Chemical Bonding

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Explains chemical bonding
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Chemical Bonding

  1. 1. Copyright Sautter 2015
  2. 2. Cl H CHEMICAL BONDS BONDS HOLD ATOMS TOGETHER TO FORM MOLECULES 2
  3. 3. TYPES OF CHEMICAL BONDS •(1) IONIC BONDS - ELECTRONS AS TRANSFERRED FROM METALS TO NONMETALS (IONIC SALTS FOR EXAMPLE NaCl, CaCl2) •(2) COVALENT BONDS – ELECTRONS ARE SHARED BETWEEN NONMETALS (DIATOMIC MOLECULES FOR EXAMPLE THE HALOGENS, F2, Cl2, etc.) •(3) COORDINATE COVALENT BONDS – A BONDING PAIR OF ELECTRONS IS CONTRIBUTED BY ONLY ONE ATOM IN THE BOND (FOR EXAMPLE AMMONIUM ION, NH4 +, HYDRONIUM ION, H3O+) 3
  4. 4. WHY DO BONDS BETWEEN ATOMS FORM ? • WHEN BONDS FORM THE STABILITY OF THE COMBINED ATOMS INCREASES AS COMPARED TO THAT OF THE INDIVIDUAL ATOMS. GENERALLY CHEMICAL STABILITY IS RELATED TO THE ABILITY OF ATOMS TO ATTAIN THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF AN INERT GAS. FOR MANY ATOMS THIS MEANS ACQUIRING EIGHT ELECTRONS IN THE OUTER SHELL. THIS IS CALLED AN “OCTET” STRUCTURE. • THE EXCEPTATIONS ARE SMALLER ATOMS (LIKE HYDROGEN, LITHIUM, BERYLLIUM, ETC.) THESE ATTEMPT TO ACQUIRE TWO ELECTRONS LIKE HELIUM. • RECALL THE TERM “ISOELECTRONIC”. ATOMS ATTEMPT TO BECOME ISOELECTRONIC WITH THE NEAREST INERT GAS. 4
  5. 5. +9 +19 2e 1e 8e 18e 7e 2e 8e IONIC BOND FORMATION - ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN METALS & NONMETALS ISOELECTRONIC WITH Ar ISOELECTONIC WITH Ne 5
  6. 6. REPRESENTING ATOMS AND MOLECULES USING ELECTRON DOT FORMULAE (LEWIS DOT REPRESENTATIONS) • LEWIS DOT FORMULAE USE THE ATOMIC SYMBOL TO REPRESENT THE “KERNEL” OF THE ATOM THAT IS THE NUCLEUS AND ALL INNER ENERGY LEVEL ELECTRONS. DOTS ARE THEN USED TO REPRESENT EACH OUTER ENERGY LEVEL ELECTRON (VALENCE ELECTRONS) • THE PAIRING OF THESE ELECTRON “DOTS” APPROXIMATES THE PAIRINGS OF ELECTRONS IN ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR (BONDING) ORBITALS OF THE ATOM OR MOLECULE. 6
  7. 7. ELECTRON DOT REPRESENTATIONS FOR SOME COMMON ATOMS (LEWIS DOT NOTATIONS) 7
  8. 8. COMMON PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COVALENT BONDS • COVALENT BONDS MAY BE SINGLE, DOUBLE OR TRIPLE BONDS • (1) SINGLE BOND – ONE PAIR OF BONDING ELECTRONS JOINS TWO ATOMS TOGETHER • (2) DOUBLE BOND – TWO PAIRS OF BONDING ELECTRONS JOIN TWO ATOMS TOGETHER (OCCURS PRIMARILY WITH CARBON, OXYGEN, NITROGEN AND SULFUR) • (3) TRIPLE BOND – THREE PAIRS OF BONDING ELECTRONS JOIN TWO ATOMS TOGETHER (OCCURS PRIMARILY WITH CARBON AND NITROGEN) 8
  9. 9. COVALENT BONDING (ELECTRON SHARING – SINGLE BOND) +9 +9 2e 7e 7e 2e 6e 6e BOTH ISOELECTRONIC WITH Ne 9
  10. 10. COVALENT BONDING (ELECTRON SHARING – DOUBLE BOND) +8 +8 2e 6e 6e 2e 4e 4e BOTH ISOELECTRONIC WITH Ne 10
  11. 11. COVALENT BONDING (ELECTRON SHARING – TRIPLE BOND) +7 +7 2e 5e 5e 2e 2e 2e BOTH ISOELECTRONIC WITH Ne 11
  12. 12. ELECTRON DOT REPRESENTATIONS OF POLYATOMIC MOLECULES AND IONS WRITING THE DOT FORMULA FOR METHANE - CH4 STEP I – DETERMINE THE TOTAL NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS FOR ALLATOMS. CARBON (C) HAS 4 VALENCE ELECTRONS HYDROGEN (H) ATOMS HAVE 1 VALENCE ELECTRON FOR EACH OF THE FOUR ATOMS (4 x 1 = 4) THE TOTAL NUMBER OF VALENCE ELECTRONS = 8 STEP II-SELECT THE CENTRAL ATOM (THE ONE THAT CAN FORM THE GREATEST NUMBER OF BONDS) AND PLACE THE OTHER ATOMS SYMMETRICALLY AROUND IT. 12
  13. 13. WRITING THE DOT FORMULA FOR METHANE CH4 STEP III -PLACE TWO DOTS (ELECTRONS) BETWEEN EACH BONDED PAIR OF ATOMS. STEP IV -FILL IN OCTET STRUCTURES FOR ANY REMAINING ATOMS UNTIL ALL THE ELECTRONS ARE USED.*(HYDROGEN, BERYLLIUM & BORON ARE COMMON EXCEPTATIONS TO THE OCTET RULE) OCTET (8) FOR CARBON HYDROGEN REQUIRES ONLY 2 ELECTRONS 13
  14. 14. WRITING THE ELECTRON STRUCTURE FOR MONOCHLOROETHENE - C2H3Cl 2 C = 2 x 4 = 8 e 3 H = 3 x 1 = 3 e 1 Cl = 1 x 7 = 7 e TOTAL VALENCE ELECTRONS =18 8 ELECTRONS REMAIN COMPLETE OCTET FOR CHLORINE 2 ELECTRONS STILL REMAIN PLACE THEM TO COMPLETE THE OCTETS FOR BOTH CARBONS OCTETS COMPLETE DOUBLE BOND 14
  15. 15. WRITING ELECTRON DOT REPRESENTATIONS FOR POLYATOMIC IONS CONTAINING RESONANCE STRUCTURES (CARBONATE ION - CO3 -2 ) 1 C = 1 x4 = 4 e 3 O = 3 x 6 = 18 e -2 CHARGE = 2 e TOTAL VALENCE ELECTRONS = 24 18 ELECTRONS REMAIN COMPLETE THE OCTETS ALL ELECTRONS ARE USED BUT AN OCTET FOR CARBON MUST BE CREATED -2 RESONANCE BOND 15
  16. 16. 16 Click Here

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