Wireless Sensor Networks in Industry

Alan Broad, CTO,Crossbow Technology




      Topics
        Introduction
        Se...
Corporate Overview

     Global Leader in Sensory Systems
           Founded 1995
           MEMS-Based Inertial Systems
 ...
Wireless Sensor Network – Architecture




                                                     Gateway




           Pro...
Wireless Sensor Network Market Forecast




                         160
                         140
                    ...
Market Stages


      Pilots                                   2001-2005
               Proof-of-ROI
               $100-$...
Why Do Customers Deploy Wireless Sensors?

1) Lower cost of wiring

2) Networking of standalone sensors

3) New deployment...
Reasons/Motivation

     Lower cost of wiring
       $20 to $2000 per foot
           20% to 80% of the installation
     ...
Reasons/Motivation

     Networking of stand alone
     sensors
        HVAC
           Physical Security systems
        ...
Reasons/Motivation

     New paradigms for sensors
     where wiring is difficult
       Mining operations
           Cons...
Wireless Sensor Networks – An Introduction
Convergence of Technologies

                 Sensors: Miniaturization, micromachining, and low cost manufacturing leads t...
Wireless Technologies
                                                                Hi-Fi          Streaming            ...
Example Application: Physical Security

Multi Node: Light
level, magnetic
events, tilt, discrete                    Gatewa...
A Framework for Sensor Network Platforms

                            Battery powered               Wireless Platforms
   ...
A Framework for Sensor Network Platforms

                       Battery powered         Wireless Platforms
              ...
High Performance iMOTEz hardware platform


     Basic connector
     • UART, I2C, SPI
     • GPIO                        ...
MICA OEM Stamp

     Full wireless node platforms (MICA) at Low-Cost
     916/868 Mhz (1mW, 100mW, 1W transmit power)
    ...
Why Mesh ?

     Radio contour plots shows
     that received radio strength
     varies significantly from
     idealized...
Why Mesh ?

     Static links show
     variability in receive
     strength over time
     Local null effects, people,
  ...
WSN Requirements
      Radios
         (315, 433, 868, 902-928)Mhz, 2.4Ghz
         Multiple transmit powers (1mW,100mW,1W...
Wireless Sensor Networks




     Topics
        The Physical Internet
        Technology Background
        Examples/Case...
Case Studies

1.     Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries
2.     Water Irrigation
3.     Predictive Maintenance...
20 Million Seed Management

     Task:
         Manage 20 million fast growing seeds annually
     Issue:
         Seed do...
Tree Growth Rate Variability

     Old Method                             Sensor Network Way:
        Trust nature        ...
Network Characteristics

       Sensor Network Characteristics
          2-3 sensors per acre
               Average dista...
Case Studies

1.     Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries
2.     Water Irrigation
3.     Predictive Maintenance...
Golf Course Water Irrigation

     Task:
        Improve quality of golf course greens
           Reduce water usage

    ...
Green Quality Variability

     Old Method                             Sensor Network Way:
        Green keepers monitor e...
Network Characteristics

     Sensor Network Topology
        One underground sensor at each green communicating with abov...
Case Studies

1.     Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries
2.     Water Irrigation
3.     Predictive Maintenance...
Customer Case Study – BP

     What
           Vibration monitoring on oil tankers
           Manual sensor reading replac...
Benefits



           Much more effective condition
           monitoring regime
           Continuous visibility to the
...
Network Characteristics

     Nodes
           High performance node (ImoteZ) for 100Khz data
           sampling and larg...
Case Studies

1.     Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries
2.     Water Irrigation
3.     Predictive Maintenance...
Electric Heat Tracing

     System Components
           Heater Cables
           Components
           Power distribution...
Elements of a Electric Heat Tracing Circuit



                            RTD                     Insulated Pipe


      ...
#1 Target: Eliminate RTD Lead Wiring




                                       Replacement Cost:
                        ...
WSN Characteristics

               50-100 units per site with 3 RTDs per unit
               Typically 100’-200’ between ...
Case Studies

1.     Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries
2.     Water Irrigation
3.     Predictive Maintenance...
High Voltage Transmission Line Monitoring




                                  Objective
                                ...
WSN Characteristics

               Linear array: relay data 20-40 hops to a base
               station.
               5...
Case Studies

1.     Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries
2.     Water Irrigation
3.     Predictive Maintenance...
Customer Case Study – Life Fitness

     Task
           Improve health club profitability
           by increasing member...
Customer Case Study – Life Fitness

     Old Method                                 Sensor Network Way:
        Member’s f...
Customer Case Study – Life Fitness

WSN Characteristics :
 Limited power for radio communication on all
 machines.
 Some m...
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XBow: Wireless Sensor Networks in Industry by Alan Broad (CTO)

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XBow: Wireless Sensor Networks in Industry by Alan Broad (CTO)

  1. 1. Wireless Sensor Networks in Industry Alan Broad, CTO,Crossbow Technology Topics Introduction SensorNet Technology Case Studies
  2. 2. Corporate Overview Global Leader in Sensory Systems Founded 1995 MEMS-Based Inertial Systems Wireless Sensor Networking 110 Employees World Wide $25M in Venture Capital San Jose Headquarters Cisco Systems, Intel Corporation Morgenthaler Ventures, Paladin Capital www.xbow.com 2
  3. 3. Wireless Sensor Network – Architecture Gateway Processor/ Sensor Node Sensor Board Intra/Internet Radio Board www.xbow.com 3
  4. 4. Wireless Sensor Network Market Forecast 160 140 120 units (millions) 100 Conservative 80 Aggressive 60 40 20 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: ON World, In-Stat, WTRS, Harbor Research www.xbow.com 4
  5. 5. Market Stages Pilots 2001-2005 Proof-of-ROI $100-$1000/node Ramp-up 2006-2008 Reliability, Integration, Security $10-$100/node Mass Market 2009-2011 Standards, Cost, Size <$10/node www.xbow.com 5
  6. 6. Why Do Customers Deploy Wireless Sensors? 1) Lower cost of wiring 2) Networking of standalone sensors 3) New deployment paradigms where wiring is not possible www.xbow.com 6
  7. 7. Reasons/Motivation Lower cost of wiring $20 to $2000 per foot 20% to 80% of the installation time Assumptions Traditional Sensor Networks Sensor Cost $2,000 $350 Data Acquisition Cost $65 $0 Wiring Cost $75 $15 Illustrates benefit of Cost Per Sensor $2,140 $365 MEMS + Wireless Num Channels 65 65 Total Cost $139,100 $23,725 www.xbow.com 7
  8. 8. Reasons/Motivation Networking of stand alone sensors HVAC Physical Security systems Fire and Safety systems Lighting control www.xbow.com 8
  9. 9. Reasons/Motivation New paradigms for sensors where wiring is difficult Mining operations Construction sites Hazardous environments Landscape irrigation www.xbow.com 9
  10. 10. Wireless Sensor Networks – An Introduction
  11. 11. Convergence of Technologies Sensors: Miniaturization, micromachining, and low cost manufacturing leads to smaller sizes, low power, lower costs. Allows us to monitor with higher granularity. Many types or sensors and more on the way. Computing/Internet: Computing Wireless (RF): Spans a host of power is becoming small and Smarter, Smaller technologies including ZigBee and WiFi networks, cellular and satellite inexpensive enough to add to almost Sensors communications. Enables a wireless any object. Networks of computers facilitate collaboration through and mobile Internet. information and resource sharing. Embedded Computing Ubiquitous Wireless www.xbow.com 11
  12. 12. Wireless Technologies Hi-Fi Streaming Digital Multi-channel Text Graphics Internet audio video video video 2G 3/3.5G 4G GSM/CDMA UMTS/CDMA2000/TD-SCMA Up to 4 WAN Up to 64 kbps (384 kbps to over 3 Mbps) MB/sec Up to WiMax/802.16 Up to 75 Mbps 50 km MAN LMDS Up to 38 Mbps Ubiquitous Sensor Networks 802.11g Up to 54 Mbps 100 m Bluetooth1 802.11b LAN Sub-GHz Up to 723 kbps Up to 11 Mbps 802.11a 802.15.4 Up to 54 Mbps ISM Zigbee <100 kbps 250 kbps 10 m Bluetooth2 Up to 3 Mbps PAN <1 m RFID Low Data Rate High Data Rate www.xbow.com From Wireless Sensor Networks by Feng Zhao and Leo Gubias, 2004. 12
  13. 13. Example Application: Physical Security Multi Node: Light level, magnetic events, tilt, discrete Gateway Node: Aggregation, hi speed events communication, web server Hi-Bandwidth Node: Audio, video Mobile node: asset and personnel tracking www.xbow.com 13
  14. 14. A Framework for Sensor Network Platforms Battery powered Wireless Platforms Wireless Platforms Line powered Specific Purpose Specific Purpose Multi Purpose Multi Purpose High Bandwidth High Bandwidth Gateway Gateway Example name and size “Mote”; 1 cm3 to 10 cm3 Multipurpose sensing and/or Applications data communications relay. Radio data rate < 100 kbps MIPS < 10 “MICA2” by Crossbow Flash < 0.5 MB RAM < 10 kB Energy usage (typ.) 3 V × (10 to 15) mA Sleep energy (typ.) 1.8 V × 10 μA Duty cycle (typ.) 0.5 % to 2 % “MICA2DOT” by Crossbow www.xbow.com 14
  15. 15. A Framework for Sensor Network Platforms Battery powered Wireless Platforms Wireless Platforms Line powered Specific Purpose Specific Purpose Multi Purpose Multi Purpose High Bandwidth High Bandwidth Gateway Gateway Example name and size “MICAz”; 1 cm3 to 10 cm3 High bandwidth sensing such as Applications image transfer, audio, and vibration. Radio data rate < 500 kbps MIPS < 50 Flash < 10 MB RAM < 128 kB Energy usage (typ.) 3 V × 60 mA “MICAz” and “ iMOTE2” by Sleep energy (typ.) 3 V × 100 μA Crossbow and Intel/Crossbow Duty cycle (typ.) 5 % to 10 % www.xbow.com 15
  16. 16. High Performance iMOTEz hardware platform Basic connector • UART, I2C, SPI • GPIO PXA 271 or 273 CPU • Power • 13/104 MHz • SDIO • 256k SRAM • FLASH • 0/32MB SDRAM • BT radio • 32MB FLASH • 802.11 radio 802.15.4 radio • Up to100m range Power subsystem • Regulated supply • Li-Ion battery charger Advanced connector • Camera interface Value components • High speed I/O • Security coprocessor • Audio interface • Root certificate • USB host/client • Encryption • Power • RF location • Scalable 32b CPU&DSP www.xbow.com 16
  17. 17. MICA OEM Stamp Full wireless node platforms (MICA) at Low-Cost 916/868 Mhz (1mW, 100mW, 1W transmit power) Mesh networking firmware Small OEM Form Factor (Left) Standard US postage stamp. (Right) MICAz Postage Stamp www.xbow.com 17
  18. 18. Why Mesh ? Radio contour plots shows that received radio strength varies significantly from idealized pattern Ref: D. Ganesan, B. Krishnamachari, A. Woo, D. Culler, D. Estrin, S. Wicker, “UCLA Computer Science Technical Report UCLA/CSD-TR 02-0013,” www.xbow.com 18
  19. 19. Why Mesh ? Static links show variability in receive strength over time Local null effects, people, etc., influence the quality of link Ref: UC Berkeley www.xbow.com 19
  20. 20. WSN Requirements Radios (315, 433, 868, 902-928)Mhz, 2.4Ghz Multiple transmit powers (1mW,100mW,1W) Network Topologies Star (hub and spoke) Hybrid Mesh (high powered and low powered nodes) All nodes are routers (long battery life) Multiple Data Flow Support Any-to-base (upstream) Base-to-any (downstream) Multiple Levels of Quality of Service Best effort Link-to-link ack/nack End-to-end ack/nack www.xbow.com 20
  21. 21. Wireless Sensor Networks Topics The Physical Internet Technology Background Examples/Case Studies
  22. 22. Case Studies 1. Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries 2. Water Irrigation 3. Predictive Maintenance of Large Machinery/Equipment 4. Temperature Monitoring for Electric Heat Tracing 5. Power Transmission Line Monitoring 6. Health Club Equipment Monitoring and Membership Services www.xbow.com 22
  23. 23. 20 Million Seed Management Task: Manage 20 million fast growing seeds annually Issue: Seed dormancy depends on a complex combination of water, light, temperature, gasses, mechanical restrictions, seed coats, and hormone structures Southeastern US growing regions www.xbow.com 23
  24. 24. Tree Growth Rate Variability Old Method Sensor Network Way: Trust nature Monitor soil temperature and Monitor local atmospheric moisture at various locations conditions Adjust irrigation schedule accordingly www.xbow.com 24
  25. 25. Network Characteristics Sensor Network Characteristics 2-3 sensors per acre Average distance between nodes about 400’ 50-100 acres total Low data rate www.xbow.com 25
  26. 26. Case Studies 1. Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries 2. Water Irrigation 3. Predictive Maintenance of Large Machinery/Equipment 4. Temperature Monitoring for Electric Heat Tracing 5. Power Transmission Line Monitoring 6. Health Club Equipment Monitoring and Membership Services www.xbow.com 26
  27. 27. Golf Course Water Irrigation Task: Improve quality of golf course greens Reduce water usage Issue: Greens quality depends on complex factors including soil type, soil moisture and other parameters. Southeastern US growing regions www.xbow.com 27
  28. 28. Green Quality Variability Old Method Sensor Network Way: Green keepers monitor each Monitor soil moisture and soil green for quality. temperature of each green. Monitor local atmospheric Adjust irrigation schedule conditions accordingly www.xbow.com 28
  29. 29. Network Characteristics Sensor Network Topology One underground sensor at each green communicating with above ground nodes. High power backbone mesh to relay data 10-30 above ground mesh nodes 9-18 underground nodes 1Watt radios www.xbow.com 29
  30. 30. Case Studies 1. Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries 2. Water Irrigation 3. Predictive Maintenance of Large Machinery/Equipment 4. Temperature Monitoring for Electric Heat Tracing 5. Power Transmission Line Monitoring 6. Health Club Equipment Monitoring and Membership Services www.xbow.com 30
  31. 31. Customer Case Study – BP What Vibration monitoring on oil tankers Manual sensor reading replaced with wireless sensor network Results Lower maintenance cost Proof of reliability of wireless sensor network in harshest environment Recognized with BP Helios Award www.xbow.com 31
  32. 32. Benefits Much more effective condition monitoring regime Continuous visibility to the engine equipment and condition Reduced costs and errors compared to manually data collection www.xbow.com 32
  33. 33. Network Characteristics Nodes High performance node (ImoteZ) for 100Khz data sampling and large data storage. Mesh wakes-up and forms 1-2 times per day. Bulk transfer of large data sets to base station. Wifi mesh to relay data from WSN to server. www.xbow.com 33
  34. 34. Case Studies 1. Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries 2. Water Irrigation 3. Predictive Maintenance of Large Machinery/Equipment 4. Temperature Monitoring for Electric Heat Tracing 5. Power Transmission Line Monitoring 6. Health Club Equipment Monitoring and Membership Services www.xbow.com 34
  35. 35. Electric Heat Tracing System Components Heater Cables Components Power distribution Controls Accessories Insulation Design Service Construction Maintenance www.xbow.com 35
  36. 36. Elements of a Electric Heat Tracing Circuit RTD Insulated Pipe Heat Tracing RTD Lead Wire “Cold Lead” Controller 3 Phase Power www.xbow.com 36
  37. 37. #1 Target: Eliminate RTD Lead Wiring Replacement Cost: is 20 x Mote Cost 20 ckt plus 1 Gateway Mesh RTD/VRC www.xbow.com 37
  38. 38. WSN Characteristics 50-100 units per site with 3 RTDs per unit Typically 100’-200’ between units. 1 mW radios, 916Mhz Minimum 5 years battery. Upstream communication only Data transmitted every 5 minutes www.xbow.com 38
  39. 39. Case Studies 1. Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries 2. Water Irrigation 3. Predictive Maintenance of Large Machinery/Equipment 4. Temperature Monitoring for Electric Heat Tracing 5. Power Transmission Line Monitoring 6. Health Club Equipment Monitoring and Membership Services www.xbow.com 39
  40. 40. High Voltage Transmission Line Monitoring Objective Locate failures of high voltage power lines. Monitor the electric and magnetic fields at each high voltage pole.. Detect failure and relay information to control station www.xbow.com 40
  41. 41. WSN Characteristics Linear array: relay data 20-40 hops to a base station. 500-1000’ between hop 100mW to 1W radios Minimum 5-10 years battery life with solar. www.xbow.com 41
  42. 42. Case Studies 1. Environmental Monitoring for Seedling Nurseries 2. Water Irrigation 3. Predictive Maintenance of Large Machinery/Equipment 4. Temperature Monitoring for Electric Heat Tracing 5. Power Transmission Line Monitoring 6. Health Club Equipment Monitoring and Membership Services www.xbow.com 42
  43. 43. Customer Case Study – Life Fitness Task Improve health club profitability by increasing membership retention. Use wireless network for fitness equipment to download and monitor personalized workouts Use wireless network to monitoring equipment usage www.xbow.com 43
  44. 44. Customer Case Study – Life Fitness Old Method Sensor Network Way: Member’s fill out work out cards after exercising on each Work out information for each machine. user is wirelessly transmitted User’s responsible to to a machine before workout. determine amount of exercise, Actual workout information each workout. transmitted back to server No feedback after the workout Club owner’s don’t know User’s get immediate which pieces of equipment are feedback on their workout more heavily used Club owners know usage of each machine www.xbow.com 44
  45. 45. Customer Case Study – Life Fitness WSN Characteristics : Limited power for radio communication on all machines. Some machines are always powered – form high speed communication backbone Some machines are battery powered – act as leaf nodes. More downstream communication than upstream. www.xbow.com 45

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