Helpful Technology
                     and the
               Internet Of Things
        Robert Poor <r@robertpoor.com>
 ...
Smart versus Helpful
• smart: CLEVER
  “mentally quick and resourceful but
  often lacking in depth and soundness”

• help...
Helpful Technology
• Connectivity is more important than
  local processing power.
• Embedded Wireless Networking
     – C...
Bob Lucky’s Hierarchy


                   Wisdom
                  Knowledge
                  Information
              ...
The Internet Of Things
                                                   150M
 “The overarching promise                  ...
Wireless Embedded
            Networking
• Moore’s Law: The cost of silicon-based
    systems decreases exponentially with...
Vanishing Cost of Processing
                                  Cost of Computing: $/MIPS

     $1,000,000,000.00

      $1...
Mesh Technology
                          A
                 95%                       B
                              40%...
Mesh Technology
                         A     95%
                 95%                      B
                           ...
Mesh Technology
                         A     95%
                 95%                       B
                          ...
Standards
• IEEE 802.15.4: low-rate (250 Kbits/sec),
  2.4GHz DSSS. Multiply sourced
  (Chipcon, Ember, FreeScale, others)...
Some Commercial Products
               Philips Lighting: Wireless
               Lighting Control
               Nuri Tel...
Selected Research Topics
• Alternative power sources, including
   energy scavenger systems.
• Ranging Systems based on Ul...
Thank you. Questions?

        Robert Poor <r@robertpoor.com>




14 June 2005       NOST Spring 2005
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2005, Robert Poor (ex-CTO Ember)

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2005, Robert Poor (ex-CTO Ember)

  1. 1. Helpful Technology and the Internet Of Things Robert Poor <r@robertpoor.com> NBT Group 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  2. 2. Smart versus Helpful • smart: CLEVER “mentally quick and resourceful but often lacking in depth and soundness” • helpful: USEFUL “serviceable for an end or purpose” 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  3. 3. Helpful Technology • Connectivity is more important than local processing power. • Embedded Wireless Networking – Cost – Technology – Standards • Commercial Results • Areas for further research 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  4. 4. Bob Lucky’s Hierarchy Wisdom Knowledge Information Data Signal 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  5. 5. The Internet Of Things 150M “The overarching promise CPUs driving [low rate, low power wireless systems] is low cost, self-installing wireless technology that links devices, systems and 7.5B embedded human operators and runs microcontrollers ostensibly on common batteries for months or even years.” [WDRG 2003] Units manufactured in 2001 (projected) Source: DARPA / Tennenhouse 2000 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  6. 6. Wireless Embedded Networking • Moore’s Law: The cost of silicon-based systems decreases exponentially with time. • Result: Wireless Embedded Networks will continue to become cheaper due to reduced silicon costs. • Metcalfe’s Law: The value of connecting to a network increases as the square of the number of connections. • Result: Wireless Embedded Networks will continue to become more valuable as they grow. 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  7. 7. Vanishing Cost of Processing Cost of Computing: $/MIPS $1,000,000,000.00 $100,000,000.00 10x reduction every 7.5 years $10,000,000.00 (2x reduction every 27 months) $1,000,000.00 $100,000.00 $10,000.00 $1,000.00 $100.00 $10.00 $1.00 10x reduction every 4 years $0.10 (2x reduction every 15 months) $0.01 1959 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 Source: Hans P Moravec, http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  8. 8. Mesh Technology A 95% B 40% 95% C Star Architecture: 40% reliable at node B In a Star Architecture, link reliability is limited by SNR between each node and its Access Point. 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  9. 9. Mesh Technology A 95% 95% B 40% 95% C Mesh Architecture: 94% reliable at node B In a Mesh Architecture, nodes cooperatively route messages, resulting in increased reliability. 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  10. 10. Mesh Technology A 95% 95% B 40% 95% 95% C Mesh Architecture: 99.4% reliable at node B In a Mesh Architecture, nodes cooperatively route messages, resulting in increased reliability. 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  11. 11. Standards • IEEE 802.15.4: low-rate (250 Kbits/sec), 2.4GHz DSSS. Multiply sourced (Chipcon, Ember, FreeScale, others). • ZigBee: Defines compatible profiles on top of 802.15.4 for specific applications. Over 150 member companies. See www.zigbee.org. • WINA: Wireless Industrial Network Alliance. Best practices for Industrial Applications. See www.wina.org. 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  12. 12. Some Commercial Products Philips Lighting: Wireless Lighting Control Nuri Telecom: AIMIR Automatic Meter Reading Eaton Corporation: Home Heartbeat Home Awareness Raymarine: S1000 Wireless Autopilot System 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005
  13. 13. Selected Research Topics • Alternative power sources, including energy scavenger systems. • Ranging Systems based on Ultra- WideBand (UWB) and other technologies • Smart Radio and efficient spectrum usage. • High-level software interfaces: connecting to the Enterprise • June 2005 is the “TCP/IP” 2005 the Internet Of 14 What NOST Spring for Things?
  14. 14. Thank you. Questions? Robert Poor <r@robertpoor.com> 14 June 2005 NOST Spring 2005

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