Lesson2 skeletal


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Lesson2 skeletal

  1. 1. Skeletal System
  2. 2. Functions of the Skeleton <ul><li>Movement: muscles act on the bones </li></ul><ul><li>Supports and protects vital organs </li></ul><ul><li>Storage centers for vital minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produce red blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone marrow </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Structure of the Skeleton <ul><li>Axial Skeleton – 80 bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull, Spine, Ribs and sternum </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Axial Skeleton in blue
  5. 5. Structure of the Skeleton <ul><li>Appendicular Skeleton – 126 bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs and feet </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Types of Bones <ul><li>Long bones: Arms and Legs (femur & humerus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaft – diaphyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End – epiphyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form joints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce red blood cells, most of the white blood cells, and platelets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Types of Bones <ul><li>Short Bones: wrist and hands (Metacarpals and Phalanges) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly in the hands and feet </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Types of Bones <ul><li>Flat Bones: Ribs and Skull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin and flat shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect vital organs such as heart, lungs and brain </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Types of Bones <ul><li>Irregular Bones: Shaped irregularly (vertebrae) </li></ul>
  10. 12. Types of Vertebrae C1: Atlas Holds the Head up C2: Axis Allows for rotation of the head
  11. 13. Kevin Everett Injury <ul><li>Dislocation between c3 and c4 </li></ul><ul><li>Cold therapy was used to reduce swelling </li></ul>
  12. 14. On the ride to the hospital, Cappuccino began cold therapy treatment. He had the ambulance air-conditioning set at the lowest temperature, as Everett received two liters (about two quarts) of ice-cold saline solution intravenously, and called the hospital to prepare a cooling blanket. “ There is no specific written protocol” for cold therapy, Cappuccino said. But he said the goal was to lower a patient’s body temperature to reduce inflammation and the destruction of cells in the spinal cord, which can lead to further damage. NY TIMES
  13. 15. Cartilage <ul><li>Strong flexible connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is cartilage found??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ears </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between vertebra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basically any joints </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Cartilage <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line surfaces of joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow joints to move smoothly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent bone on bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cushion joints especially vertebra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New born skeleton is mostly cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ossification: Process by which bone is formed, renewed and repaired </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Ligaments <ul><li>Tough bands of fibrous, slightly elastic tissue that connect one bone to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent excessive movement of the joint </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) attaches femur to the tibia </li></ul>
  16. 18. Tendons <ul><li>Fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone or muscle to muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the muscles to act on bones </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Achilles tendon attaches the calcaneous </li></ul>
  17. 19. Joints <ul><li>Ball-and-socket: allows movement backward, forward, sideways, and in a circle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder and hip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joint with the largest range of motion </li></ul>
  18. 20. Joints <ul><li>Pivot: Allows for rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between the first two vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for rotation of the neck and head </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Joints <ul><li>Hinge: Bending and straightening in one direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allow for some degree of rotation </li></ul>
  20. 22. Injuries of the Joints <ul><li>Dislocation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone slips out of the joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually accompanied by ligament or cartilage damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to be fixed by a Doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint needs to be immobilized so tissue can heal </li></ul></ul>
  21. 25. Injuries of the Joints <ul><li>Torn Cartilage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp blow or severe twisting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be repaired with arthroscopic surgery </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Injuries of the Joints <ul><li>Bunion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling of the bursa in the joint of a big toe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by wearing shoes that are to tight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Might require surgery </li></ul></ul>
  23. 29. Injuries of the Joints <ul><li>Arthritis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiffness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformity of the joint </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. Rheumatoid arthritis
  25. 32. Problems of Skeletal system
  26. 33. Fractures <ul><li>Hairline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of the bone do not separate </li></ul></ul>
  27. 35. Fractures <ul><li>Transverse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely across the bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp or direct blow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged use of a damaged bone </li></ul></ul>
  28. 37. Fractures <ul><li>Comminuted fracture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone shatters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually more than two pieces </li></ul></ul>
  29. 39. Osteoporosis <ul><li>Loss of bone mass </li></ul><ul><li>Bone density decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Bones break easily </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more vulnerable to this after menopause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop producing estrogen </li></ul></ul>
  30. 41. Scoliosis <ul><li>Lateral curvature of the spine </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul>
  31. 43. Repetitive Motion Injury <ul><li>Damaged tissue caused by prolonged, repeated movements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often job related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpal tunnel (weakness, tingling, burning) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 44. <ul><li>Bones you need to know: </li></ul><ul><li>Clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>Scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Humerus </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul><ul><li>Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Petella </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges </li></ul>