, appeal to ignorance, and appeal to personal attack. For each of the following statements, identify the fallacy and briefly explain why the reasoning is faulty. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The president of Iraq says that the United States and Great Britain should remove their troops from Saudi Arabia because he is moving American and British women and children to the potential attack sites. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to fear </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Britney Spears says that Diet Pepsi tastes better than Diet Coke. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to authority </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>A candidate for governor says that voters should not elect her opponent because he will not say whether he ever took illegal drugs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to personal attack </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Ghosts do not exist. No one has ever proved scientifically that they do exist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to ignorance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Smile Toothpaste is used by more Americans than any other toothpaste. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to authority </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A magazine advertisement for a charity asks readers to sponsor or help a child in a foreign country. The appeal for money is accompanied by a picture of a sad child with a thin face and big, dark eyes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to pity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ I tried to get my paper done on time, but my aunt, who is ninety-seven years old, was in intensive care.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to pity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>“ Of course you should support the candidate of your choice in the coming election. You should remember, however, that the president of this firm—the guy who signs your paychecks—is the campaign manager of the opposing candidate.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to fear </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>“ With me, abortion is not a problem of religion. It’s a problem of the Constitution. I believe that until and unless someone can establish that the unborn child is not a living human being, then that child is already protected by the Constitution, which guarantees life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to all of us.” Ronald Reagan, October 8, 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to ignorance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Of course you support affirmative action. You ’re African American. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to personal attack </li></ul></ul></ul>

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