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Physical; ch. 11; fluid mechanics


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Chapter covers Archimedes' Principle, Pascal's Principle, Bernoulli's Principle, Boyle's Law, and Charles' Law, among other things

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Physical; ch. 11; fluid mechanics

  1. 1. Fluid Mechanics•Buoyancy•Liquids & Gasses•Pressure•Pascals•Density•Pascal’s Principle•Archimedes’ Principle•Bernoulli’s Principle
  2. 2. Review; Ch. 3•Boyle’s Law; When the pressure of a fluid atconstant temperature is increased, the volume of fluiddecreases, when the pressure is decreased, thevolume increases.•Charle’s Law; When the temperature of a fluidincreases at constant pressure, its volume increases.When the temperature decreases its volumedecreases.
  3. 3. Pressure•Pressure is a “pressing” force; a push.•Pressure depends on the amount of area over which itis exerted.•Pressure = Force/Area (add to circle formula sheet).•Units: Newtons/Meters2•which is called “Pascals”•Also measured in atm,•mmHg, etc.
  4. 4. Fluid Pressure•Gas or Liquid•“In a fluid the molecules exert anequal pressure in all directions”.•We live at the bottom of 100km offluid air which exerts a pressure of14.7 lbs/square inch.•This pressure is exerted equally inall directions: up and down and is saidto be “balanced”.•Unbalanced forces produce motion
  5. 5. Fluid Pressure, cont.•Air pressure decreases with altitude.•Liquid pressure increases with depth below surface.•Air pressure is measured with a barometer.•Liquid pressure is measured with a hydrometer.
  6. 6. Density & Buoyant•Density is mass/volume•D = M/V; write circle formula on sheet if not there.•Water is one: Density of water = 1g/cm .3•One gram per cubic centimeter.•
  7. 7. Predicting Floating & Sinking•Knowing that water is one you can predict if anobject will float or sink•Less than one will float, more than one will sink.• D = m/v.•Density will increase if Mass increases or Volumedecreases.•Density will decrease if Mass decreases or Volumeincreases.
  8. 8. Buoyancy•The buoyant force acts in adirection opposite to gravity tomake an have less weight but thesame mass.•Weight < buoyancy = floats•Weight > buoyancy = sinks•Weight = buoyancy = hovers
  9. 9. Archimedes’ Principle•The buoyant force acting up on a submerged object isequal to the force of the weight of the volume of liquid theobject displaces.•
  10. 10. Archimedes’ Principle•When the weight of the water displaced by theobject equals the buoyant force on the object, it willfloat.
  11. 11. Conversions•Newtons = grams times 0.01N/g (for Archimedes’lab p. 430)•
  12. 12. Pascal’s Principle•When force is applied to a confined fluid, the changein pressure is transmitted equally in all directions to allparts of the fluid.
  13. 13. Pascal’s Principle at Work
  14. 14. Pascal’s Principle Applied
  15. 15. Bernoulli’s Principle•As the speed of a moving fluid increases, thepressure exerted by that fluid decreases.
  16. 16. Bernoulli’s Principle•As the speed of a moving fluid increases, thepressure exerted by that fluid decreases.
  17. 17. Bernoulli’s Principle in Action
  18. 18. Bernoulli’s Principle in Action
  19. 19. More Bernoulli’s Principle
  20. 20. More Bernoulli’s Principle
  21. 21. More Bernoulli’s Principle
  22. 22. More Bernoulli’s
  23. 23. Ch. 11; What to know•Predict if an object will float or sink.•Unbalanced forces produce motion.
  24. 24. •Boyle’s Law; Increased pressure decreases volume.
  25. 25. •Charle’s Law; Increased temperature increases volume.
  26. 26. •Archimedes Principle; Buoyant force equals weight ofthe volume of water displaced.
  27. 27. •Pascal’s Principle; Pressure in confined fluidexerted equally in all direction.
  28. 28. •Bernoulli’s Principle; Increase in speed of fluiddecreases pressure exerted by that fluid.