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# Light, Lenses, and Mirrors

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Use principles of reflection and refraction to describe how lenses and mirrors work.
**More good stuff available at:
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### Light, Lenses, and Mirrors

1. 1. W. Sautter 2015
2. 2. Normal Line Normal Line i r i r Glass n = 1.5 Air n =1.0 r = angle of refraction i = angle of incidence Light travels more slowly in glass than air and bends towards the normal when entering glass from air Light moving from glass to air increases speed and bends away from the normal 2
3. 3. Virtual focus Focus = - Can form only virtual, Erect and reduced images 3
4. 4. Principle focus Parallel rays Focus = + Can form real images (enlarged or reduced & inverted) or Enlarged virtual images 4
5. 5. Normal Line ri Incident ray Reflected ray Mirror surface Angles are ALWAYS measured from the NORMAL LINE 5
6. 6. Parallel rays Reflected rays Real Focus Focal length = + Forms real, inverted, Reduced or enlarged Image. Also forms Virtual, erect, Enlarged images. 6
7. 7. Parallel rays Reflected rays Virtual focus Focal length = - Forms only virtual, erect, reduced images between the virtual focus and the mirror.7
8. 8. Waves from a Distant source = crest = trough Barrier with Two slits In phase waves Emerge from slits Constructive interference Destructive interference 8
9. 9. Wavelength  Frequency  Velocity Wavelength  Frequency  Velocity vx = 9
10. 10. VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE LIGHT • MOST “LIGHT” IS NOT VISIBLE TO THE HUMAN EYE ! • ONLY ABOUT 7 % OF THE KNOWN KINDS OF LIGHT CAN BE SEEN WITHOUT SPECIAL INSTRUMENTATION. 10
11. 11. POTASSIUM METAL BATTERY VOLTMETER PHOTONS PICKUP WIRE ELECTRONS ONLY CERTAIN MINIMUM FREQUENCIES OF LIGHT FREE THE ELECTRONS FROM THE METAL (ONLY PHOTONS WITH ENOUGH ENERGY) THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT EXPERIMENT 11
12. 12. Parallel ray focus (f)2 f vertex Reflects thru The focus Reflects parallel To principal axis Principal axis Reflects Back Into itself 12
13. 13. Parallel ray f2 f Image is: Real Inverted Reduced Appears between f & 2f Object beyond 2f 13
14. 14. Image is: Real Inverted Same size Appears at 2f Parallel ray f2 f Object at 2f 14
15. 15. Image is: Real Inverted Enlarged Appears beyond 2f Parallel ray 2 f f Object between f and 2f 15
16. 16. Image is: Virtual Erect Enlarged Appears behind the mirror Parallel ray 2 f f ray thru 2f Apparent Convergence Of rays Object inside focus 16
17. 17. Angle of incidence = Angle of Reflection For each ray Dotted lines Shows the Apparent Ray source 17
18. 18. Parallel rays Reflected rays Virtual focus Focal length = - Forms only virtual, erect, reduced images between the virtual focus and the mirror. Dotted lines Shows the Apparent Ray focus 18