World War II Biographies


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World War II Biographies

  1. 1. According to the Class of 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>Born- January 30, 1882, Hyde Park, New York </li></ul><ul><li>Died- April 12, 1945, Warm Springs, Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Served- 1933-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Party- Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Spouse- Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962) </li></ul><ul><li>He was the only president elected for 4 terms. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1932, he was elected president instead of Herbert Hoover being elected for a second term. </li></ul><ul><li>In his inaugural address he said “We have nothing to fear but fear itself.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Roosevelt declared neutrality when WWII started in 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>His idea was to aid the allies with money and war materials. He thought this was the best way to keep America out of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>After Germany took over France in 1940, there was only Britain left to fight for the allies. The U.S. started to build up its defense. </li></ul><ul><li>On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. After the attack, the U.S. declared war on Japan. Soon after, Germany declared war on the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few weeks before Germany surrendered, Franklin Delano Roosevelt died of a stroke. </li></ul>
  4. 4. By Nick, Ashley, and Jackie McC. Winston Churchill
  5. 5. <ul><li>Was born in 1874 and died in 1965. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1894, he was appointed to the Fourth (the Queen’s Own) Hussars as a sub-lieutenant. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a military correspondent in the 1890s and traveled to many countries. </li></ul><ul><li>He was captured by the Boers in 1899, but escaped from a South African prison . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>His escape from the South African prison earned him fame and helped him become elected to Parliament in 1900. </li></ul><ul><li>Served in Parliament for six decades. </li></ul><ul><li>British Prime Minister during World War II </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>After the previous Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, resigned, Winston Churchill took the post in 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>During World War II, he founded the Atlantic Charter with the U.S. and helped to defeat the Axis powers with the Soviet Union and the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II, Churchill helped to support organizations such as NATO. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1953, he won the Nobel Prize for literature . </li></ul>
  8. 8. By: Vince, Pat, and Lauren
  9. 9. <ul><li>Truman became the President because on April 12, 1945, when Franklin Delano Roosevelt died. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a very soft spoken and humble man and many Americans felt that he was off to a very good start as the nation’s new leader. </li></ul><ul><li>He gained more popularity than Franklin Roosevelt did, and he was more liked by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman was thrust into World War II because the U.S. was still fighting Japan and he had to deal with the agreements made by Roosevelt with England and the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman also had to deal with the fact that the United States had successfully tested the first atom bomb. </li></ul><ul><li>He was forced to think because an invasion of the Japanese mainland would be necessary and that would cost countless lives and money. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Although the Japanese were warned, they did not surrender and Truman chose to drop the atom bomb. </li></ul><ul><li>However, he did not chose to drop it on the biggest cities because that would have killed more Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>The bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and about 75,000 people were killed and 100,000 were injured or declared missing. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan did not surrender, so a second bomb had to be dropped on Nagasaki and it killed or injured 80,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945, but they had one condition where the emperor was allowed to keep power. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. also offered to the Soviet Union that all nuclear weapons be destroyed, and they declined (but that is a different story). </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Emperor of Japan 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese people believed that their emperor was a God. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the firs Japanese crowned prince to visit the west </li></ul><ul><li>Advised to the invasion of China in 1937 and the bombing of pearl harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Remained Emperor after World War II </li></ul>
  12. 12. By: Alex L., Vince, and Taylor
  13. 13. <ul><li>Born in Braunau, Austria on April 20, 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Was born to Alois and Klara Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Was a very troubled child, he was lazy and disobedient </li></ul><ul><li>He was very close to his mother and it really shook him when she died </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Was a painter in Vienna but failed </li></ul><ul><li>He got many of his political and racial views from Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>He moved to Munich and enlisted in World War I </li></ul><ul><li>In 1923 he led an armed uprising in Munich </li></ul><ul><li>Was sent to jail for nine months </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Joined a political party based on racial, and religious hatred and violence </li></ul><ul><li>Party was called National Socialist German Worker’s Party or Nazi </li></ul><ul><li>Party aimed for “racial purity” </li></ul><ul><li>He used a lot of propaganda to gain followers </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>In his propaganda he made Jews seem “subhuman” and Germans the supreme race </li></ul><ul><li>He later ran for and became Chancellor of Germany and gained more power and followers </li></ul><ul><li>Sent Jews, Gypsies, Catholics, and even political opponents to concentration camps </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Hitler became dictator of Germany in 1934 and stayed dictator until he committed suicide in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>He sent millions of Jews, Catholics, and Gypsies to concentration camps to either starve or be killed </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dave, Alex W., and Chris M.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Born March 18, 1869 in Birmingham, England </li></ul><ul><li>Father was a Liberal Radical politician </li></ul><ul><li>Mother died when he was six </li></ul><ul><li>Half brother of Austen, winner of Nobel Peace prize </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Rugby and Mason College </li></ul><ul><li>Not very successful businessman </li></ul><ul><li>Started political career in 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Birmingham City Council </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Mayor of Birmingham </li></ul><ul><li>Elected Conservative member of House of Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Minister of Health </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellor of the Exchequer </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Prime Minister of England from 1937 to 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned about finances </li></ul><ul><li>Supported rearmament to promote a lasting peace </li></ul><ul><li>Faced the Sudetenland crisis and arranged for Munich Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Resigned from office </li></ul><ul><li>Munich agreement was seen as a failure </li></ul><ul><li>Distaste for war meant he could not work in war time </li></ul><ul><li>Died November 9, 1940 </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>By May 1938, Hitler threatened to attack Czechoslovakia if they did not give up the Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>Sudetenland made up of a majority of German speakers </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the World War, they wanted to join Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to be a part of Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Sudetenland had large and important industries </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Chamberlain met Hitler at Berchtesgarden on Sept. 15-16, 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Stalled German military action </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to get France to go along so that all areas that were greatly German would be taken from Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain met Hitler at Godesburg on Sept. 22, 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler wanted to send army to Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>All Czechs must leave by Sept 28 </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>British Cabinet, France, and Czechoslovakia reject plan </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia mobilizes army on Sept 23 </li></ul><ul><li>France mobilizes army on Sept 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain proposes immediate conference to solve crisis </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Munich Conference was held to solve the issue of which country should control the Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>Germans, Hitler wanted it, claiming rightful ownership due to large German speaking population </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia already possessed the Sudetenland and not everyone was German speaking </li></ul><ul><li>France had treaty to support Czechoslovakia but was too weak to step in </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Nazi Germany sent army to Prague on March 15, 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Completed division of Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Added Czech military to their army </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain realized he had been fooled and mobilized British army </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler invaded Poland in Sept 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain honored treaty with Poland and declared war </li></ul><ul><li>World War II began </li></ul>
  27. 27. Julia M. Kelly G. Brian S.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born in Dovis, Italy on July 29, 1883. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the son of a blacksmith and a schoolteacher. </li></ul><ul><li>He inherited his father’s interest in socialist movements and politics. </li></ul><ul><li>After shortly working as a schoolteacher, he fled to Switzerland in order to get away from the military, but he soon returned to fulfill this requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>After he returned, he worked as a manual laborer, a left- wing agitator and an editor of the official Italian newspaper. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Mussolini’s concepts of fascism was his own and unique mixture of nationalism, imperialism, corporatism, and political alliance with business. </li></ul><ul><li>He envisioned all into groups rather than individual people in a democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler would deal with larger groups rather than small more individual ones. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a very organized structure of life. This was designed to carry Italy into the future, ahead of the other nations. This was also a plan to recapture the glory of Rome. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Mussolini’s aggravation grew and other people started gathering along with him and his views. </li></ul><ul><li>He called for a very strong central command that would hopefully restore the glory of Rome and the glory that it once held. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1922 King Victor Emmanuel III hired Mussolini as his prime minister. As prime minister, Mussolini hade command over a very large part of Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>He celebrated his position by having a parade that was carefully organized. The marchers marched through the streets of Rome. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>With his power came the conquests of Libya, Ethiopia, and Albania. These conquests made Italy a huge Mediterranean power. </li></ul><ul><li>When World War II started, the Italian economy was very low and not very strong. The economy was also unable to sustain any movements what so ever, toward world domination. </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill branded him “a jackal” because Mussolini appeared to be trying to secure rights without actually fighting in the war. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>In the middle of 1943, Italians had been pushed to the limit with Mussolini in power. </li></ul><ul><li>In July of 1943, both King Victor Emmanuel and the Fascist Grand Council voted to strip Mussolini of all of his powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini was under house arrest until September 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>He spent the last couple of days of World War II as a puppet. </li></ul><ul><li>The German defenses finally died out, Mussolini and his mistress tried to get out but they were caught and executed. This happened on April 28, 1945. </li></ul>
  33. 33. By Jack, Mike B., Cody
  34. 34. <ul><li>Josef Stalin was a Bolshevik political leader. </li></ul><ul><li>He was born in 1879. </li></ul><ul><li>He was in a Marxist group </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>He joined the Bolsheviks party who lead the Russian revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Russian revolution was when the Russian people overthrew the czars and established a communist society. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Stalin held the position of premier until his death in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin's brand of Marxism was very harsh; he left no room for economic freedom or for political dissent . </li></ul><ul><li>He transformed the Russian economy by starting a program of rapid industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>People who resisted his law were shot or imprisoned. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>When the war broke out Stalin became an ally of Adolf Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler viewed Stalin as an obstacle to world domination for Germany so Germany invaded Russia in 1941. (Battle of Stalingrad) </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII, Stalin took over most of eastern Europe. </li></ul>