Topic: Pneumonia Type: Essay Subject: Nursing
Academic Level: Undergraduate Style: Vancouver Language: English (U.S)
Number of Pages: 3 (double-spaced, Times New Roman, Font 12)
Number of sources: 3
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Since this Evidence-Based Care (EBC) assignment, compose a 3 page paper on the Pneumonia
Respiratory disorder that is relevant to nursing practice. Briefly explain the etiology,
pathophysiology, as well as clinical presentation.Discuss the preferred evidence-based treatment
and include nursing considerations for patient teaching.
Pneumonia is a septicity of the lungs that result from bacteria, viruses, fungi, as well as
parasites.The first symptom is an inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs that is filled with fluid.
These alveoli are microscopic sacs in the lungs that fascinate oxygen. Recent global reports (1,
p. 388), exhibit that over three million individuals develop pneumonia yearly while 17% of the
victims receive treatment in hospitals. Therefore, most victims recuperate, making it apparent
that at least 5% of the patients always accede the illness (1, p. 395). Pneumonia can make an
individual very ill even to the point of death. However, the disease can transpire in young, as
well as healthy individuals, but is more dangerous in older adults, babies and persons with other
illness or weakened immune systems.
According to (1, p. 394), Pneumonia is often caused by a bacterium, the Streptococcus
Pneumoniae, especially in people who suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and
are victims of alcoholism. Such individuals are vulnerable to contracting pneumonia from
Klebsiella, as well as Hemophilus Influenza. This category, although occurring temporarily, has
some association with the bacteria known as the Mycoplasma Pneumoniae (3). Subsequently, the
attacking organisms results in a variety of impact, in part, by irritating to an overly enthusiastic
status to the immune responses within the lungs. Therefore, the small blood vessels within the
lungs tend to develop leaks; hence, protein-rich fluid seeps through the alveoli. However, this
tends to mark a less serviceable region for oxygen-carbon dioxide conversions; hence, the
affected victims tend to develop oxygen rundowns while holding hypothetically risky carbon
Conversely, ill persons respire faster in conjunction to result in more oxygen, as well as
the release of more carbon dioxide. However, when these secretions are augmented, the leaky
vessels often tinge the mucus with blood. The mucus plugs tend to diminish the efficacy of gas
conversions within the lungs. Nonetheless, the alveoli tend to fill up with fluids, resulting in the
debris from a vast number of white cells that get released to combat the infection (3). Therefore,
the pneumonia condition often starts when an individual breathes the relevant germs into lungs.
What follows is usually the disease after accessing a cold, as well as the flu. Conversely, the
sickness will tend to make a person find it difficult for his/her lungs to fight against the disease,
making it easier to contract pneumonia. Subsequently, an individual with long-term and chronic
illnesses such as asthma, heart diseases, cancer and diabetes possess the vulnerabilities of getting
Nonetheless, an individual suffering from pneumonia gets diagnosed within the health
centers where the diagnosis tends to begin with physical examinations and discussions pertaining
the symptoms and medical histories. Thus, doctors are capable of suspecting pneumonia in
individuals when they hear and feel the coarse breathing, wheezing, as well as crackling sounds
and rumblings through their stethoscopes. Subsequently, individuals can also undergo chest X-
rays and blood tests when ordered to confirm fully pneumonia diagnosis (2). Chest x-rays
confirm pneumonia and identify its location and extents within the lungs. Blood tests measure
the white blood cells counts to determine the severities of pneumonia for a proper determination
of whether the infection is viral or fungal. Thus, analyzing the sputum can identify the causative
organism of pneumonia with a more invasive tool, the bronchoscopy (2). In this regard, the
procedure involves keeping a patient under anesthesia as well as a thin, flexible and a lighted
tube inserted into his/her nose/mouth for direct examination of the infected regions of the lungs.
After all these diagnoses have been carried out, a pneumonia patient exhibits the
symptoms of coughs, rusty/green sputum coughed up from the lungs, fevers, shaking chills as
well as diarrhea (2-3). Conversely, patients tend to experience fatigue, nausea and vomiting,
sweating, fast breathing as well as shortness of breath, muscle pains, confusions and deliriums,
headaches as well as dusky/purplish skin complexion because of the poorly oxygenated blood
Treatment of pneumonia significantly depends on the pneumonia type and the severity of
the symptoms (1, p. 414). Thus, the treatment of bacterial pneumonia involves administration of
antibiotics, whereas the viral forms of pneumonia get treated with plenty of rest, as well as
fluids. Nonetheless, fungal pneumonia tends to be treated with antifungal medications.
Subsequently, over-the-counter medications/drugs can also be prescribed for the better
management of pneumonia symptoms (3). Such drugs include treatments meant for the reduction
of fever, diminishing aches and pains, as well as suppress coughs. Hence, it is significant to
acquire plenty of rest and sleep while drinking a lot of fluids (2).
Lastly, patients can be advised to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. However, it should
be understood that staying physically fit and getting enough sleep will help in keeping the
immune system strong. Subsequently, nurses can consider informing their patients on washing
their hands more often. This way, individuals could frontier the spread of viruses, as well as
bacteria. Nonetheless, patients can maintain their hydration levels; thus, drinking plenty of fluids,
specifically water, assists in loosening the sputum in the lungs. Conversely, taking the
medications as prescribed is considerable since sticking to the prescribed drugs will reduce the
severity of pneumonia and prevent its persistence (2).
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1. American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired,
ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
2005; p. 388-416.
2. Irwig L, Bossuyt P, Glazsiou P, Gatsonis C, Lijmer J. Evidence base of clinical diagnosis:
Designing studies to ensure that estimates of test accuracy are transferable; 2002.
3. Krause L. Healthline. [Online].; 2012 [cited 2015 March 23. Available from: HYPERLINK
"http://www.healthline.com/health/mycoplasma-pneumonia" l "Overview1" http://