Post-Willy Brandt German Chancellors Helmut Schmidt 1974-1982 Social Democrat Helmut Kohl 1982-1998 Christian Democrat Gerhard Schroder 1998-November 2005 Social Democrat Angela Merkel November 2005 - Christian Democrat First women Chancellor, First East German Chancellor Merkel leads a Coalition Government
What is Existentialism? Culture: the cry of men in face of their destiny - Camus Man can will nothing unless he has first understood that he must count on no one but himself; that he is alone, abandoned on earth in the midst of his infinite responsibilities, without help, with no other aim than the one he sets himself, with no other destiny than the one he forges for himself on this earth. - Sartre It is only in our decisions that we are important - Sartre Man is condemned to be free; because once thrown into the world, he is responsible for everything he does - Sartre A pair of powerful spectacles has sometimes sufficed to cure a person in love - Nietzsche Fear is the mother of morality - Nietzsche But what is happiness except the simple harmony between a man and the life he leads? Camus Man is the only creature that refuses to be what he is - Camus
What is Existentialism? Philosophical Movement Questioned the primacy of reason and science to understand human nature. There is NO predefined human nature or ultimate evaluation (therefore, God is irrelevant) except what we as individuals project onto the world ourselves.
What is Existentialism? People may only be judged or defined by their actions and choices. Humans must make their own ethical values and cannot depend on traditional religion, rational philosophy, or social customs for guidance. “ Existence precedes essence” People must take full responsibility for who they are. You are nothing except what you make of yourself.
Why do they feel this way??? They were protesting against a world in which reason, technology, and politics produced only war and genocide. Reflects the uncertainty of social institutions and ethical values in an era of world wars. They live in a civilization that stresses material progress but lacks morality
Who are they??? Sartre Camus Heidegger Nietzsche Kierkegaard These men criticized Hegel…
Georg Hegel (1770-1831) Philosopher of History
“ Universal Spirit” – similar to Christian God (but is nonreligious) - All of humanity ruled by its interconnectedness of this Spirit “ Thesis” – At any given time in history there is a predominant set of ideas (example: Agrarian feudalism is good for a country) “ Antithesis” – That Thesis is challenged by another set of conflicting ideas (example: Capitalism is good for a country) “ Synthesis” – These clash and a new pattern of thought emerges. It becomes the new Thesis.
Important Philosophical conclusions: 1. All periods of history are equal in their importance 2. All cultures are valuable – they bring necessary clashes of values and ideas. Karl Marx uses Hegel’s ideas as the foundation of his work Marx changes it to say that economic relationships between social classes are the driving force for the antithesis.
What is this style? Who is the artist? Silver over Black, White, Yellow and Red Untitled Black and white
What is this style? Who is the artist? Marilyn Whaam! Soup Can Classic