Song Of Roland

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Slideshow for teaching Song of Roland. Note that the final slides are teacher's notes. Some materials are from a variety of other sources; all of which I believe are credited. Please inform me if work that is included is not properly credited.

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  • Song Of Roland

    1. 1. What is a song?
    2. 2. The Song of Roland
    3. 3. What is a song? Style Lyrics Culture: If we know about the culture we can explain the lyrics.
    4. 4. Songs to Consider E-40, “Tell Me When to Go” Usurla Rucker, “L.O.V.E.” M1: from “Confidential” Gyptian, “Serious Times” Musiq Soulchild, “ Akon, “Don’t Matter” The Roots: Interview The Roots: Blog and YouTube Link
    5. 5. More Essential Questions <ul><li>Why are stories important to the way we organize our lives? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a hero? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the world come from, and is there something after this life? </li></ul><ul><li>What is good, true, evil, bad, real? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Painting of the death of Roland, with angels carrying his soul to heaven. From a medieval illuminatedmanuscript.
    7. 8. The Song of Roland Style Lyrics Culture chanson de geste A song of great deeds laisses: French for “stanzas” or sets of verses <ul><li>Intended to be a performance in song </li></ul><ul><li>Memorized </li></ul><ul><li>To inspire and instruct and entertain </li></ul><ul><li>Audience: wealthy individuals in their residences </li></ul>
    8. 9. The Song of Roland is a chanson de geste portraying a medieval European view of Moslem*- Christian* conflict
    9. 10. What really happened? <ul><li>We have few historical records. </li></ul><ul><li>778: the rearguard of Charlemagne's army was slaughtered in the Roncesvalles (old French: Rencesvals) pass of the Pyrenees mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>The most reliable European account of the event comes from Einhard, Charlemagne's own biographer. </li></ul>
    10. 11. Comparison: History & The Song of Roland <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Basque adversaries </li></ul><ul><li>Roland is mentioned but not others who play roles in the Song. </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge not possible for Charlemagne </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne is not able to conquer all of Spain: The defeat forces him to take a defensive position in France </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish March </li></ul><ul><li>The Song of Roland </li></ul><ul><li>Moslem adversaries </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous characters play important roles </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne revenges the defeat of Roland’s forces </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne is able to conquer and dominate all of Spain. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Roncesvalles: Now a Spanish village in the Pyrenees.
    12. 13. Literary Terms to Know and Use <ul><li>chanson de geste : French for “tales of great deeds” </li></ul><ul><li>laisses : French for “stanzas” </li></ul><ul><li>anachronism: When an element of the story isn’t appropriate for its time period </li></ul>
    13. 14. Structure of laisse within The Song of Roland <ul><li>laisse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 syllables to each line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stress on 4 th and 10 th syllable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pause in the middle of the line: caesura </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each line is independent: parataxis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>series of factual statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many (but not all) laisse are riddles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IF this set of facts exists and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IF x is the conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then what action will be required to bring about the conclusion? </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Riddles within laisse of The Song of Roland are usually in this format: <ul><ul><li>IF this set of facts exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IF x is the conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then What action will be required to bring about the conclusion? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reader is left with a question to answer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What additional action is needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will happen next? </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Laisse example <ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Actions needed </li></ul><ul><li>Game against Classical Magnet </li></ul><ul><li>Getting better </li></ul><ul><li>Won last game </li></ul><ul><li>Shooting defense </li></ul><ul><li>Win in Basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Ball control </li></ul><ul><li>Rebounding </li></ul><ul><li>Stand up under pressure </li></ul>
    16. 17. Sean Walker’s Laisse <ul><li>Game against Classical Magnet </li></ul><ul><li>Getting better </li></ul><ul><li>Won last game </li></ul><ul><li>Shooting defense </li></ul><ul><li>Win in Basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Ball control </li></ul><ul><li>Rebounding </li></ul><ul><li>Stand up under pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Comin down it’s a game </li></ul><ul><li>Got no shame </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Magnet’s the name </li></ul><ul><li>Warhawks fame </li></ul><ul><li>We Won last game </li></ul><ul><li>Defense the same </li></ul><ul><li>Today we win </li></ul><ul><li>The Ball control </li></ul><ul><li>Rebounding all </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure done by all </li></ul>FACTS CONCLUSION ACTION NEEDED
    17. 18. The Song of Roland Fragmento del Cantar de Roldán, conservado en el Archivo General de Navarra (Pamplona). .
    18. 19. Selected laisse <ul><li>Ganelon’s plot: laisse : 30-31, 44 </li></ul><ul><li>Roland assigned to rear guard : laisse 56-57, 58, 59, 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan attack seen by Oliver : laisse 66, 68, 80 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sound the Horn!” Roland Refuses: laisse 83, 85, 86, 87 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat is near , laisse, 92, 105, 121 </li></ul><ul><li>The horn is sounded , laisse, 128, 133, 134, 156, 166, 172, 177 </li></ul>
    19. 20. Song of Roland <ul><li>Choose ONE group of laisse from the list provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Read each of the assigned laisse. You will want to read the all of the “in between” ones as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a response to these laisse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A News Report of the Event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of 4 or more drawings about the event(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A poem, song, flow or rap about the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An illuminated manuscript of one laisse </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Song of Roland <ul><li>Choose ONE group of laisse from the list provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Read each of the assigned laisse. You will want to read the all of the “in between” ones as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a response to these laisse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A News Report of the Event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of 4 or more drawings about the event(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A poem, song, flow or rap about the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An illuminated manuscript of one laisse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected Laisse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ganelon’s plot: laisse : 30-31, 44 </li></ul><ul><li>Roland assigned to rear guard : laisse 56-57, 58, 59, 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan attack seen by Oliver : laisse 66, 68, 80 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sound the Horn!” Roland Refuses: laisse 83, 85, 86, 87 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat is near , laisse, 92, 105, 121 </li></ul><ul><li>The horn is sounded , laisse, 128, 133, 134, 156, 166, 172, 177 </li></ul>
    21. 22. Plot of The Song of Roland
    22. 23. The Song of Roland Illustrations by Javere Pinnock
    23. 24. Setting <ul><li>Mountains between Spain and France. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between Moslems and Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict has lasted long. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, this is a fictional story! </li></ul>
    24. 25. Marsilla is tired of fighting and has no hope of beating Charles. Marsilla Blancandrin Blancandrin advises tricking Charles to leave Spain by offering him gifts and loyalty.
    25. 26. Marsilla sends Blancandrin to the camp of Charles with his offer.
    26. 27. Charlemagne’s men must choose someone to go to the pagan (Moslem) camp to receive their formal surrender. This is a dangerous task. Roland recommends Ganelon for the task. But Ganelon doesn’t want the job. Ganelon
    27. 28. Ganelon is very angry at Roland because Roland was the one who got him sent on the dangerous mission. Ganelon conspires with the enemy, Blancandran, to ambush Roland. Ganelon Blancandrin
    28. 29. King Charlemagne Ganelon has returned and says that the pagans will surrender and be baptized after we return to France. Now we can go home. They send gifts and hostages.
    29. 31. Oliver warns Roland that Ganelon is scheming. Roland is not worried.
    30. 32. Oliver was right, the pagans, led by Marsillas, attack Roland’s group.
    31. 33. Oliver begs Roland to blow his horn (the Olipahnt) to call for Charlemagne to help them. Roland refuses twice.
    32. 40. So how can we explain the radical differences between the plot of Roland and the history of the conflict?
    33. 41. Roland Falls at Roncesvalles
    34. 42. How does understanding the context help us?
    35. 43. Context Clue 1: Charlemagne
    36. 44. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagne's death.
    37. 45. 1. Charlemagne <ul><li>Charlemagne was regarded as the first great Christian king. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crowned by the pope in 800. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exercised a degree of authority over much of modern France and Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>his legacy was part of what later made the Crusades possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supposed personal relationship with God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reception of divine messages from angels </li></ul></ul>
    38. 46. The poem describes what was impossible for Charlemagne but what would be possible during the Crusades: conquest of fabulously rich Moslem lands .
    39. 47. Context Clue 2: Crusades
    40. 48. <ul><li>The Pope exhorts all Christians to fight for the recapture of the land of Christ. </li></ul><ul><li>Warriors who fought for the Holy Land would receive full penance. </li></ul>1095: Pope Urban II Calls for Crusade
    41. 49. The poet has no qualms about changing facts to fit in with the spirit of the new Holy Wars.
    42. 50. The Song of Roland can be considered propaganda for the Crusades
    43. 51. Context Clue 3: chanson de geste
    44. 52. How can knowing the genre of a piece of literature help us to understand that literature?
    45. 53. What if we knew that The Song of Roland was somewhat like a poetry slam?
    46. 54. What if we knew that The Song of Roland is a song intended to be performed meant for an upper-class audience performed in Medieval Europe (for an audience that is mostly illiterate) ?
    47. 55. <ul><li>“ Charlemagne installs Roland as his representative in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>and presents him with a gonfanon as a sign of sovereignty. He then takes his leave with a wave of the hand while Roland vainly tries to ram the staff of the banner into the rocky ground.&quot; Credit: St. Gallen, Municipal Library. </li></ul>
    48. 56. Main Characters <ul><li>Roland: rash, strong, prideful, fortitude, piety, heroic, bold, and brave. Stands for the ideal Christian warrior. </li></ul><ul><li>Ganelon: jealous, mean, trickster figure, well respected, clever. Stands for jealousy, selfishness, and treason/treachery. </li></ul>
    49. 57. Main Characters <ul><li>Charlemagne : diplomatically savvy, good leader, moderate, great conqueror. Stands for the ideal Christian king. </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver : calm, wise, brave, Roland’s foil character. Stands for wisdom and reason. </li></ul>
    50. 58. Main Characters <ul><li>Blancandrin : brave, wise, loyal, foil to Ganelon; advisor to King Marsilion </li></ul><ul><li>King Marsilion : disloyal, fickle, shadow figure to Charlemagne. </li></ul>
    51. 59. Characters <ul><li>Roland: rash, strong, prideful, fortitude, piety, heroic, bold, and brave. Stands for the ideal Christian warrior. </li></ul><ul><li>Ganelon: jealous, mean, trickster figure, well respected, clever. Stands for jealousy, selfishness, and treason/treachery. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne : diplomatically savvy, good leader, moderate, great conqueror. Stands for the ideal Christian king. </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver : calm, wise, brave, Roland’s foil character. Stands for wisdom and reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Blancandrin : brave, wise, loyal, foil to Ganelon. </li></ul><ul><li>King Marsilion : disloyal, fickle, shadow figure to Charlemagne. </li></ul>
    52. 60. Hero Myth The hero of a hero myth: <ul><li>The hero usually a demi-god , or has a god in his family. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero has some kind of super-natural power or has the strong support of a god. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero is usually on a quest . He has a task or a challenge (or more than one) that an ordinary mortal could not carry out. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero is always seeking fame, glory and most important, honor. These are more important than life itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero is braver, stronger, bolder and some times more clever than most men. He is close to the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero usually has a weakness , usually too much pride or a terrible temper. This can lead to problems for him, and usually to his downfall. </li></ul>
    53. 61. The Song of Roland as Hero Myth <ul><li>The catalyst is when Ganelon is appointed to speak to Marsilion. </li></ul><ul><li>Roland receives help from Oliver, Turpin, and his sword (Durendal). </li></ul><ul><li>Roland faces many battles , particularly the initial confrontation with the Saracens. </li></ul><ul><li>Hero hits rock bottom when Oliver dies and his army is decimated and knows he’s going to be defeated. </li></ul>
    54. 62. Epic: An epic or heroic poem is <ul><li>A long narrative poem; </li></ul><ul><li>On a serious subject; </li></ul><ul><li>Written in a grand or elevated style; </li></ul><ul><li>Centered on a larger-than-life hero. </li></ul><ul><li>Epics also tend to have the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An opening in medias res ; (in the midst of action) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An invocation to the Muse; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A concern with the fate of a nation or people; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A correspondingly large scale , often ranging around the world (and in Milton's case, beyond the earth and into heaven); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The intervention of supernatural figures , who are interested in the outcome of the action (the system of gods, demons, angels, and such is often called machinery ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended similes , generally called epic similes ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long catalogues, whether of ships, characters, or places; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive battle scenes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizable epic episodes such as a visit to the underworld. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 63. The Song of Roland as Epic <ul><li>Roland is a legendary hero of great stature. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne is the historical hero . </li></ul><ul><li>Vast setting because it’s set across France and Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Roland had superhuman courage, and committed deeds of great valor. </li></ul><ul><li>Supernatural forces were more like visions and dreams , and God is at work here, though in limited ways. </li></ul><ul><li>A high literary style . </li></ul><ul><li>The poet is somewhat subjective and favors the French. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the epic devices are used. </li></ul>
    56. 64. Stained glass window depicting a scene from The Song of Roland in Chartres cathedral.
    57. 65. sources <ul><li>Original notes: faculty.nwacc.edu/aalbrigh/English%202213/ The%20Song%20of%20Roland.pdf – </li></ul><ul><li>See also: http://faculty.nwacc.edu/aalbrigh/English%202213/powerpointpresentations.htm </li></ul><ul><li>The original powerpoint was by Angie Albright, English Instructor, NWACC </li></ul><ul><li>All above are accessed 4/7/06 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Epic.” http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Terms/epic.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Hero Myh Definition: http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1983/2/83.02.06.x.html </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia site has links to original mss and audio files of the first laisse read in Old French. </li></ul><ul><li>An awesome site with notes about named weapons and links. http://www.home.ix.netcom.com/~kyamazak/myth/roland/roland-items-e.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Gutenburg file: ibiblio.org </li></ul>
    58. 66. Image sources <ul><li>www.gutenberg.org/files/ 11951/11951-h/11951-h.htm of The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Popular History of France From The Earliest Times, by Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot – </li></ul><ul><li>All above are accessed 4/7/06 </li></ul><ul><li>Image of Charlemagne installing Roland. Source: Neubecker Comments: Again, this illustration is frustratingly undated. Is that comment at the end about Roland and the rocky ground significant? Cited in http://gateway.kwantlen.bc.ca/~donna/sca/flags/f011.html </li></ul><ul><li>Image on Master Slide “Death of Roland, with angels carrying his soul to heaven, from a medieval manuscript.” Bibliotheque Nationale de France. http://newman.baruch.cuny.edu/digital/2000/c_n_c/c_04_medieval/medieval_epic.htm . Access 5/15/07 </li></ul>
    59. 67. Roncesvalles
    60. 68. Epic <ul><li>Epic </li></ul><ul><li>An epic or heroic poem is: </li></ul><ul><li>A long narrative poem; </li></ul><ul><li>On a serious subject; </li></ul><ul><li>Written in a grand or elevated style; </li></ul><ul><li>Centered on a larger-than-life hero. </li></ul><ul><li>Epics also tend to have the following characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>An opening in medias res ; </li></ul><ul><li>An invocation to the Muse; </li></ul><ul><li>A concern with the fate of a nation or people; </li></ul><ul><li>A correspondingly large scale, often ranging around the world (and in Milton's case, beyond the earth and into heaven); </li></ul><ul><li>The intervention of supernatural figures, who are interested in the outcome of the action (the system of gods, demons, angels, and such is often called machinery ); </li></ul><ul><li>Extended similes , generally called epic similes ; </li></ul><ul><li>Long catalogues, whether of ships, characters, or places; </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive battle scenes; </li></ul><ul><li>A few stock episodes, including a visit to the underworld. </li></ul><ul><li>Homer wrote the oldest surviving epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , from around the eight century B.C. To be precise, change wrote to composed : Homer, even if there was a single individual called Homer, was probably illiterate, and probably composed orally. (There's a huge literature on this; you'll find a swell overview in Bernard Knox's introductory material in Robert Fagles's translation of the Iliad .) Virgil, although thoroughly literate, consciously imitated many of Homer's techniques, and produced the most famous epic poem of Augustan Rome, the Aeneid . Many of the characteristics of later epic derive from the quirks of oral composition. In both Greek and Latin, the most common epic meter was dactylic hexameter . That's a difficult meter to pull off in English, though; English epics aren't associated with any one meter, though most of them beginning with Spenser are in pentameter . Famous English epics include the Old English poem Beowulf (written in alliterative meter); in the Renaissance , Spenser's Faerie Queene (with its complicated Spenserian stanza ) and Milton's Paradise Lost (in blank verse ). In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, heroic couplets were considered the best form for epics; Dryden's translation of Virgil and Pope's translation of Homer use heroic couplets. </li></ul><ul><li>The history of the epic is worth studying in some detail. The Iliad , Odyssey , and Aeneid are the most famous epics of antiquity , but not the only ones; Statius' Thebaid , for instance, is worth reading. In the Middle Ages , the dominant long narrative form is the romance , which is epic's kissin' cousin. Exactly what to call Beowulf is unclear, but Dante's Divine Comedy is probably best described as an epic </li></ul><ul><li>As you get into the Renaissance , the familiar pattern of the classical epic becomes more visible: Ariosto's Orlando Furioso (1516) mixes romance with epic, but Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata (1575) is clearly modeled on the epics of Homer and Virgil. Camoens's Lusiads are the great Portuguese epic. The first great English epic of the Renaissance is Spenser's Faerie Queene (1590-96), followed by Milton's Paradise Lost (1667-74). </li></ul><ul><li>But then the form seems to disappear, or at least to trasform itself radically. In the late seventeenth century, most writers were convinced that epic was the highest form — and yet, according to most conventional histories of English literature, no one succeeded in writing a great one. There are good translations of the classical epics by Dryden and Pope; there are also brilliant mock epics . Henry Fielding incorporates many epic features into his novels (he calls Joseph Andrews a &quot;comic epic-poem in prose&quot;). In the early nineteenth century, Wordsworth tries to write a kind of epic, The Prelude , but it's a very loose fit with the traditional definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it's unclear whether a particular work is best called an epic. Gilgamesh , for instance, works on a scale similar to most epics, but it's not directly related to the Homeric tradition, and lacks many of the characteristics of the Western epic. Ditto the Indian Ramayana and Mahabharata . In the West, many works of the Middle Ages and Renaissance blend qualities of the epic with the romance — there were plenty of squabbles between the supporters of Tasso and Ariosto in sixteenth-century Italy over how much romance can be admitted into epic. And after the decline of the traditional epic in the seventeenth century, many works borrow many epic characteristics, though again, it's unclear whether they should really be called epics. Melville's Moby-Dick , Tolstoy's War and Peace , Joyce's Ulysses , Derek Walcott's Omeros — all have epic characteristics, but it's unclear whether they're properly epics themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever you do, though, don't use the term epic loosely for anything large in scope. Although networks will try to convince you every miniseries and telemovie is &quot;epic,&quot; don't believe 'em — or, at least, don't use that sort of advertising cant in an English class. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Guide to Literary Terms by Jack Lynch . Please send comments to Jack Lynch . </li></ul><ul><li>Note: This guide is still in the early stages of development. Three question marks mean I have to write more on the subject. Bear with me. </li></ul>
    61. 69. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In medias res </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In medias res is Latin for &quot;into the middle of things.&quot; It usually describes a narrative that begins, not at the beginning of a story, but somewhere in the middle — usually at some crucial point in the action. The term comes from the ancient Roman poet Horace, who advised the aspiring epic poet to go straight to the heart of the story instead of beginning at the beginning. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 70. Hero myth <ul><li>From: http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1983/2/83.02.06.x.html </li></ul><ul><li>The students should also become aware of some of the characteristics of hero myths: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The hero is usually a demi-god, or has a god in his family. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The hero has some kind of super-natural power or has the strong support of a god. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The hero is usually on a quest. He has a task or a challenge (or more than one) that an ordinary mortal could not carry out. </li></ul><ul><li>4, The hero is always seeking fame, glory and most important, honor. These are more important than life itself. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The hero is braver, stronger, bolder and some times more clever than most men. He is close to the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The hero usually has a weakness, usually too much pride or a terrible temper. This can lead to problems for him, and usually to his downfall. </li></ul>
    63. 71. Study questions from Spark Notes <ul><li>How are Muslims portrayed in The Song of Roland ? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast Roland and Olivier. </li></ul><ul><li>What techniques does the poet use to unify the many events of The Song of Roland into a whole? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the narrative voice of The Song of Roland. How does this voice, and the relation it takes to the story it tells, affect the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the function of the supernatural and the miraculous in The Song of Roland. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the way that the Franks and the Saracens view their relation to God in The Song of Roland. </li></ul><ul><li>What does the trial of Ganelon tell us about the medieval conception of justice? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the glove signify in The Song of Roland ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of the ideal knight, as inferred from The Song of Roland ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the poet use laisses similaires ? </li></ul>
    64. 72. Context of the Song of Roland <ul><li>Reflects the ambitious self-righteous attitude of the Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s personna is magnified by history as one of the first great Christian kings, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>his legacy was part of what later made the Crusades possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supposed personal relationship with God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reception of divine messages from angels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The poem describes what was impossible for Charlemagne but what would be possible during the Crusades: conquest of fabulously rich Moslem lands. </li></ul><ul><li>1095, Pope Urban II: speech at the council of Clermont: exhorts all Christians to fight for the recapture of the land of Christ. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warriors who fought for the Holy Land would receive full penance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The poet has no qualms about changing facts to fit in with the spirit of the new Holy Wars. </li></ul>
    65. 73. <ul><li>Study Questions - Song of Roland </li></ul><ul><li>From http://www.wou.edu/las/humanities/english/hardingc/sq_roland.htm </li></ul><ul><li>1. What restricts how Charlemagne can act?  How does his role of king fit into the social structure? 2.  Compare the ideals in this warrior society with the Greeks & Romans - what is familiar and what has changed? 3. Why is Ganelon upset at the honor of being ambassador? What acts while he is ambassador are wrong and how does he justify his actions? 4. Read Roland's death scene carefully - what causes his death? 5. Does Turpin fit your image of a Catholic archbishop?  Explain. 6. What role does religion play in this work, both in the battles and otherwise? 7. Compare the kings, Charlemagne and Marsilla.  What traits are emphasized for each?   What do they share? what not? 8. How is the trial by combat pictured - approval? disdain?  What is significant about its outcome? 9. Describe the picture of Islam drawn in this text; what does it tell you about the Christians? 10. Discuss the traits of oral-formulaic composition that come through in the text. </li></ul>
    66. 74. Assignment: Understanding the laisse <ul><li>Please do the following work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose four consecutive laisse and read them carefully. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From your four laisse choose one of about 10 lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the laisse number. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. FACTS: list the facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. CONCLUSION: identify and write the conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C. Summarize the laisse in 1-3 sentences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. Make note of any unusual terms, or items, or locations or actions that you notice. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    67. 75. Classwork <ul><li>Read your assigned laisse and summarize it by stating </li></ul><ul><li>Who is speaking? </li></ul><ul><li>What action is occurring? </li></ul><ul><li>What question is at the end of the laisse? </li></ul>

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