Empowering Healthcare Professionals to Use Databases: Design and User Study of a DIY Tool
Empowering Healthcare Professionals to Use Databases:
Design and User Study of a Do‐it‐yourself Tool
Ritu Khare, Yuan An, Il‐Yeol S
A Il Y l Song, Xiaohua T
Xi h Tony Hu
Healthcare Industry and Databases
A Do‐it‐yourself Tool for Database Evolution
Databases have received an extra‐ordinary acceptance in the healthcare
industry. Healthcare domain has a dynamic information environment.
Databases in this domain are required to continually evolve based on new
information requirements provided by healthcare professionals.
FORM DESIGN LAYER
I want to collect
to an allergy
injection such as its
site, reaction, etc..
FORM MAPPING LAYER
• Dependence on IT
reflection of user
Data entry Forms
ID Size Reviewer
• Functional gap
between users and
between users and
How can we empower
professionals to design
and evolve databases
based on their
knowledge of data‐entry
Data‐entry forms are the most popular data gathering tool among healthcare
professionals. Forms provide a natural abstraction for databases to these users
who have no background in databases. Thus, form templates offer the health‐
care professionals a powerful mode to author information requirements.
Results and Contributions
User Study with Healthcare Professionals
Number of times a participant
The form design layer offers
functionalities based on the common
design patterns found in the
About the Participants
P1, P2, and P3 are very comfortable
working with computers. P4 and P5 are
moderately comfortable. Each has 1‐4
years of work experience.
Task Completion Time in minutes
Figure 1. Database Evolution using User‐designed Form Templates
rated the tool very high in terms of ease of
use and system messages.
Research Findings: Participants …
Table widgets etc.
felt empowered and accomplished as they
completed the tasks.
who were moderately comfortable with
computers drew forms on paper before
using the tool.
performed impromptu innovations, e.g.,
format switching from textbox to
easily understood the format semantics but
had difficulty distinguishing between a sub‐
category and a field.
To ensure a high‐quality database, 6
evolution quality dimensions were
Minimalism Correctness Complete
ness, Persistence and Traceability.
The Form Mapping Layer is designed
to ensure that the evolved database
satisfies these dimensions.
Field Format Distribution (51 forms)
Figure 2. The Dual Layered Database Evolution Tool: Using this tool, users can design
forms on their own. The tool automatically translates the form components to
appropriate database elements.
Time . Given Reaction
User study Round 2 with
improved training based on the
findings in round 1 and revised
tasks with advanced features
such as units, multi‐formats.
validating the 6‐dimensional
quality of the generated
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