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Electron Configuration of Atoms

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Shows the electronic structure of atoms including energy level diagrams, s, p, d and f orbitals and their relationship to the Periodic Table of Elements
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Electron Configuration of Atoms

  1. 1. Copyright Sautter 2015
  2. 2. ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OF ATOMS USING ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAMS FOR ATOMS & IONS
  3. 3. WHAT IS AN ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION? • ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS SHOW THE ENERGY STATES (ARRANGEMENTS) OF ELECTRONS WITHIN DIFFERENT ATOMS • FOR EXAMPLE WE CAN DETERMINE FROM THE PERIODIC TABLE THAT HYDROGEN ATOMS (ATOMIC NUMBER =1) HAVE BUT ONE ELECTRON WHILE OXYGEN (ATOMIC NUMBER = 8) HAS EIGHT ELECTRONS, BUT HOW ARE THEY ARRANGED WITH EACH ATOM? 3
  4. 4. DETERMINING ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS • IN ORDER WRITE A CORRECT CONFIGURATION FOR AN ATOM WE MUST: • (1) FIND THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS THE ATOM CONTAINS • (2) USE THE ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM TO DETERMINE THE ORBITIAL LOCATIONS OF THE ELECTRONS • (3) PLACE THE ELECTRONS IN THE PROPER ORBITALS USING TWO FUNDAMENTAL RULES (THE PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE AND HUND’S RULE) 4
  5. 5. ORDER OF ENERGY LEVEL FILLING 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. DETERMINING ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS (CONT’D) • THE PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE STATES THAT A MAXIMUM OF TWO ELECTRONS (EACH WITH OPPOSITE SPINS) MAY OCCUPY AN ORBITAL • HUND’S RULE STATES THAT ORBITALS OF EQUAL ENERGY MUST BE FILLED WITH ELECTRONS ONE AT A TIME UNTIL ALL OF THE ORBITALS ARE HALF FILLED, THEN FILLING MAY BE COMPLETED RESULTING IN EACH ORBITAL CONTAINING TWO ELECTRONS MAXIMUM 7
  8. 8. DETERMINING ELECTRONCONFIGURATIONS (CONT’D) • ELECTRONS ARE ADDED TO THE ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM ACCORDING TO THE RULES PREVIOUSLY OUTLINED USING AN ARROW TO REPRESENT EACH ELECTRON. • EACH ORBITAL MAY CONTAIN A MAXIMUM OF TWO ARROWS, ONE POINTED UPWARD AND ONE POINTED DOWNWARD TO SHOW THE OPPOSITE SPINS OF THE PAIRED ELECTRONS. • NOW LET’S SHOW THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION FOR THE HYDROGEN ATOM. 8
  9. 9. Electronic Configuration For Hydrogen (1 electron) Energy Level Number Orbital Type Number of Electrons in the Orbital 9
  10. 10. DESCRIBING ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS OF ATOMS • ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS MAY BE REPRESENTED IN WRITTEN FORM OR DIAGRAMATIC FORM. • IN WRITTEN FORM, THE ENERGY LEVEL NUMBER IS WRITTEN FIRST FOLLOWED BY THE ORBITAL DESIGNATION AND FINALLY THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS PRESENT IN THE ORBITAL IS SHOWN AS A SUPERSCRIPT. • FOR EXAMPLE, SODUIUM Na WITH 11 ELECTRONS WOULD BE WRITTEN AS 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 • IN THE 1S2 TERM THE NUMBER 1 STANDS FOR THE ENERGY LEVEL, S FOR THE ORBITAL TYPE AND THE SUPERSCRIPT 2 MEANS TWO ELECTRONS ARE PRESENT 10
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