1. Portland, OR (1)2. San Francisco, CA (2)3. Seattle, WA (3)4. Chicago, IL (4)5. New York, NY (6)6. Boston, MA (7)7. Minneapolis, MN (10)8. Philadelphia, PA (8)9. Oakland, CA (5)10. Baltimore, MD (11)11. Denver, CO (9)12. Milwaukee, WI (16)13. Austin, TX (14)14. Sacramento, CA (13)15. Washington, DC (12)The SustainLane 2008 US City Rankings of the 50 most-populous cities is the nation’s most complete report card on urban sustainability. The rankings explain how people's quality of life and city economic and management preparedness are likely to fare in the face of an uncertain future.
Our challenge, we can do better in:Carbon sequestrationWater managementHabitat protectionTransportation corridorsEnvironmental justice
LEED buildings have been the talk of the town for 5 years, new ordinances and general plan guidelines encourage “silver rated” buildings at a minimum, the CCDC downtown plan looks to green roofs, etc.
three general attributes (1) self-sufficiency in regard to material resources and maintenance, (2) solvinglarger urban problems outside of project boundaries, and (3) creating new standards
Protection from sea-level riseProtection from coastal storms and erosionProtection from Flood and Levee stressIncreased Wildfire riskGrowing demands for water supply
three general attributes of this new kind ofpark: (1) self-sufficiency in regard to material resources and maintenance, (2) solvinglarger urban problems outside of park boundaries, and (3) creating new standards foraesthetics and landscape management in parks and other urban landscapes.
This chart illustrates just how challenging state wide targets are.
Our policy-makers have benefitted from additional research done by local universities and non-profits that have helped us to understand major sources of greenhouse gas emissions within San Diego County.
To responsibly plan for growth, and to meet environmental challenges, the General Plan is built upon our smart growth City of Villages strategy.
San Diego is truly a city of villages because our 340 square miles it is made up of over 50 community planning areas that are further characterized by distinctive neighborhoods and centers
We use GIS mapping to create a map of the City that showed where their was a “propensity” for village-type development. Highest propensity area shown in red. Lowest potential – including open space areas, single-family neighborhoods, and military lands – are shown in blue.
Here is a page from the General Plan Mobility Element showing a part of the Pedestrian Improvement Toolbox. The benefit of the toolbox approach is that we are able to provide a menu of tools along with citywide policies on how they are to be used, will also allowing for flexibility in implementation at the community or project level.
Environmental, Economic and Equity goals mutually supporting through GP policies to support Clean Tech and base sector industries
Land Development Code contains many innovations that can be applied to specific properties to achieve plan General/area plan land use designations and policy goals
The Monitoring Report will:Assess progress in implementing General Plan policies Include an Action Plan progress matrix Provide more detailed status narratives of the eight key actions.
Sustainability in Discretionary Review
Sustainability in Discretionary Review<br />Greening Our Decisions<br />Nancy Bragado, AICP<br />Kathleen A. Garcia, FASLA LEED AP<br />
The Environmental Imperative<br /><ul><li>Growing environmental, economic, and security risks caused by carbon emissions and over-reliance on fossil fuels
Increasing threats to local communities posed by climate change and economic instability
Degradation of natural resources caused by urbanization and land development practices
Increasing gaps in economic opportunity and resources</li></li></ul><li>How Sustainable are We?<br />The SustainLane 2008 US City Rankings of the 50 most-populous cities www.sustainlane.com<br />
Land consumption/development patterns</li></li></ul><li>Time to raise the bar<br />Climate change impact<br />Water management<br />Habitat protection<br />Mobility<br />Waste management<br />Environmental justice<br />
Effects of Climate Change<br />How do planners deal with….<br />Sea Level rise, land use vulnerability<br />Migration of disease, increased ailments<br />Habitat loss and shift of temperature & rainfall zones affecting growing areas<br />Increased pests and pathogens<br />Wildfire and hurricanes increase<br />Source: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/sustainability/images/greenhouse_effect.jpg<br />
Effects of Hydrologic Change<br />How do planners deal with….<br />Flooding vulnerability<br />Glacial and snowpack retreat <br />Drought increases<br />Drinking water loss<br />Shift of rainfall zones affecting growing areas<br />science.hq.nasa.gov/oceans/images/water_cycle.jpg<br />
Effects of Biomass Change<br />How do planners deal with….<br />Loss of valuable habitat<br />Loss of critical species<br />Increased impervious surfaces<br />Lack of natural cover<br />Windstorms, sandstorms, dustbowl effect<br />
How do we….?<br />Adapt to changing conditions<br />Influence trends to improve practice<br />
Discretionary Review Tools<br />The Comprehensive or General Plan<br />Zoning Codes, Development Codes<br />Conditional Use Permits & Variances<br />Planned Unit Development<br />Development Agreements<br />Design Review<br />Environmental Documentation (NEPA or local equivalent)<br />
policy review<br />Comprehensive Plan<br />Adaption<br />Does Comp Plan address climate change impacts?<br />Influence<br />Does it limit necessary Vehicle Miles Travelled? <br /><ul><li> mix of land uses
Transit Oriented Development</li></ul>Does it promote alternatives to vehicular travel?<br /><ul><li>Strong pedestrian corridors
Bikeways, transit and other mobility</li></li></ul><li>Zoning and Permits<br />policy review<br />Zoning codes often do not:<br /><ul><li>Allow ‘mixed use’
Green Buildings Rating System<br />LEED<br />US Green Building Council’s<br />Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Rating System<br />
policy review<br />LEED ND – Neighborhood Development<br />Smart Location & Linkages<br />Neighborhood Pattern & Design<br />Green Construction and Technology<br />Innovation and Design Process<br />Quarry Falls, Sudberry Properties<br />
best practices<br />Sustainable Project Attributes<br />Adapting to conditions and influencing best practice<br />Self sufficiency in regard to resources<br />Solving larger urban problems outside of project boundaries<br />
1. Adapting to Conditions <br />Sea level change and coastal erosion<br />Protection from floods and levee stresses<br />Increased wildfire risk<br />Growing demands for water supply<br />
2. Self Sufficiency<br />best practices<br />Water and Energy harvesting<br />Storm water management<br />Appropriate horticulture<br />Wise materials (local, renewable, recycled)<br />Wise systems (low water, low energy)<br />
3. Solving Larger Urban Problems<br />Heat island reduction<br />Carbon sequestration through urban forests<br />Public Health – no child left inside<br />Environmental justice and equity for all<br />Economic stimulus<br />
Planning for Sustainability<br />Nancy Bragado<br />City of San Diego<br />Principal Planner<br />
City of San Diego General Plan<br />Comprehensive plan for growth and development<br />Smart growth approach tailored for San Diego<br />Relies on infill development to meet City’s needs<br />Sustainability policies integrated throughout plan<br />
General Plan<br />Addresses California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006<br />Reduce state’s global warming emissions to 1990 levels by 2020<br />Will help implement 2008 legislation (SB 375)<br />Reduce GHG through land use and transportation planning<br />
GHG Inventory Project Results<br />www.sandiego.edu/epic<br />GHG Emissions for San Diego County (2006)<br />
General Plan: Land Use as a Sustainability Strategy <br />Population is growing<br />How to plan for growth responsibly and to achieve sustainability goals?<br />City of Villages strategy <br />Links land use and transit planning<br />Distinctive, mixed use villages<br />Pedestrian oriented<br />Interconnected streets<br />Local destinations (stores, services, parks, schools)<br />Connected to transit<br />Distinctive public places<br />
Village Propensity Map<br />Village Propensity Map<br />
Mobility StrategiesCars and trucks produce 46% of GHG emissions in San Diego County<br />Transit/Land Use Coordination<br />Multi-modal solutions<br />Walkable communities<br />Bicycle facilities<br />Streets and freeways<br />Transit and transit-orientation <br />Parking management<br />Transportation management<br />Toolboxes allow for tailored solutions<br />Regional Collaboration<br />
Parking Toolbox:Supply and Demand Strategies<br />Supply<br />Re-stripe streets for diagonal parking<br />Community parking facilities<br />Adjust zoning regulations<br />Car lifts and mechanized garages<br />Code enforcement <br />Demand<br />Parking meter districts<br />Residential permit parking districts<br />Transit upgrades<br />Car sharing<br />Parking fees<br />Safe pedestrian and bicycle routes<br />Employee parking programs<br />
Conservation Element Electricity use accounts for 25% of San Diego County GHG emissions<br />Specifically addresses climate change<br />Reduce carbon footprint<br />Green buildings/sustainable development <br />Conserve and manage resources <br />Water conservation<br />Energy efficiency and renewables<br />Waste management<br />Wastewater collection and treatment<br />Urban forestry<br />
Conservation Element<br />Open Space Protections<br />Smart Growth<br />Ecosystem Services<br />Urban Form Benefits<br />San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program<br />Comprehensive habitat conservation planning<br /> 49,230 acres (93% of City’s goal) are conserved or are obligated to be conserved. <br />
Urban Design Element<br />Respect distinctive neighborhoods and enhance character<br />Create diverse, walkable, mixed-use villages<br />Design vibrant public spaces and prominent civic architecture<br />
City of San Diego Land Development Code <br />Commercial/Mixed-Use zones<br />Pedestrian-Oriented Design standards<br />Parking reductions for mixed-use, transit proximity<br />Tandem parking in some areas<br />Small lot and townhouse zones<br />Landscape Standards<br />Street trees required<br />Turf limited<br />Water conservation mandates<br />Community Gardens code changes underway<br />
Project Review: Traffic<br />Multi-modal LOS standards and impact thresholds<br />Traffic impact study guidelines consideration of alternative modes<br />Street Design Manual<br />
Internal City Collaboration <br />Climate Protection<br />Land Use, Housing, Open Space<br />Mobility<br />Clean Tech and the Economy<br />Energy<br />Water<br />Waste Management<br />Storm Water<br />
42<br />Regional CollaborationSANDAG<br />2004 – Regional Comprehensive Plan (RCP) <br />2006 – Smart Growth Concept Map<br />2007 – Smart Growth Tool Box<br />2010 – Regional Climate Action Strategy<br />2010 – Urban Area Transit Strategy and Regional Transportation Plan Update<br />Includes Sustainable Communities Strategy<br />Environmental review will address greenhouse gas emissions<br />
The General Plan Action Plan<br />Identifies actions (implementation measures) derived from General Plan goals and policies<br />Organized by GP Element and timeframe<br />Sets key implementation priorities<br />Helps to inform the budget process<br />Will be used for annual monitoring of the General Plan<br />Adopted July 2009<br />
General Plan Monitoring Report<br />Annual overview of progress<br />Detailed Action Plan matrix<br />Key Actions<br />Community Plan Updates<br />Climate Initiatives<br />
General Plan: http://www.sandiego.gov/planning/genplan/index.shtml<br />General Plan Action Plan: http://www.sandiego.gov/planning/genplan/index.shtml<br />Final Program Environmental Impact Report:<br />http://www.sandiego.gov/planning/genplan/peir.shtml<br />
Sustainable Community Principles<br /><ul><li>Energy
Reduce fossil fuel usage and carbon emissions through the planning and design of communities, sites, and buildings
Provide housing, transportation, and employment opportunities for persons of all socioeconomic backgrounds and abilities</li></li></ul><li>Checklist – Policy Level<br /><ul><li>Do your plans address climate change impacts?
Do your plans encourage transit and pedestrian mobility over the automobile?
Do you conduct environmental reviews on all projects?
Do your ordinances address habitat protection, water management, and resource protection?
Are the impacts and benefits equitable to all segments of the population?</li></li></ul><li>Our Sustainability Challenge <br />Commissioners & Planners: Advance local knowledge, reaffirm values, motivate and regulate for the better environment<br />Community Activists: Ask questions, push for responsible, regional solutions<br />All: Adapt and influence<br />
Kathleen A. Garcia, FASLA LEED AP<br />Nancy Bragado, AICP<br />Sustainability in Discretionary Review<br />www.wrtdesign.com<br />