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- 1. W. Sautter 2015
- 2. These are also called Compressional Waves 2
- 3. Crest Trough Compression Rarefaction Compression CompressionRarefaction Rarefaction Trough Crest Rarefaction = low PressureCompression = high Pressure 3
- 4. Wavelength λ Frequency ν Velocity Wavelength λ Frequency ν Velocity vx = 4
- 5. Wave A Wave A Wave A Wave B Wave B Wave B Constructive interference Destructive interference Partially Constructive interference 5
- 6. Intensity = Power / Area Sound Source Sound radiates out from a source as concentric spheres and follows an Inverse Square function 6
- 7. Inverse Square means as distance from the source doubles, the intensity 1/4 the original. If distance triples, the intensity is 1/9 the original and so on. The surface area of a sphere is given by 4 Π r2 Power is measured in watts ( 1 joule / second) Intensity = Power / Area = watts/ 4 Π r2 Or Watts / meter2 7
- 8. dB = 10 log ( I / I0 ) I = the intensity of the sound to be evaluated I0 = intensity of lowest sound that can be heard (1 x 10-12 watts / meter2) 8
- 9. •SINCE LOGS ARE POWERS OF 10 THEY ARE USED JUST LIKE THE POWERS OF 10 ASSOCIATED WITH SCIENTIFIC NUMBERS. •WHEN LOG VALUES ARE ADDED, THE NUMBERS THEY REPRESENT ARE MULTIPLIED. •WHEN LOG VALUES ARE SUBTRACTED, THE NUMBERS THEY REPRESENT ARE DIVIDED •WHEN LOGS ARE MULTIPLIED, THE NUMBERS THEY REPRESENT ARE RAISED TO POWERS •WHEN LOGS ARE DIVIDED, THE ROOTS OF NUMBERS THEY REPRESENT ARE TAKEN. Decibels are logarithmic functions 9
- 10. • A LOGARITHM (LOG) IS A POWER OF 10. IF A NUMBER IS WRITTEN AS 10X THEN ITS LOG IS X. • FOR EXAMPLE 100 COULD BE WRITTEN AS 102 THEREFORE THE LOG OF 100 IS 2. • IN PHYSICS CALCULATIONS OFTEN SMALL NUMBERS ARE USED LIKE .0001 OR 10-4. THE LOG OF .0001 IS THEREFORE –4. • FOR NUMBERS THAT ARE NOT NICE EVEN POWERS OF 10 A CALCULATOR IS USED TO FIND THE LOG VALUE. FOR EXAMPLE THE LOG OF .00345 IS –2.46 AS DETERMINED BY THE CALCULATOR. Decibels are logarithmic functions 10
- 11. Whisper 20 decibels Plane 120 decibels Conversation 60 decibels Siren 100 decibels 11
- 12. The frequency of a string depends on the Tension (N) and string Linear Density in kilograms per meter (Kg/m). Light strings under high tension yield high frequencies. Heavy strings under low tension yield low frequencies. 12
- 13. V (air) = 341 m/s at 20 oC If observer is moving towards the source, V(observer) = + If observer is moving towards the source, V (observer) = - If source is moving towards the observer, V (source) = - If source is moving towards the observer, V (source) = + 13
- 14. 14
- 15. 15 Click Here

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I have written six books

'Sticks - A Golfer’s Tale' - A hacker’s dream comes true.

'Fish Farm' - Revenge of the old people.

'Coach' - A mystery in Old school football town in a rural, bigoted, fifties town.

'The Three Dollar Phoenix' - A mystery set in Newark, New Jersey in the 1970s.

'The Divine Comedy MMIX' - A humorous play about Jesus returning.

'The Blood of Judas' - A horror story of revenge set in Nazi Germany.

All are available at www.smashwords.com

I have video trailers for 'Coach', 'Fish Farm' and 'The Blood of Judas' at:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXSD5Kz-fDY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9PTRb14ldc

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToPp9k9Oq-o

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eBhMZbsP-I

Please take a look. Thanks.

Walt Sautter - wsautter@optonline.net