This was a presentation made by the team of FCB-Ulka for the Advertising Induction for FMS, Delhi in August 2007. The presentation was led by Sanjeev Bhargava, COO, FCB-Ulka alongwith Maulshree Kalotia and Piyush.
Entertain you… Make your heart, mind & probably feet move… Make you smile….. Hopefully, make you forget your classes, submissions.. and the other B school Blah Blah… And probably leave you with an advertising afterglow…
Your Hosts for the show! Sanjeev Living talking Gatorade [email_address] COO @ FCB ULKA Sanjeev is what you call an energy drink. Always tripping on work, I wonder if he ever sleeps!! Plays the occasional but the passionate writer whenever time lets him Maulshree Enthu cutlet MBA @ ISB Played client at Godrej Claims to “Plan” on SCJ, Naukri, ITC, IBIBO etc Plays Storyteller on weekends
The Plan of Action Talk Advertising Advertising as a profession – various roles in an agency What to expect from your advertising agency? Walk the talk – “Clients generally get the agencies they deserve” How can you be responsible clients? Peek a boo in the real world How do clients generally react to creative – Do’s and the Don'ts
The Plan of Action Behind the Scenes 2 case studies that take you through the making of an ad See Good Advertising Questions & (hopefully) answers : Your commissioned turn to speak!
The World of Advertising Moving minds, hearts, and feet!
“ The cod fish lays ten thousand eggs, the homely hen lays one. The cod fish never cackles to tell you what she’s done. And so we scorn the cod fish, while the humble hen we prize. It only goes to show you that it pays to advertise ” - Ogden Nash
In early 20 th century in America, the production of oranges grew at an alarming rate. With the result of which, orange trees were being cut down and natural resources started to be getting wasted.
Mr. Lasker who regarded the idea of cutting trees as criminal came up with a revolutionary solution for Sunkist, a leading international citrus supplier … … to persuade the public to drink orange juice.
He created something called “Juice Extractor”, which not only gave a way to consume oranges but also changed the behavior of the public. Mr. Albert Lasker is the founder of FCB and is regarded as the father of modern advertising.
A perfect example of the way in which, from the earliest days of advertising, a simple idea coupled with a well-developed campaign can save an industry lead to the creation of a new one and bring about a radical change in the behavior of public.
Advertising Agency An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services.
Account Management The door to the advertising agency
Account Managers- Key roles Liaison between agency and client Responsible for understanding the client’s business the client’s marketing needs assist in strategy development Representing client’s point of view within the agency
The most successful account management people are the ones who have played the role of a business partner to a client…and a leader within the agency.
The role typically demands… Thorough knowledge of: Client’s business Profit goals Marketing problems Advertising objectives Meeting with the client to determine sales goals and creative strategy Give birth to ideas that will build client’s business Coordinating the creative, media, and production staff behind the campaign Structure and sell agency recommendations Upon completion of the creative work, it is their job to ensure the ad's production and placement
Client Speak: “We have 7 products under one brand name and we need 7 TVCs to promote them.” Account Management Solution: “Your budget does not permit 7 TVCs. Let us just do one, but showcase all your products.” Result: Amul Taste of India Montage TVC
“ A Planner is essentially the account team’s primary contact with the outside world…” Robb White, Dir of Acct Planning at Fallon McElligot Brutally Incisive Heartfelt Honesty Personally Passionate The Agency The Real World
Account Managers- Key role Strategic Policeman/woman Interpret market environment gather and analyze research data. primary and secondary techniques determine consumer needs/perceptions understand problems advise how ads can meet strategic goals help find solutions
The role typically demands… Identify information gaps and plug them Analysis of data Use of Proprietary tools and processes Synthesize this into insights Create exciting briefs Buy creative and help sell creative Advocate to your clients the value of customer intimacy Knowing the brand and it’s essence
Client Speak: “Our phone is a better landline. Give us an ad.” Account Planning Solution: “ Your phone is not a landline. It has all the mobile phone features at landline rates.” Result: Called it ‘Walky’ Positioned it as the mobile at landline rates Sales double in 2 months!
Client Speak: “Our range is the world’s best. Let us advertise it as best products India has ever seen.” Account Planning Solution: “Let us create an icon of the modern Indian housewife and make your brand a part of her life.” Result: Whirlpool Mom is born!
Client Speak: “Our product is now much improved. Let us do a testimonial campaign with real life customers. Give us an ad.” Account Planning Solution: “ Let us relaunch the brand with a new badge” Result: Indica V2
In 1988, a meeting was held of Nike’s ad agency Wieden and Kennedy and a group of Nike employees. Dan Weiden, speaking admiringly of Nike’s can-do attitude, reportedly said, “You Nike guys, you just do it.” The rest, as they say, is history.
What can be the best visual representation of “movement”?
A big tick became one of the most stunning branding campaigns of the 20 th century. Nike’s swoosh design trademark was designed by Carolyn Davidson in response to Philip Knight’s brief that suggest “movement”. Nike’s swoosh Just do it
Key roles Responsibility the creative department is responsible for creating and producing the print and broadcast advertising Strategy is key Good creative work is always guided by a creative strategy that sets forth goals to be accomplished and key message points to be relayed
Sholay’s debut on Indian Television In mid-90s, the 1976 Indian blockbuster film “Sholay” was to be aired by Doordarshan for the first time on television…billed as an event with large mass viewership…albeit at high costs. With low budget for advertising, Fevicol’s brand team ruled out any chance of brand being a part of the great screening. But somewhere the opportunity seen by the Media Planner and his insistence led to a brainstorming and joint viewing of the film with the entire team…
Ideas that they came up with… Identify how frequently the concept of bonding appears in the film, either visually or in the dialogue At that point, notice which actor/ actress’s voice over comes Inject specially created five second messages at these points, using readily identifiable voice of the actor/ actress to promote Fevicol’s lasting bond !
The role of the Media Planner He had to find a way out for these messages would not appear in regular commercial capsules as directed by Doordarshan He had to make the five-second injections appear without commercial break swipe on either side of the message and back to the film And he had to do it without paying any premium to the channel!
Surprise! Surprise! When the film was aired, everyone including the channel, sponsors and viewers were surprised. Fevicol appeared just seven times with total of 35 seconds while Lux, the sponsor of the film, had 1000 seconds for all HLL brands spread all over the film. Viewer research a day later gave the idea a triumphing victory with Fevicol getting highest recall with bonus perception of it being the main sponsor of the blockbuster. This is what a Media Planner can do.
Media Planners- Key role Media planners make sure that advertising campaigns are seen by as many people as possible. They decide the best ways of using media like television and radio, press adverts, posters and the internet to reach the target audience.
The role typically demands… Working with the client and an account management team to understand the client’s advertising needs Researching the target audience’s TV viewing and reading habits and lifestyles Planning the best times and places to show advertisements Presenting plans and costing to clients Working with a media buyer to cost and book advertising space
Walk the Talk: How can you be responsible clients
Being Responsible as Clients The Client Brief Judging Creative Ideas
“ Forget, just for a minute, that you are briefing an agency. Instead, pretend you are standing on the bank of a river about to build a bridge”
Why write a brief? It leads to better, more effective and measurable work “ it is difficult to produce good creative work without a good brief” “ The whole idea is to stimulate the creative imagination, not to restrict it. Ultimately you are buying creative ideas. Procurement people can sometimes write briefs as though they were buying copper piping or paperclips. But selling is an art. It’s more like briefing an architect. We need agencies to feel inspired so they can do their best work.” An inspiring brief will buy a client the “ shower time” of his agency team!
Why write a brief? It saves time and money “ We need agencies to get more work right first time. That saves time and money. A proper written brief makes the process more efficient that’s good for clients and good for agencies.” “ The written brief instills a discipline on my team and the agency to be very clear about what the objectives and expected outcomes are.”
Principles of Good brief Remarkable consensus among clients & agencies on what makes a good brief. Three key areas: Written Briefs Clarity of thinking Clearly defined objectives
Principles of Good brief Written Briefs “ A combination of written and verbal briefing is the ideal” “ We prefer a written brief because this forces the client to consider their request. The discipline of writing a brief ensures some rigour on their part “ By writing a brief we have focussed on what it is we are expecting from our activity and what we expect our agencies to contribute/come back with.
Principles of Good brief Clarity of thinking Briefs are called ‘briefs’ because they are meant to be brief. They are a SUMMATION of your thinking Too much information will just fog the process Relevance & context are more important than reams of data “ Clients should not underestimate how much a good brief, written with real flair and delivered with belief, can help enthuse and inspire the agency.”
Principles of Good brief Clearly defined objectives & success criterion “ Ultimately the point of communications is to get people to do things. Which people? What things? You’ve got the basis of the brief right there. Everything else is detail.” “ The clarity of the objectives is the most fundamental part of a good written brief. The single greatest frustration is when there isn’t a clear and credible problem to solve.”
What a good brief should contain Principally, focus on defining the “two ends of the bridge”: Where are we now? Where do we want to be?
Main sections of a good client brief 1. WHERE ARE WE NOW? 2.WHERE DO WE WANT TO BE? 3.WHAT ARE WE DOING TO GET THERE? 4. WHO DO WE NEED TO TALK TO? 5. HOW WILL WE KNOW WE’VE ARRIVED?
Judging Creative Ideas judging ideas is both an innate talent and a skill. it’s both rational and emotional. it’s where personal tastes and preferences can collide with process and consensus . it requires imagination, leaders hip and trust. inevitably it leads to conflict .
Assessing and responding to the IDEAS their agencies put forward is one of the most difficult things clients have to do
1. Be knowledgeable in advance To assess ideas you need to be able to place them in a broader context and compare them against ideas you have seen elsewhere and considered ‘good’ or ‘bad’: Know good ads, the ads that won the awards Know what your competitors are doing in media & creative terms Know how brands similar to yours are being marketed and advertised in other countries? know your own brand’s advertising and promotional history inside out? Also, don’t use the ad break to heat up dinner…. Do look at the advertising in newspapers….. Open the mail-packs that land on your doormat….Check the promotions in-store when you go shopping. ….Click on the ads on the Internet….. It will help remind you of the people you want to talk to.
2. Come to the meeting with a smile For sound business reasons, join the creative presentation hoping to enjoy yourself and ready to be inspired! When people are having fun, they listen and contribute
3. Back to the Brief Reminding yourself of your brief is essential. It provides you with a framework against which to evaluate the idea. Make sure the agency does this too before they present.
4. Empathize Try to empathize with the people bringing the ideas to you. Creative people are different. It matters less to them that a job is done on time and within budget than that it is done really well
5. Clarify if the idea is not simple and single-minded, then perhaps the brief was not simple and single-minded either. Is it on brief? What exactly is the idea? What sort of an idea is it? What sort of an execution is it? How is the idea going to work?
5. Clarify What exactly is the idea? Idea and execution are not one & the same thing In every Fevicol ad, the idea is that it sticks anything, but every ad is a different expression of the idea
5.Clarify What sort of an idea is it? Few examples: The product demo – when you show what the product actually does in an engaging and powerful way. Orbit advertising, All Out/Mortein advertising The side-by-side comparison – when you are able to make competitive claim about your brand’s performance. The celebrity endorsement – when the values of your brand can be enhanced by those of a famous personality. AB everywhere from Cadbury’s to Navratan to Parker
5.Clarify What sort of an idea is it? Few examples The testimonial of a loyal user – when the target audience can see that people like them use and benefit from the product. All Harpic advertising • The problem solved – a problem/solution scenario in which the brand is the hero. The slice of life – when you show the brand in the lives of its core consumers. Nescafe Borrowed interest – when the idea springs from and refers back to a film or a TV series
5.Clarify What sort of an execution is it ? Is it clever and original? Does it stand out from the competition and say what has to be said in a way that’s never been said before? Is it distinctive? Will it stand out in a cluttered media environment and make more of the media spend? Is it relevant? Does it connect on an emotional level with the brand and inspire positive feelings about it versus the competition? Is it credible? Is it campaignable? Can it be iterated through other media channels? Is it durable? Will it bear repeated viewing and continue to engage? Is the idea deliverable in terms of practicality and the budget?
5.Clarify How is the idea going to work? There are many different models of how advertising and marcoms work, including: • Sheer impact or ‘salience’ that creates fame and ‘talkability’ for the brand Eg zapak • Deep involvement that engages customers in the brand at an emotional and psychological level. Eg : Surf Excel • Persuasion – which imparts new and valuable information about the brand and builds up its functional and rational benefits. • Price – which can have a significant influence on brand choice.
6.Question Yourself your first reaction to the work will almost certainly be subjective. Establish what influences may be at work on your opinion before you start to concentrate on it objectively. Do ask yourself what influence the other people in the room may have on you Don’t use research to avoid having an opinion or making a decision Client Speak: “A lot of the work I’ve been presented has surprised me, but the agency has a responsibility to anticipate and deal with that surprise.”
7.Question the idea The clients who know how to use open questions are those who end up with great work, because they encourage ideas to develop. Start with Who? What? Why? Where? How? When? They involve and stimulate.
8.Reflection Listen to the agency, make notes, then go away and think. Reflection is when you ask the HOW questions. How can we take the idea on? How can we adapt it? How can we make it better? When you have thought about it, give your considered assessment – in writing Your Feedback should be Honest Objective Detailed – against each of the objectives. Constructive – so everyone knows what to do next Marshalled by one decision maker
9. Refinement and the role of research These are the WHY questions. The first is, Why change anything? The less you do to a new and challenging idea, the more you might learn about it in research. Research may not provide you with a list of specific adjustments you should make, but it will suggest whether refinement is needed. David Ogilvy, who observed how some clients use research “As a drunk uses a lamp-post. For support rather than for illumination”
Peek-a-boo into the real world How do clients generally react to creative Do’s & Don'ts
“Feature more than one product or benefit” The page they are buying seems roomy enough to throw in 5 or 6 more things besides your snappy little idea But customers have specific need. They never go shopping for full lines of products. “ Bubbly, sugar-based liquids in a variety of vastly different tastes for all your thirst needs.” What if Coca-Cola did a full range communication for its 80 soft drink brands? You may attract some fringe audience, but at the risk of loosing the main audience he needs most
“Negative headlines are wrong” It’s boring!! It leaves no question answered No Story No Drama No Interest!!
“Our competitors could run that same ad!” “ But you said it first” Sometimes the client’s product isn’t substantially different from the competition’s In such cases the advertising distinguishes one from the other The Concept, the Tone & the Look of the campaign; together makes the Brand Personality Unique This personality in turn can be proprietary
“Print our phone no. in big, bold type” A woman (man) at a bar, slides a folded matchbook across the mahogany and under your napkin. You open it and see a phone no. Are you more likely to call if the no. is written in inch-thick numerals with a fat red crayon? Yes, the phone no. should be there, probably last sentence or maybe by the logo. If the reader wants your phone no. after seeing the ad, he’ll get it. Either from the ad, yellow pages or 22222222.
“Why are you wasting 25 seconds of my TV spot entertaining them?” This is a client who mistakenly believes that people watch TV to see his commercial There is a high wall around the customer. And every day a brick is added. Present your product’s superiority in bullet points They won’t listen to you They won’t like you They won’t welcome you 25 seconds of wasted time is your ticket through the gate in the wall
Client takes your concept literally Client: “Our cheese doesn’t really stretch that far. And if it never breaks, doesn’t that mean its kind of rubbery?’ The bland message “Our pizza has more cheese” has to be dramatized The rules of acceptable logic are different in TV Land and the viewer expects them to be or he might as well be watching news Little Caesar’s pizza ad
“Can you make the logo bigger?” If an ad stops a reader and engages him with an offer that intrigues, what do you suppose the reader will look for next? The reader has just seen something he wants. Where can he get it? The Logo Would a bigger logo be more relevant or persuasive to him? A big logo shouts, “I’m an ad” And an ad says, “Turn the page!” Customers don’t buy company logos. They buy benefits.
Behind-the-Scenes aka Ad 2 case studies that take you through the making of an ad
Behind the Scenes Mummy ka Magic Guess who’s heard from us? Plan Market Context & Problem Definition Watch The Ad..watch the ad & watch the ad Guess the whys, whats and hows….
Mummy ka Magic Market Context & Problem Definition The Washing Machines Market : 2000-2001 Not a place for the weak hearted!
For the third consecutive year, the category lost volumes... Overall white goods slowdown Competition from new age durables - Mobiles - PC 2001 continued the downward trend In Million Units Source: ORG Trak Data
While the crowd for the shrinking pie kept growing - Number of Washing Machine models reported by ORG Kenstar enters the fray SKU proliferation… share fragmentation 27 52 28 52 SA FA 2000 2001
Exerting a double squeeze on revenues Videocon dropped prices to retain leadership LG introduced lower priced models High profile promos added to the pressure Samsung ‘Phod ke dekho’ LG ‘50 lakh birthday bash’ Pressures on SOE Low price pressure SOE Jan-Sep ‘01 Source: MEDIALOGIST, MAP
The pressure was telling on Whirlpool market shares Share in the fully automatic segment stagnated And that in the semi automatic began to dip WP Market shares Losing share in a declining market Source: ORG Trak data Market Shares 18 15 25 25 Q4 '00 Q1-Q3 '01 SA FA
Qualitative studies pointed out some concern areas for the brand With the brand promise ‘ Whitest white’ wash a powerful property for Whitemagic But not laddering onto the final payoff - ‘cleans better’ strongly enough Source: Communication research, IMRB
And with the ‘reason to believe’ But creating some concerns on the machine’s capacity Source: Communication research, IMRB Agitator’s 1-2, 1-2 handwash a strong driver of Credibility Differentiation
Problem Definition Strengthen brand’s promise of ‘cleans better’ Address perceptions on capacity constraints Arrest decline and grow market shares
How did we strengthen the ‘cleans better’ promise? 1999 2001
Stain Removal added to whitest white Difficult stains like gravy, ketchup & oil
Dimensions of ‘Cleaning’ vs ‘Whitening’ showed what it would take to strengthen the former Whitening ‘ chamak’ ‘ naye kapde jaisi safedi’ ‘ shine - nikhar’ brightness - ‘nayapan’ Cleaning No dirt - ‘mael’ No spots & stains - ‘daag dhabe’ ‘ Keetanu nash’ ‘ cuffs & collar ki safai’ (Source: Communication Study, IMRB)
How did we address perceptions of capacity constraints? 1999 2001
Washing large/difficult clothes Like curtains, tablecloth, cushion
Creative development: The context Retain whiteness but communicate ‘cleans better’ through stain removal Leverage Agitator’s handwash but reassure on capacity Stains on whites Large clothes- curtains, table cloth
Psychographic segmentation of Indian women revealed 3 major profiles of women Source: IMRB Psychographic Segmentation Study Traditionalists Discerning Modernist All Housewives Aspirants
Their characteristics at a glance** Traditional Homebody Aspirant Discerning Modernist 62% - SEC C/ D Primarily in 1-5L & 10L+ towns Demographics Key Traits Higher SEC s (A &B) Primarily in metros and in the South and West zones 63% are SEC C/ D Primarily in Metros & 10L+ towns Passive Values traditions and rituals Comfortable at home Decision making by husband and family Tired Lack of confidence Wishes to venture out Decision maker - Husband, but she wants to be involved Active high energy Socially Active Appreciates technology Partner in decision making Comfortable within traditionally defined roles Ensures a partnership Not a strict mother Wants a better relationship with husb Concern for children’s future High ownership of lower end durables like B&W TV, Scooter Higher ownership of lower end durables Some degree of ownership of top-end durables Higher degree of ownership of top-end durables e.g. non-stick cookware, WMs, Refs, CTV, Car, Water purifier Durable Ownership Relationships Source: IMRB Psychographic Segmentation Study
Each segment evaluates durables on different parameters Quality Price Latest technology Stylish Looks After sales service Trust Price Ease of use Durability Trust Wide range of models Recommendations - friends/ dealers International brand Largest selling brand Source: IMRB Psychographic Segmentation Study T R A S DM
Whirlpool emerged a brand of choice of the Aspirant - a middle of the road brand Tr looks for trusted Indian brands As looks for popular brands, and a range of models DM looks for technology & style Source: IMRB Psychographic Segmentation Study Koreans Whirlpool Indians
Communication to target the top end of pyramid a partner to her husband involved in all decisions at home a friend to her children Informed and Discerning appreciates technology willing to pay more where she sees value
Creative development: The connect Whirlpool is not just about a ‘better product’ It is about being a partner to the homemaker Giving her confidence in her ability to handle a challenge And keeping her cool when others would lose it The key - giving her the credit, making her the heroine
Notice the change in Amrita’s personality 1999 2001
Building association with her genre of media vehicles
Film contests and in-cinema promos carried forward the excitement
Behind the Scenes Mummy ka Magic Guess who’s just heard from us Plan Market Context & Problem Definition Watch The Ad..watch the ad & watch the ad Guess the whys, whats and hows….
What do you do ??? When you want to make a little known brand from a little known company in a little known business in a little known medium the most important thing in the life of a person who wants to change his job?
Pioneering e-recruitment in India First e-job site in India Formed during the dot com boom and rode out the bust Grew incrementally on entry level and junior recruitments Had ambitions and marketing plans to move up the recruitment ladder to better organizations and middle/senior positions
Reality bytes Reluctance of job seekers to use internet as a medium to seek jobs naukri.com low on aspirational values and therefore considered only by the “average prospect and not the better qualified ones” Competition was hotting up and becoming a very serious threat
Monster.com Monster.com a widely recognized global brand with surplus cash reserves Already active with online advertising Image would appeal to informed job seeker Timesjobs.com Highly visible through the group publication Spend levels the highest in the category 6 times that of naukri.com Situation aggravated with growing competition
Leading to a vicious cycle of ‘not so hot’ resumes and jobs Lack of imagery and relevance Lack of quality job postings Lack of quality applications
The marketing challenge therefore was… To break the vicious cycle Increase the traffic on to the site Attract better quality of resumes Increase the no. of job listings on the site A relevant and leverageable consumer insight would be key to the effectiveness of the approach
PEOPLE AND JOBS Some consumer work… People search and quit jobs for various reasons. Some among them are: Greener pastures : Higher Salaries/career growth Career shifts Better work environment To re-locate to other cities The “Wife belongs to Mumbai cannot stand Delhi” syndrome etc. …etc…
“ Most of good quality people quit their jobs because they didn’t get along with their boss.” Gallup Survey On why people don’t get along with their bosses: Not likeable, unfair, irritable, incompetent “ I know it all, you know nothing type”, etc..etc. PROBING FURTHER…
KEY INSIGHT People do not quit companies... They quit their bosses! The challenge was to creatively leverage this insight
Exploring the insight The angst was universally relevant, though the degrees varied Cut across levels in any organisation from the very junior to the very senior and from a large organisation to a small one Positioning the brand as an enabler in getting rid of this angst was key
Humor was used to get cut through and instant empathy To stimulate this suppressed angst towards bosses CREATIVE STRATEGY
What communicatioin medium to use? Naukri had to reach out to people beyond the net Monster and Timesjobs leveraging their clout across media Naukri neither had the financial resources nor the advantage 50 lacs was all that was available
TV IT WAS…. Reach was critical to get the traffic Our TA spent more time per day watching TV than reading the newspaper or surfing the net Image connotations could best be handled on the audio visual medium Matching Timesjobs print spends or Monster’s online spends was next to impossible Sharp focusing to a well defined audience could enable us to use limited budgets effectively
Intelligent use of TV Wanted to catch the TG fresh from “boss abuse” and therefore decided to reach out during evenings Print therefore was out, TV was ideal but expensive Our TA had a male skew 80% of the working population is male who are fairly regular news consumers We also had to improve the quality of resumes (professionals, business managers, etc.) English news on TV was the chosen genre over the more popular Hindi