Thai forest

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Thai forest

  1. 1. F F 25.3 F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F . F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F ( F ) F F F5-104 ok.pmd 5 11/6/2549, 0:55
  2. 2. F 5 7 F F 9 (climatic) 9 - (edaphic) 9 (elevation) 13 (biotic) 13 13 F (evergreen forest) 13 (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) 14 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) 21 (lower montane rain forest) 33 F F (lower montane oak forest) 39 F F - F (lower montane pine-oak forest) 45 F (lower montane coniferous forest) 48 (lower montane scrub) 48 (upper montane rain forest cloud forest) 56 (upper montane scrub) 59 F (montane peat bog sphagnum bog) 63 (mangrove forest) 65 (peat swamp forest coastal peat swamp forest) 71 F - (freshwater swamp forest) 73 (strand vegetation) 78 (deciduous forest) 81 (mixed deciduous forest) 81 (deciduous dipterocarp forest dry dipterocarp forest) 91 - F (pine-deciduous dipterocarp forest) 99 104 F 1055-104 ok.pmd 6 11/6/2549, 0:55
  3. 3. F F (latitude) 5 21 F F F F (longitude) 97 106 320,696,888 F 513,115 F F F 1,620 F F 750 F F (tropic) F F F F F F F F F F (microclimate) F F F F F F F F F (habitat diversity) (species diversity) F (genetic diversity) . . 2504 171 F F( F 53) F F F F F 4 F . . 2541 81 F F ( F 25) F F - F F FF F F - F F FF F 5 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F (climax forest) FF F F (floristic composition) F5-104 ok.pmd 7 11/6/2549, 0:55
  4. 4. F . . 25415-104 ok.pmd 8 11/6/2549, 0:55
  5. 5. F F F F F F F F F F F F ( 1) F F F F F F 1. (climatic) ( ) F F F F F (seasonal) F F ( F ) 1,050 1,470 . F 75 97 F F F F F (deciduous forest) F( ) F F F F F F F F (evergreen forest) F F F (seasonal rain forest semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) F F 1,760 3,140 . F 102 150 4,000 . F F F F (evergreen) F F F F F F F (everwet) F F (tropical evergreen rain forest) F F F F F F (3 4 ) F (deciduous tree) F F F (evergreen tree) F F F F F F F F (floristic composition) F F F F F F (climatic formation) 2. (edaphic) F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F (mixed deciduous forest) F (limestone) F F F F (deciduous dipterocarp forest) F F F F Shorea siamensis F F5-104 ok.pmd 9 11/6/2549, 0:55
  6. 6. 10 1 F 30 ( . . 2494 2523) F F : (2525)5-104 ok.pmd 10 11/6/2549, 0:55
  7. 7. 11 2 2- F F (2,565 ) F F F F F (wetland) (lowland zone) F F TERF, F SRF, MDF, DDF (montane zone) F F LMF UMF F F F (moisture gradient) F (mesic) F (xeric) F F F F F F (leaf duration) F (evergreen- ) (deciduous- ) F F (main canopy) F (closed) (open) F F F F (graminoid undergrowth) F F (few or none) F (abundant) F (pines-P)5-104 ok.pmd 11 11/6/2549, 0:55
  8. 8. 12 1 F F F - F EVERGREEN FOREST 1. ++ + 800 ( 900) Tropical evergreen rain f. 2. F ++ + 800 ( 900) Seasonal rain f. / Dry evergreen f. 3. ++ + (900 ) 1000 1800 ( 1900) Lower montane rain f. 4. F F ++ + + (700 ) 1000 2000 Lower montane oak f. 5. FF- F ++ ++ ++ (700 ) 1000 1400 ( 1800) Lower montane pine-oak f. 6. F ++ ++ 1100 1500 Lower montane coniferous f. 7. ++ ++ + 1200 1800 Lower montane scrub 8. ++ + (1900 ) 2000 2565 Upper montane rain f. 9. ++ ++ + 1900 2300 Upper montane scrub 10. F ++ ++ + 1200 2500 Montane peat bog or sphagnum bog 11. + ++ 0 20 Mangrove f. 12. ++ ++ 0 30 Peat swamp f. 13. , F- + ++ 5 200 Freshwater swamp f. 14. + ++ 0 20 ( ) Strand vegetaion (sand strand & rock strand) DECIDUOUS FOREST 15. , + ++ ++ 800 ( 900) Mixed deciduous f. 16. + ++ ++ 600 ( 900) Deciduous dipterocarp f. 17. - F + ++ ++ (70 ) 150 1200 ( 1350) Pine-deciduous dipterocarp f.5-104 ok.pmd 12 11/6/2549, 0:55
  9. 9. 13 F (mangrove forest) F F F F F F FF F- (freshwater swamp forest) F F FF (peat swamp forest) 3. (elevation) F (temperature) F (atmospheric humidity) F 0.4 0.7 oC F 100 F / F 1,000 F 1,900 2,565 F / F cloud forest F F F F F F (temperate) F (montane) ( 3) F F F F F F F F F F F F (subalpine vegetation) F 1,900 2,180 F 4. (biotic) F F F F F F F F F F - F F F F F F F F F F F (secondary growth) F F (successional stage) F F F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F F F fire climax community F F F F F F F F F 2 F F (evergreen forest) (deciduous forest) F (evergreen forest) F F F F F F FF F FF F F F F F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F 145-104 ok.pmd 13 11/6/2549, 0:55
  10. 10. 14 1. (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) 2. F (seasonal rain forest semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) 3. (lower montane rain forest) 4. F F (lower montane oak forest) 5. F F - F (lower montane pine-oak forest) 6. F (lower montane coniferous forest) 7. (lower montane scrub) 8. (upper montane rain forest cloud forest) 9. (upper montane scrub) 10. F (montane peat bog sphagnum bog) 11. (mangrove forest) 12. (peat swamp forest) 13. F - (freshwater swamp forest) 14. (strand vegetation) (sand strand) (rock strand) 1. (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) F (tropical rain forest) F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F F F F - (Dipterocarpaceae) F F F 30 50 F F F FF F F F F F F F F (Palmae) F F F F F FF F F F F (epiphyte) F F F F Dipterocarpaceae F Dipterocarpus kerrii, D. grandiflorus, D. gracilis, D. chartaceus, F D. dyeri, D. hasseltii, Anisoptera curtisii, Neobalanocarpus heimii, Cotylelobium lanceolatum, F Parashorea stellata, Hopea odorata, H. pedicellata, F H. sangal, H. latifolia, F Shorea glauca, S. laevis, S. faguetiana, S. gratissima, S. hypochra, S. curtisii, S. dasyphylla, S. leprosula, S. macroptera, S. parvifolia, - S. singkawang, Vatica lowii, V. odorata5-104 ok.pmd 14 11/6/2549, 0:55
  11. 11. 15 (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) F F F F F F (Dipterocarpaceae) F F Shorea curtisii F ( ) F hill dipterocarp forest5-104 ok.pmd 15 11/6/2549, 0:55
  12. 12. 16 (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) F F Cotylelobium lanceolatum F F F -5-104 ok.pmd 16 11/6/2549, 0:56
  13. 13. 17 F F F Intsia palembanica, Parkia speciosa, P. timoriana, Callerya atropurpurea, Archidendron jiringa, Cynometra malaccensis, C. ramiflora, Koompassia excelsa, K. malaccensis, Dialium indum, F D. platysepalum, Saraca thaipingensis, Sindora echinocalyx (Leguminosae Mimosoideae), F F Aglaia spp., F Dysoxylum spp., Chisocheton spp. (Meliaceae), Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae), F Antiaris toxicaria, Artocarpus lanceifolia, A. dadah, A. elastricus, A. rigidus (Moraceae), Dyera costulata, F Alstonia macrophylla, A. scholaris (Apocynaceae), Durio lowianus, D. griffithii, F Neesia altissima (Bombacaceae), Semecarpus curtisii, F Swintonia floribunda, Parishia insignis, Pentaspadon velutinus, F F F Dracontomelon dao (Anacardiaceae), F Scaphium linearicarpum, S. scaphigerum (Sterculiaceae) F F Syzygium spp. (Myrtaceae), Goniothalamus spp., Polyalthia spp., Pseuduvaria spp. (Annonaceae) F F F F F F Borassodendron machadonis, F F Johannesteijsmannia altifrons, Orania sylvicola, Oncosperma horrida, F F Licuala elegans, L. distans, Arenga westerhoutii, F Livistona speciosa, F F Caryota spp. Calamus spp., Daemonorops spp., Korthalsia spp. (Palmae) F FF F F F F F Dracontomelon dao (Anacardiaceae), F Aglaia silvestris (Meliaceae), Artocarpus lacucha (Moraceae), Palaquium obovatum (Sapotaceae), Garcinia hanburyi (Guttiferae), Scaphium scaphigerum, Heritiera javanica, F H. sumatrana (Sterculiaceae), F Hopea recopei, H. pierrei, Dipterocarpus baudii, F D. dyeri, Shorea guiso, S. hypochra (Dipterocarpaceae), F Archidendron quocense, A. jiringa (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae), F F F Salacca wallichiana (Palmae) Arenga westerhoutii F5-104 ok.pmd 17 11/6/2549, 0:56
  14. 14. 18 (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) Saraca thaipingensis Koompassia excelsa FF F F Saraca thaipingensis F Aquilaria malaccensis ( )5-104 ok.pmd 18 11/6/2549, 0:56
  15. 15. 19 (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) Semecarpus cochinchinensis F Syzygium megacarpum Elateriospermum tapos ( ) Elateriospermum tapos ( F ) F F F F Parishia insignis Swintonia floribunda F F5-104 ok.pmd 19 11/6/2549, 0:56
  16. 16. 20 (tropical evergreen rain forest tropical rain forest) F Goniothalamus giganteus F F Castanopsis wallichii ( F ) F F F Dracontomelon dao ( F ) Neobalanocarpus heimii ( F ) F F F F Stereospermum fimbriatum F Dipterocarpus dyeri F F F5-104 ok.pmd 20 11/6/2549, 0:57
  17. 17. 21 2. F (seasonal rain forest, semi evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) F F F F 950 ( F ) F F F F gallery forest F FF F F F Dipterocarpus alatus, D. turbinatus, Hopea odorata (Dipterocarpaceae), FF Bischofia javensis (Euphorbiaceae), Erythrina subumbrans (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) Toona ciliata (Meliaceae) F F F F F F F F F FF (deciduous tree) F F F F F F F F F F F F F FF F F Tetrameles nudiflora (Datiscaceae), F Pterocymbium tinctorium (Sterculiaceae), F Gmelina arborea (Labiatae), Choerospondias axillaris (Anacardiaceae), Chukrasia tabularis (Meliaceae), Ailanthus triphysa (Simaroubaceae), F Acrocarpus fraxinifolius (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae), Crypteronia paniculata (Crypteroniaceae), Arfeuillea arborescens (Sapindaceae), F Lagerstroemia calyculata, L. balansae F L. tomentosa (Lythraceae) F FF F F F Hopea ferrea, H. odorata, Shorea henryana, S. roxburghii, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, D. alatus, D. costatus, Anisoptera costata, A. scaphula, Vatica harmandiana, V. odorata (Dipterocarpaceae), Pterygota alata (Sterculiaceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Aphanamixis polystachya, F Sandoricum koetjape, F Aglaia spp., Chisocheton spp., F Dysoxylum spp., Walsura trichostemon (Meliaceae), F Antiaris toxicaria, Artocarpus lacucha, Ficus racemosa (Moraceae), Balakata baccata, F Sapium insigne, Cleidion spiciflorum, F Drypetes roxburghii, Baccaurea ramiflora, Mallotus philippensis (Euphorbiaceae), F Gonocaryum lobbianum (Icacinaceae), Dimocarpus longan, Nephelium hypoleucum, Paranephelium xestophyllum, Pometia pinnata (Sapindaceae), Siphonodon celastrineus (Celastraceae), Terminalia triptera, T. pierrei (Combretaceae), Homalium ceylanicum, H. grandiflorum, H. tomentosum, Hydnocarpus ilicifolia, F H. anthelminthicus (Flacourtiaceae), F Adenanthera pavonina, Parkia leiophylla, F P. sumatrana, subsp. streptocarpa, F Afzelia xylocarpa, Dialium cochinchinense, Saraca indica, S. declinata (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae),5-104 ok.pmd 21 11/6/2549, 0:57
  18. 18. 22 Cinnamomum iners, C. bejolghota, F F C. glaucescens, C. subavenium, Phoebe paniculata, P. lanceolata, Litsea monopetala (Lauraceae), Michelia champaca (Magnoliaceae), F Carallia brachiata (Rhizophoraceae), F Mangifera spp., Bouea oppositifolia, Semecarpus cochinchinensis, Spondias pinnata, S. bipinnata, F S. lakonensis (Anacardiaceae), Memecylon spp. (Melastomataceae), Radermachera ignea, Stereospermum fimbriatum, F Markhamia stipulata var. kerrii (Bignoniaceae), Picrasma javanica (Simaroubaceae), Mitrephora spp., Polyalthia spp., Pseuduvaria spp., Cyathocalyx martabanicus, Cananga latifolia, Goniothalamus spp., F F F Desmos spp., Melodorum fruticosum, (Annonaceae), F Knema spp., F Horsfieldia spp., (Myristicaceae) F F F F Areca triandra, F Arenga pinnata, F F Caryota mitis, F Livistona speciosa F F . F F F F Mansonia gagei (Sterculiaceae) F F F F F (10 20 ) F F F F 10 F F Manilkara hexandra (Sapotaceae), Memecylon spp. (Melastomataceae), F Psydrax dicocca (Rubiaceae) F F Atalantia monophylla (Rutaceae), Flacourtia indica (Flacourtiaceae), F Streblus ilicifolius (Moraceae) F F F F F (littoral seasonal rain forest) F F (strand forest) F F F F F F beach forest F F ( ) F F F F Livistona speciosa5-104 ok.pmd 22 11/6/2549, 0:57
  19. 19. 23 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) F F F F Dipterocarpus costatus F 700 1,000 F F F Dipterocarpus turbinatus F F F 600 8005-104 ok.pmd 23 11/6/2549, 0:57
  20. 20. 24 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) F F F (Dipterocarps) F F 200 F F Lagerstroemia calyculata F F F F F5-104 ok.pmd 24 11/6/2549, 0:57
  21. 21. 25 Anisoptera costata F Rhus succedanea F ( ) F F F F F (gallery forest) F F5-104 ok.pmd 25 11/6/2549, 0:57
  22. 22. 26 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) F F F F F F F5-104 ok.pmd 26 11/6/2549, 0:58
  23. 23. 27 Aesculus assamica F F F F F F Ailanthus triphysa F F F F F F5-104 ok.pmd 27 11/6/2549, 0:58
  24. 24. 28 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) F Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Altingia excelsa F F F ( ) Chaetocarpus castanocarpus Dialium cochinchinensis F Dipterocarpus costatus Diospyros malabarica F ( ) F ( )5-104 ok.pmd 28 11/6/2549, 0:58
  25. 25. 29 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) Gironniera nervosa Horsfieldia glabra F F F Spondias lakonensis Erythrina subumbrans F F F F Cinnamomum ilicioides F ( ) F Carallia brachiata5-104 ok.pmd 29 11/6/2549, 0:58
  26. 26. 30 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) Melodorum fruticosum Mitrephora vandaeflora F F F Mitrephora winitii Radermachera hainanensis F F Parkia leiophylla Parkia sumatrana subsp. streptocarpa F F5-104 ok.pmd 30 11/6/2549, 0:59
  27. 27. 31 F (seasonal rain forest, semi-evergreen forest dry evergreen forest) Scleropyrum wallichianum Saraca declinata F Vatica odorata Zollingeria dongnaiensis Ficus albipila Nephelium melliferum F F F ( )5-104 ok.pmd 31 11/6/2549, 0:59
  28. 28. 32 2,565 m ACERACEAE ( F , ) BETULACEAE ( F) FAGACEAE ( F ) HAMAMELIDACEAE ( ) LAURACEAE ( FF) MAGNOLIACEAE ( ) PROTEACEAE ( ) SYMPLOCACEAE ( ) MONTANE THEACEAE ( ) ZONE etc. 1,000 m ANACARDIACEAE ( F ) ANNONACEAE ( ) DILLENIACEAE ( F ) LOWLAND DIPTEROCARPACEAE ( , ) ZONE GUTTIFERAE ( ) MELIACEAE ( ) SAPINDACEAE ( ) SAPOTACEAE ( ) ZINGIBERACEAE ( - F - ) 0m etc. 3 F FF (lowland zone) (montane zone)5-104 ok.pmd 32 11/6/2549, 0:59
  29. 29. 33 3. (lower montane rain forest) F F 1,000 1,900 F F F F F F F F F F F F F (temperate species) F (montane species) F F F F F F F FF F (lowland species) F F F FF F F F F F F F FF F F 20 35 F FF F F F F F F F F F FF FF- F F F F F, F F F , , F F F FF F FF F F Fagaceae F F Castanopsis acuminatissima, F C. armata, F C. calathiformis, F C. diversifolia, F C. echinocarpa, F C. ferox, F C. fissa, F C. indica, F C. piriformis, F C. purpurea, F C. rhamnifolia, F C. tribuloides, F Lithocarpus auriculatus, F L. dealbatus, F F L. grandifolius, F L. fenestratus, F L. garrettianus, F F L. lindleyanus, F L. polystachyus, F L. sootepensis, F F L. thomsonii, F L. truncatus, F Quercus brandisiana, F Q. eumorpha, F Q. lenticellata, F F Q. myrsinifolia, F Q. oidocarpa, F Q. poilanei, F Q. semiserrata, F Q. vestita F F Michelia rajaniana, F M. floribunda, M. baillonii, Manglietia garrettii, Magnolia hodgsonii, M. henryi (Magnoliaceae), F Schima wallichii (Theaceae), Actinodaphne henryi, Cinnamomum tamala, Lindera pulcherrima, Litsea monopetala, F L. semecarpifolia, L. beusekomii, L. martabanica, Phoebe tavoyana (Lauraceae), F Fraxinus floribundus, Olea salicifolia (Oleaceae), Canarium subulatum (Burseraceae), Ulmus lancaefolia (Ulmaceae), F Acer calcaratum, F A. laurinum, F A. oblongum (Aceraceae), Choerospondias axillaris, Rhus succedanea, F F Mangifera sylvatica (Anacardiaceae), F Aglaia chittagonga, Toona ciliata, F Walsura robusta (Meliaceae), Mammea harmandii, Garcinia merguensis (Guttiferae), F Elaeocarpus braceanus, E. floribundus, F E. prunifolius, F Sloanea sigun, S. tomentosa (Elaeocarpaceae), Sapindus rarak (Sapindaceae), Adinandra integerrima, Camellia connata, C. oleifera var.5-104 ok.pmd 33 11/6/2549, 0:59
  30. 30. 34 (lower montane rain forest) F F F F Caryota maxima F 1,400 1,500 F F 1,3005-104 ok.pmd 34 11/6/2549, 0:59
  31. 31. 35 confusa, Gordonia dalglieshiana, Pyrenaria camelliiflora (Theaceae), Symplocos racemosa, S. sumuntia (Symplocaceae), Aesculus assamica (Hippocastanaceae), Nyssa javanica (Nyssaceae), F F Saurauia nepaulensis, F S. roxburghii (Actinidiaceae), Meliosma pinnata (Sabiaceae), Eriobotrya bengalensis (Rosaceae), Helicia formosana var. oblanceolata, Heliciopsis terminalis (Proteaceae), F Syzygium angkae (Myrtaceae), Xanthophyllum virens (Xanthophyllaceae) F F F (conifer) F F Cephalotaxus mannii (Cephalotaxaceae), F Podocarpus neriifolius F Nageia wallichianus (Podocarpaceae) F . F F 1,500 1,900 C. mannii F F F F F F F F F Caryota sp., F F C. urens, Wallichia caryotoides, F Livistona speciosa (Palmae) F Pandanus furcatus (Pandanaceae), F F Cyathea spp. (Cyatheaceae), Dipteris conjugata (Dipteridaceae), F F Cycas simplicipinna (Cycadaceae) F Girardinia diversifolia F F F Caryota maxima F5-104 ok.pmd 35 11/6/2549, 0:59
  32. 32. 36 (lower montane rain forest) Rhododendron veitchianum Pyrenaria diospyricarpa F F Phlogacanthus curviflorus Cephalotaxus mannii F F Magnolia liliifera Manglietia garrettii Michelia baillonii FF F Michelia rajaniana5-104 ok.pmd 36 11/6/2549, 1:00
  33. 33. 37 (lower montane rain forest) F Acer calcaratum F F Helicia vestita F Acer calcaratum F Wightia speciosissima Wightia speciosissima ( ) FF F5-104 ok.pmd 37 11/6/2549, 1:00
  34. 34. 38 (lower montane rain forest) F Quercus eumorpha F F F Quercus semiserrata F F F Quercus ramsbottomii Sapria himalayana F F5-104 ok.pmd 38 11/6/2549, 1:00
  35. 35. 39 4. F F (lower montane oak forest) FF F F 900 F F F 10 25 F F F F F F F F F F F F F F Usnea spp. (Usneaceae) F F FF F F F F F F F F F F F F FF FF F F F F F F F F FF FF F F F F F F FF F F F F F F F F FF (Fagaceae) (Theaceae) (Lauraceae) F oak-tea-laurel forest FF F F Castanopsis acuminatissima, F C. argyrophylla, F C. armata, F C. calathiformis, F C. diversifolia, F C. echinocarpa, F C. fissa, F C. hystrix, F C. purpurea, F C. tribuloides, F Lithocarpus deabatus, F F L. grandifolius, F L. garrettianus, F F L. lindleyanus, F L. polystachyus, F L. trachycarpus, F L. truncatus, F Quercus aliena, F Q. brandisiana, F F Q. chapaensis, F F Q. franchetii, F Q. helferiana, F Q. kingiana, F Q. lamellosa, F Q. lanata, F Q. mespilifolia, F Q. semiserrata, F Q. semecarpifolia (Fagaceae), Anneslea fragrans, F Ternstroemia gymnanthera, F Schima wallichii (Theaceae), F Beilschmiedia gammieana, Persea gamblei, Phoebe spp. (Lauraceae), F Helicia nilagirica, Heliciopsis terminalis (Proteaceae), F Engelhardtia spicata (Juglandaceae), F Betula alnoides, F F Carpinus viminea (Betulaceae), F Myrica esculenta (Myricaceae), F Prunus cerasoides (Rosaceae), F Fraxinus floribundus (Oleaceae), Albizia chinensis, Dalbergia cultrata, Bauhinia variegata (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae), F Tristaniopsis burmanica var. rufescens (Myrtaceae), F Wendlandia tinctoria (Rubiaceae), F F Antidesma acidum, Aporosa villosa, Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceae), Styrax benzoides (Styracaceae), Craibiodendron stellatum, F Lyonia ovalifolia, Rhododendron moulmeinense, F Vaccinium sprengelii (Ericaceae), Symplocos cochinchinensis, S. racemosa (Symplocaceae), F Markhamia stipulata var. kerrii (Bignoniaceae), Pittosporopsis kerrii (Icacinaceae), Cycas pectinata (Cycadaceae) Phoenix loureiri var. loureiri (Palmae) F FF F F F F5-104 ok.pmd 39 11/6/2549, 1:00
  36. 36. 40 F F (lower montane oak forest) FF F F 1,450 F Lithocarpus sootepensis F FF F F5-104 ok.pmd 40 11/6/2549, 1:00
  37. 37. 41 F F (lower montane oak forest) F Quercus lanata FF 1,600 F F F F Quercus semecarpifolia 1,900 F5-104 ok.pmd 41 11/6/2549, 1:01
  38. 38. 42 F F (lower montane oak forest) F Rhododendron moulmeinense F Castanopsis acuminatissima Rhododendron moulmeinense F F FF F F F Castanopsis tribuloides FF FF- F F Lithocarpus fenestratus FF FF- F FF F 1,5005-104 ok.pmd 42 11/6/2549, 1:01
  39. 39. 43 F F (lower montane oak forest) F Prunus cerasoides FF F Prunus cerasoides Heliciopsis terminalis F Ilex umbellulata FF FF FF- F5-104 ok.pmd 43 11/6/2549, 1:01
  40. 40. 44 F F (lower montane oak forest) Agapetes lobbii F F Carpinus viminea FF FF Clematis buchananiana Podocarpus polystachyus F Betula alnoides F FF F Nageia wallichiana F Styrax benzoides FF F Diospyros glandulosa FF- F5-104 ok.pmd 44 11/6/2549, 1:02
  41. 41. 45 5. FF- F (lower montane pine-oak forest) FF- F FF F F F F F F F F F ( ) F F F F F F F F FF F F (stand) F F F F F F F FF F F - F F F F F F F - F F F . F F F F F F ( F F ) F F F F F- F F F (pine savanna) F FF- F F - (pine-deciduous dipterocarp forest) F F F F FF- F F F (pine) F FF F F F F F (calcifuge) F FF- F F Pinus kesiya, P. merkusii (Pinaceae) F F F F Castanopsis acuminatissima, F C. argyrophylla, F C. echinocarpa, F C. tribuloides, F C. diversifolia, F Lithocarpus dealbatus, F Quercus aliena, F Q. brandisiana, F Q. helferiana, F Q. kingiana, F Q. mespilifolia (Fagaceae), Anneslea fragrans, Eurya acuminata, F Schima wallichii (Theaceae), F Helicia nilagirica (Proteaceae), F Engelhardtia spicata (Juglandaceae), F Syzygium cumini, F Tristaniopsis rufescens (Myrtaceae), Craibiodendron stellatum, F Lyonia ovalifolia, F Vaccinium sprengelii (Ericaceae), Dalbergia cultrata (Leguminosae), Symplocos racemosa (Symplocaceae), F Wendlandia tinctoria (Rubiaceae), Styrax benzoides (Styracaceae), Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceae), F Paris polyphylla Cycas pectinata (Cycadaceae), Phoenix F FF- F loureiri var. loureiri (Palmae)5-104 ok.pmd 45 11/6/2549, 1:02
  42. 42. 46 FF- F (lower montane pine-oak forest) FF- F ( ) F 1,300 FF- F ( ) F F F 1,0005-104 ok.pmd 46 11/6/2549, 1:02
  43. 43. 47 FF- F (lower montane pine-oak forest) F F F FF- F F F F F FF- F F F5-104 ok.pmd 47 11/6/2549, 1:02
  44. 44. 48 6. F (lower montane coniferous forest) F F F F F conifer F F 1,100 1,300 F F 65 90 F F F F F Calocedrus macrolepis (Cupressaceae) F F F 25 33 F 48 F F F 70 95 F F F F F F F Podocarpus neriifolius P. polystachyus Dacrydium elatum (Podocarpaceae) F F F Nageia motleyi F N. wallichiana (Podocarpaceae) F F F F F F Quercus spp., F Lithocarpus fenestratus (Fagaceae) Aidia parvifolia (Rubiaceae) F Syzygium oblatum (Myrtaceae) F F F F D. elatum 1,500 7. (lower montane scrub) F F . F 1,000 1,500 F F F F FF F F FF F F F 28 F F F 0.30 3 F F F F F F F F Lithocarpus recurvatus, F L. fenestratus (Fagaceae), Rhododendron lyi, R. simsii, F F Vaccinium eberhardtii var. pubescens, F V. sprengelii, F Lyonia foliosa, F F Agapetes saxicola, A. lobbii (Ericaceae), Ilex triflora (Aquifoliaceae), Rhamnus cranatus (Rhamnaceae), Annesles fragrans, F Schima wallichii, F Ternstroemia gymnanthera (Theaceae), Wightia speciosissima (Scrophulariaceae), F Ardisia pilosa (Myrsinaceae), Tarenna sp. (Rubiaceae), F Hilicia nilagirica (Proteaceae), Baeckia frutescens (Myrtaceae), F Melastoma sanguineum, F M. malabathricum var. normale, F F Osbeckia stellata (Melastomataceae), F Schefflera subintegra (Araliaceae), F Viburnum foetidum (Caprifoliaceae), Sorbus granulosa (Rosaceae), Persea gamblei (Lauraceae), Pteridium aquilinum subsp. aquilinum var. wightianum (Dennstaedtiaceae) F F 1,000 1,700 F F F F F F F F FF F F F F F Euphorbia spp. (Euphorbiaceae), F F Dracaena spp. (Dracaenaceae)5-104 ok.pmd 48 11/6/2549, 1:02
  45. 45. 49 F (lower montane coniferous forest) F Podocarpus neriifolius F FF Dacrydium elatum Dacrydium elatum F F Calocedrus macrolepis F F F F F5-104 ok.pmd 49 11/6/2549, 1:02
  46. 46. 50 (lower montane scrub) F F 1,300 F F 1,2005-104 ok.pmd 50 11/6/2549, 1:03
  47. 47. 51 (lower montane scrub) 1,300 F 1,0005-104 ok.pmd 51 11/6/2549, 1:03
  48. 48. 52 (lower montane scrub) F F5-104 ok.pmd 52 11/6/2549, 1:03
  49. 49. 53 F F Iris colletii FF- F Anneslea fragrans FF- F Anaphalis margaritacea Rhododendron simsii FF FF- F F F Debregeasia wallichiana Hedychium ellipticum F Smilax micro-china5-104 ok.pmd 53 11/6/2549, 1:04
  50. 50. 54 (cloud forest) (upper montane rain forest) (upper montane scrub) F F F / F 1,900 2,565 (montane) F / (cloud belt)5-104 ok.pmd 54 11/6/2549, 1:04
  51. 51. 55 F F (temperate species) F F F F F F Acer (maple) Acer laurinum ( F ) Aesculus (horse chestnut) Aesculus assamica ( ) Aster (daisy) Aster ageratoides ssp. alato-petiolata ( ) Betula (birch) Betula alnoides ( F) Carpinus (hornbeam) Carpinus viminea ( F F ) Castanopsis (chestnut) Castanopsis acuminatissima ( F ) Clematis (clematis) Clematis smilacifolia ( F ) Fraxinus (ash) Fraxinus floribunda ( F ) Gentiana (gentian) Gentiana hesseliana var. lakshnakarae ( ) Hedera (ivy) Hedera himalaica ( ) Iris (iris) Iris collettii ( F F ) Lilium (lily) Lilium primulinum ( ) Pinus (pine) Pinus kesiya ( ) Pinus merkusii ( ) Primula (primrose) Primula siamensis ( )F Prunus (cherry, peach, apricot, nectarine) Prunus cerasoides ( F, )F Quercus (oak) Quercus kerrii ( F ) Rhododendron (azalea & rhododendron) Rhododendron lyi ( ) Rhododendron simsii ( ) Rosa (rose) Rosa odorata var. gigantea ( ) Salix (willow) Salix tetrasperma ( F ) Ulmus (elm) Ulmus lancifolia ( F F F ) Vaccinium (heather) Vaccinium sprengelii ( F ) Viola (violet) Viola betonicifolia ( )5-104 ok.pmd 55 11/6/2549, 1:04
  52. 52. 56 8. (upper montane rain forest cloud forest) F 1,900 F F / F F F F F F 16 23 F F F F F F F F F F / F F F F F F F F F F FF F F F F F F 12 F F F Strobilanthes involucratus (Acanthaceae) (terrestrial fern) (epiphytic fern) F F F F mossy forest F F F F F (lowland species) F F F F F Antiaris toxicaria, - Ficus spp. (Moraceae), Canarium spp. (Burseraceae), Balakata baccata. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia spp. (Combretaceae), F Aglaia spp., Toona spp. (Meliaceae), Pterospermum spp. (Sterculaiceae) F F F Michelia rajaniana, Manglietia garrettii, Magnolia hodgsonii (Magnoliaceae), FF F F F Castanopsis acuminatissima, F C. tribuloides, F F Lithocarpus grandifolius, F Quercus helferiana, F Q. kingiana F FF F F Quercus eumorpha, F Lithocarpus aggregatus, F Castanopsis purpurea (Fagaceae), F Schima wallichii, F Eurya nitida, Gordonia dalglieshiana (Theaceae), Neolitsea foliosa, F Litsea martabarnica, Beilschmiedia spp., Cinnamomum tamala, Neocinnamomum caudatum (Lauraceae), Mastixia euonymoides (Cornaceae), F Myrica esulenta (Myricaceae), Helicia formosana var. oblanceolata, Heliciopsis terminalis (Proteaceae), F Acer laurinum, F A. calcaratum (Aceraceae), Symingtonia populnea (Hamamelidaceae), Myrsine semiserrata (Myrsinaceae), Osmanthus fragrans (Oleaceae), Symplocos dryophila (Symplocaceae), F Macropanax dispermus (Araliaceae), F Turpinia cochinchinensis (Staphyleaceae) F F F F F F F Rhododendron arboreum subsp. delavayi (Ericaceae) F F F Gaultheria crenulata (Ericaceae) F F F Agapetes hosseana, Rhododendron veitchianum (Ericaceae) Neohymenopogon parasiticus (Rubiaceae)5-104 ok.pmd 56 11/6/2549, 1:04
  53. 53. 57 (upper montane rain forest or cloud forest) F F 2,400 2,5005-104 ok.pmd 57 11/6/2549, 1:04
  54. 54. 58 (upper montane rain forest or cloud forest) F F F F F F F Wightia speciosissima5-104 ok.pmd 58 11/6/2549, 1:04

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