Global Civil Society - An Overview

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This is an outline of major finding of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

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Global Civil Society - An Overview

  1. 1. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY: An Overview S. Wojciech Sokolowski Johns Hopkins University
  2. 2. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Project Countries Denmark Belgium Norway The Finland Switzerland United Kingdom France Denmark Netherlands Sweden Italy Austria Czech Republic Germany United States Poland Romania Canada Slovakia Ireland Hungary Mexico Spain Japan Portugal Egypt Korea Morocco Lebanon The Venezuela Israel Philippines Colombia Ghana India Kenya Thailand Pakistan Brazil Tanzania Uganda Chile Argentina South New Peru Africa Australia Zealand
  3. 3. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Common Features • Organizations • Private • Non-Profit Distributing • Self-Governing • Voluntary
  4. 4. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Finding 1: A Major Economic Force
  5. 5. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies The Scale of Nonprofit Activity, 40 Countries  $1.9 trillion output  48.4 million full time equivalent jobs  4.6% of economically active population
  6. 6. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies If the civil society sector were a country... Country GDP (trillion $) United States $11.7 Japan 4.6 Germany 2.7 United Kingdom 2.1 Civil Society output 1.9* (40 Countries) France 1.9 China 1.7 Italy 1.2 Canada 1.0 Spain 1.0 Brazil 0.6 Russia 0.6 * In 2004 U.S. Dollars Source of GDP Figures: World Bank
  7. 7. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Civil Society Organization Workforce in context, 40 countries Civil Society Orgs.* 48.4 Utilities 6.2 transportation 41.3 construction 46.5 Manufacturing 110.4 Number of employees (millions) * Including volunteers
  8. 8. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Finding 2: Great Variations in Size Among Countries and Regions
  9. 9. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies CSO workforce as a share of the economically active population, by country 40 countries 2.9 1.7 4.6% Netherlands 9.2 5.1 14.4% Canada 8.4 2.7 11.1% Belgium 8.6 2.3 10.9% Ireland 8.3 2.1 10.4% United States 6.3 3.5 9.8% United Kingdom 4.8 3.6 8.5% Israel 6.6 1.4 8.0% France 3.7 3.7 7.6% Norway 2.7 4.4 7.2% Sweden 1.7 5.1 7.1% Denmark 3.8 2.7 6.6% Australia 4.4 1.9 6.3% Germany 3.5 2.3 5.9% Finland 2.4 2.8 5.3% Austria 3.8 1.1 4.9% Chile 2.6 2.2 4.9% Argentina 2.9 1.9 4.8% Spain 2.8 1.5 4.3% Paid staff Japan 3.2 1.0 4.2% Portugal 2.8 1.1 4.0% Volunteers Italy 2.3 1.5 3.8% South Africa 1.8 1.6 3.4%
  10. 10. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies CSO workforce as a share of the economically active population, by country 40 countries 4.6% Egypt 2.8% Peru 2.5% Korea, Rep. of 2.4% Colombia 2.4% Uganda 2.3% Kenya 2.1% Tanzania 2.1% Czech Republic 2.0% Philippines 1.9% Brazil 1.6% Morocco 1.5% India 1.4% Hungary 1.1% Pakistan 1.0% Slovakia 0.8% Paid staff Poland 0.8% Volunteers Romania 0.8% Mexico 0.4%
  11. 11. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Finding 3: Significant Input of Volunteer Work
  12. 12. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Volunteers as share of CSO workforce 40 countries 38% Developed 38% Developing Developing and 39% Sweden 76% Tanzania 75% Philippines 64% Norway 63% Uganda 59% India 56% Romania 55% Finland 54% Morocco 53% France 52% Chile 47% South Africa 47% United Kingdom 44% Denmark 43% Pakistan 41% Germany 40% Italy 40% Argentina 40% Kenya 39% Peru 38% Netherlands 37%
  13. 13. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Volunteers as share of CSO workforce 40 countries 38% Developed 38% Developing 39% United States 37% Czech 36% Spain 35% Mexico 33% Australia 31% Slovakia 30% Portugal 29% Canada 25% Japan 25% Colombia 24% Korea, Rep. of 23% Austria 22% Belgium 22% Ireland 21% Poland 21% Hungary 18% Israel 18% Brazil 12% Egypt 3%
  14. 14. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Finding 4: Wide Range of Functions
  15. 15. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Distribution of civil society workforce, by function (37 countries) Development 8% Expressive Fields Culture 32% 19% Health 14% Professional, Advocacy, and Environment 13% Social Services 23% Education 20% Service Fields 64%
  16. 16. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Finding 5: Not a Substitute for Government
  17. 17. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Source of civil society organization support, 38 countries Volunteering 21% Fees 37% Giving 10% Government 30%
  18. 18. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Sources of civil society revenue, by country (fee-dominant) Fees Government Philanthropy 38 countries 52% 35% 12% Philippines 92% 5% 3% Mexico 85% 9% 6% Kenya 81% 5% 14% Brazil 74% 15% 11% Argentina 73% 19% 7% Korea, Rep. of 71% 24% 4% Colombia 70% 15% 15% Peru 70% 18% 12% Australia 63% 31% 6% Sweden 62% 29% 9% Italy 61% 37% 3% Poland 60% 24% 15% Norway 58% 35% 7% Finland 58% 36% 6% United States 57% 31% 13% Slovakia 55% 22% 23% Uganda 55% 7% 38% Hungary 55% 27% 18% Tanzania 53% 27% 20% Denmark 53% 40% 7% Japan 52% 45% 3% Pakistan 51% 6% 43% India 51% 36% 13% Spain 49% 32% 19% Portugal 48% 40% 12% Czech Republic 47% 39% 14%
  19. 19. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Sources of civil society revenue, by country (government-dominant) Fees Government Philanthropy 38 countries 52% 35% 12% Ireland 16% 77% 7% Belgium 19% 77% 5% Germany 32% 64% 3% Israel 26% 64% 10% Netherlands 39% 59% 2% France 35% 58% 8% Austria 43% 50% 6% Canada 39% 51% 9% United Kingdom 45% 47% 9% Chile 36% 46% 18% Romania 29% 45% 26% South Africa 32% 44% 24%
  20. 20. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Relationship between government support of CSO and volunteering Gov+ Vol- Gov+ Vol+ 2 countries 9 countries 6 countries 20 countries Gov- Vol+ Gov- Vol- N = 37
  21. 21. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Relationship between government support of CSO and charitable giving Gov+ Giving+ Gov+ Giving- 5 countries 6 countries 8 countries 18 countries Gov- Giving+ Gov- Giving- N = 37
  22. 22. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Next steps: Putting Civil Society on the Economic Map of the World
  23. 23. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies
  24. 24. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies U.N. Handbook Implementers and Target Countries High Income Countries Medium and Low Income Countries Europe Denmark Central Europe Belgium + Germany Czech Republic + Hungary France + Netherlands Slovakia+ Poland Italy + Portugal Russia Norway Spain North America Latin America Canada + Argentina + Chile United States + Brazil +** Mexico Peru + Uruguay Asia New Zealand + Asia Thailand Australia + Hong Kong, China India Kyrgyzstan+ China Japan+ Philippines + Pakistan Vietnam Korea + Vietnam Other Africa and Middle East Israel + Cameroon + South Africa + Egypt Ghana Uganda + Mozambique Kenya + Nigeria Tanzania Mali Morocco + As of September, 2007 + committed
  25. 25. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies Capture Volunteer Effort through Labor Force Surveys: -Volume - Type of activities - Economic value - More than 80 countries
  26. 26. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies CIVINET: - Assemble data on civil society - Disseminate information globally - Enable communication - Facilitate research
  27. 27. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies How Can Better Data on Civil Society Help?  Visibility/Legitimacy  Improve policy-making and planning  Increase transparency/accountability  Improve National Accounts  Chart NPO contribution  Spot trends/problems

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