Chemical Formulae

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How write correct chemical formula.
**More good stuff available at:
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Chemical Formulae

  1. 1. Copyright Sautter 2015
  2. 2. CHEMICAL FORMULAE* HOW TO WRITE FORMULAS FROM NAMES AND NAMES FROM FORMULAS* * SOME BOOKS USE FORMULAE ENDING IN AE WHICH IS THE LATIN PLURAL INSTEAD OF FORMULAS 2
  3. 3. TYPE OF COMPOUNDS • (1) IONIC COMPOUNDS – THOSE CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF METALS COMBINED WITH NONMETALS • (A METAL COMBINED WITH A NONMETAL IS CALLED A SALT. SODIUM CHLORIDE OR “TABLE SALT” IS NOT THE ONLY SALT, THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF SALTS. IT HOWEVER IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SALTS.) • (2) MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS – THOSE CONSISTING OF NONMETALS 3
  4. 4. WHAT ARE IONS? CHARGED ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF IONS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE • POSITIVE IONS ARE ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS WITH MISSING ELECTRONS • THESE IONS USUALLY CONSIST OF METALS • THEY ARE ALSO CALLED CATIONS • NEGATIVE ION ARE ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS WITH EXTRA ELECTRONS • THESE IONS USUALLY CONSIST OF NONMETALS • THEY ARE ALSO CALLED ANIONS (NOT DOG IONS AS YOU MIGHT EXPECT !!) 4
  5. 5. SOME COMMON CATIONS (POSITIVE IONS) • NAME • SODIUM • ZINC • POTASSIUM • CALCIUM • MAGNESIUM • COPPER II (CUPRIC) • IRON II (FERROUS) • IRON III (FERRIC) • AMMONIUM* *ONE OF THE FEW POLYATOMIC CATIONS • FORMULAS • Na+1 • Zn+2 • K+1 • Ca+2 • Mg+2 • Cu+2 • Fe+2 • Fe+3 • NH4 +1 5
  6. 6. SOME COMMON ANIONS (NEGATIVE IONS) • NAMES • CHLORIDE • SULFIDE • BROMIDE • SULFATE • SULFITE • NITRATE • NITRITE • CARBONATE • CHROMATE • FORMULAS • Cl-1 • S-2 • Br-1 • SO4 -2 • SO3 -2 • NO3 -1 • NO2 -1 • CO3 -2 • CrO4 -2 6
  7. 7. SOME RULES REGARDING CATIONS (POSITIVE IONS) • IONS FROM COLUMN I (ALKALI METALS) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE ALWAYS +1 • IONS FROM COLUMN II (ALKALINE EARTH METALS) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE ALWAYS +2 • IONS FROM COLUMN II (THE ALUMINIUM GROUP) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE +3 • THE TRANSITIONAL METALS HAVE VARIABLE CHARGES RANGING FROM +1 TO +5 • EXAMPLES: • COLUMN I COLUMN II • Na+1 Ca+2 • K+1 Mg+2 • etc. etc. • COLUMN III • Al+3 • Ga+3 • TRANSITIONAL METALS • Cu+2 • Fe+2 • Cr+3 7
  8. 8. TRANSITIONAL METALS WITH VARIABLE CHARGE STATES • SOME TRANSITIONAL METALS CAN EXSIST AS IONS IN TWO DIFFERENT CHARGE STATES. SOME OF THESE ELEMENTS ARE COPPER, TIN, IRON, COBALT, LEAD, MERCURY, CHROMIUM AND MANGANESE. • * THESE VARIABLE CHARGES HAVE NO PATTERN AND MUST BE MEMORIZED • EXAMPLES: • COPPER +1 OR +2 • TIN +2 OR +4 • IRON +2 OR +3 • COBALT +2 OR +3 • LEAD +2 OR +4 • MERCURY +1 OR +2 • CHROMIUM +2 OR +3 • MANGANESE +2 OR +3 • * THE SAME ATOM WITH DIFFERENT CHARGE STATES ARE DESIGNATED USING ROMAN NUMERIALS SUCH AS COPPER I FOR Cu+1 OR LEAD II FOR Pb+2 8
  9. 9. RULES REGARDING FORMULAS AND NAMES FOR ANIONS (NEGATIVE IONS) • ANIONS FROM COLUMN VII (HALOGENS) ARE CHARGED –1 • ANIONS FROM COLUMN VI (OXYGEN GROUP) ARE CHARGED –2 • ANIONS FROM COLUMN V (NITROGEN GROUP) ARE CHARGED –3 WHEN THE IONS ARE SINGLE ATOMS (MONATOMIC) • EXAMPLES: • COLUMN VII • Cl-1 • Br-1 • COLUMN VI • S-2 • O-2 • COLUMN V • N-3 P-3 9
  10. 10. NAMING MONATOMIC (SINGLE ATOM) ANIONS • ANIONS THAT CONSIST OF ONLY ONE ATOM END IN ALWAYS “IDE”. • ANIONS THAT CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE ATOM BUT CONTAIN NO OXYGEN ALSO END IN “IDE” • THE HYROXIDE ION IS AN EXCEPTION IN THAT IT CONTAINS OXYGEN AND POLYATOMIC BUT ENDS IN “IDE” • CHLORIDE Cl-1 • SULFIDE S-2 • NITRIDE N-3 • CYANIDE CN-1 • THIOCYANIDE SCN-1 • HYDROXIDE OH-1 10
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