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Gas Laws

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Presents the gas laws and the factors upon which they are based. Includes Boyles', Charles', Gay Lussac's, Avogadro's and Dalton's Laws as well as the Combined Gas Law and the Universal Gas Law.
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Gas Laws

  1. 1. •Copyright Sautter 20151
  2. 2. GASES & THEIR PROPERTIES THE GAS LAWS 2
  3. 3. WHAT MAKES A GAS DIFFERENT FROM SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS ? • (1) ENERGY STATE - GASES HAVE A HIGHER ENERGY CONTENT • (2) DENSITY - GASES HAVE LOW DENSITY • (3) GASES ARE FLUIDS - THEY FLOW AND TAKE THE SHAPE OF THEIR CONTAINER (SO DO LIQUIDS) • (4) THEY RESPOND NOTABLY TO CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 3
  4. 4. HOW ARE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE MEASURED ? • TEMPERATURE IS MEASURED WITH A THERMOMETER (OF COURSE !) • PRESSURE IS MEASURED WITH A BAROMETER. IT ALLOWS MERCURY TO BE PUSHED UP A VERTICAL GLASS TUBE BY GAS PRESSURE AND THEN THE HEIGHT OF THE MERCURY IN THE TUBE IS READ. PRESSURE IS THEREFORE OFTEN MEASURED IN LENGTH UNITS SUCH AS MILLIMETERS, CENTIMETERS OR INCHES. • YOU HAVE CERTAINLY HEARD TEMPERATURE AND BAROMETER READING DURING WEATHER REPORTS ! 4
  5. 5. TORRICELLI’S BAROMETER • Hg LEVEL • NORMAL AIR PRESSURE: • 1 ATM • 760 MM OF Hg • 29.92 INCHES • 14.7 PSI • 101.3 KPa 5
  6. 6. HOW DO GASES RESPOND TO TEMPERATURE & PRESSURE ? • AS THE TEMPERATURE OF A GAS INCREASES, ITS VOLUME INCREASES (DIRECT) • AS THE PRESSURE ON A GAS INCREASES, ITS VOLUME DECREASES (INVERSE) 6
  7. 7. VARIABLES WHICH EFFECT GAS BEHAVIOR • (1) VOLUME (LITERS) • (2) PRESSURE (ATM OR MM OF Hg) • (3) TEMPERATURE (DEGREES KELVIN) • (4) QUANTITY OF GAS (MOLES) 7
  8. 8. HOW DO CONFINED GASES AT A CONSTANT TEMPERATURE RESPOND TO PRESSURE CHANGES ? • AS PRESSURE GOES UP, VOLUME GOES DOWN (INVERSE) • BOYLE’S LAW SAYS: • P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 • PRESSURE 1 AND 2 MUST BE IN THE SAME UNITS • VOLUME 1 AND 2 MUST BE IN THE SAME UNITS INVERSE!! 8
  9. 9. HOW DO CONFINED GASES AT A CONSTANT TEMPERATURE RESPOND TO PRESSURE CHANGES ? (CONT’D) AN INVERSE RELATIONSHIP 9
  10. 10. HOW DOES TEMPERATURE EFFECT THE VOLUME OF A FIXED QUANTITY OF GAS AT A CONSTANT PRESSURE ? • AS TEMPERATURE GOES UP, VOLUME GOES UP (DIRECT) • CHARLES LAW SAYS: • V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 • VOLUMES 1 AND 2 MUST BE THE SAME UNITS • TEMPERATURES 1 AND 2 MUST BE IN KELVIN KELVIN RULES •CHARLES 10
  11. 11. Volume T E M P E R A T U R E - 273 0C Absolute Zero No Gas is Ideal real gases liquefy before absolute zero An ideal gas would shrink to zero volume at absolute zero 11
  12. 12. WHAT IS KELVIN TEMPERATURE ? • KELVIN TEMPERATURE STARTS AT ABSOLUTE ZERO (- 273 DEGREES CELSIUS) • AT ABSOLUTE ZERO, NO HEAT IS PRESENT IN THE SYSTEM (A CONDITION WHICH CAN NEVER BE ACHIEVIED!) • ALMOST ALL SCIENTIFIC CALCULATIONS INVOLVING TEMPERATURE USE THE KELVIN SCALE WHICH IS SOMETIMES CALLED THE ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE SCALE. • KELVIN = 273 + DEGREES CELSIUS 12
  13. 13. •13 Click Here

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