Methods

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Methods

  1. 1. Research Methods• Types of research• Developmental research designs• Ethics1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 1 Types of Research• Descriptive• Correlational• Experimental1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 2 Descriptive ResearchExample: How do adolescents spend their time?1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 3
  2. 2. People with whom adolescents spend their time (Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1994) Friends Alone Family Others Classmates 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 4 Correlational Research Example: Are children’s friendships related to their relationships with siblings? 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 5 Becoming a sibling… Sibling interaction at 6 months 14 monthsPeer playquality .44* .47*Fantasyplay .25 .51* (Kramer & Gottman, 1992) 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 6
  3. 3. Interpretation• affective experience• emotional support• working through issues• particular child characteristics1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 7 Experimental ResearchExample: Does drawing improve children’s memory for an event?1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 81/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 9
  4. 4. 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 10 The Effects of Drawing on Memory Performance (Butler et al, 1995) 20 15 10 RECALL 5 0 NO DRAW DRAW1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 11 Measures• Independent variable: drawing vs telling alone• Dependent variable: memory performance1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 12
  5. 5. The Effects of Drawing on Memory Performance (Butler et al, 1995) 20 15 10 Tell Draw 5 0 Free Recall Direct ?1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 13 Developmental Designs• Cross-sectional• Longitudinal• Sequential• Microgenetic1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 14 Children’s Memory for Medical Emergencies: 2 Years Later 100 80% Accuracy 60 Injury 40 Hospital 20 0 2 3-4 5-6 8-9 12-13 Age in Years Peterson, 19991/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 15
  6. 6. Mean Percent of Relevant Components Recalled at 2 years 100 80Mean % 60 Injury 40 Hospital 20 0 3-6 8-13 Age in Years 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 16 Cross-sectional • Cheap and fast • tells little about how change occurs • cohort effects 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 17 Longitudinal • see patterns of change • subjects are own control • expensive • high drop out rates • practice effects • how to assess same behavior at different ages • other events cloud conclusions 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 18
  7. 7. Prosocial Development from 7 to 19 7 6 Internalized Law 5 Hedonistic, self- focused 4 3 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 Age in Years (Eisenberg et al, 1995)1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 19 Cross-sequential• same strength and weaknesses as longitudinal, just not as striking• less time, less $1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 20 Microgenetic• target process of change1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 21
  8. 8. Infant Locomotion (Adolph, 1997)1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 221/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 23 Strategies on “Safe” and “Risky” Declines1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 24
  9. 9. Microgenetic• Expensive• High drop out rates• Practice effects/boring 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 25 Are you doing all you can to stimulate your infant’s development? 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 26 The Objectives of Babyscapes • Faciliate parent-child bonding • Provide multi-sensory learning • Increase attention span 1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 27
  10. 10. Experimental Design• Random assignment random sampling rare representative sampling• Selection bias• Subject variables• Differential “mortality”1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 28 Ethics: Selected Issues• Do no harm!• Informed consent• Confidentiality• Obtain necessary assistance• Beneficial treatments1/23/00 Developmental Research Methods and Designs 29

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