Vital statistics and demography


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  • Jean Talon conducted the first Census in 1666 in the New World.
    Base-line survey of the sample units to obtain usual resident population of the sample areas
    Continuous (longitudinal) enumeration of vital events pertaining to usual resident population by the enumerator
    Independent retrospective half‑yearly surveys for recording births and deaths which occurred during the half‑year under reference and up‑dating the Houselist, Household schedule and the list of women in the reproductive age group along with their pregnancy status by the Supervisor;
    Matching of events recorded during continuous enumeration and those listed in course of half-yearly survey
    Field verification of unmatched and partially matched events.
    Filling of Verbal Autopsy Forms for finalized deaths.
  • Fertility is the natural capability of producing offsprings. As a measure, "fertility rate" is the number of children born per couple, person or population. Fertility differs from fecundity, which is defined as the potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete production, fertilisation and carrying a pregnancy to term).
  • Vital statistics and demography

    1. 1. 1 Vital Statistics & Demography Dr. Rajan Rayamajhi, MD Senior Resident School of Public Health and Community Medicine B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. VITAL EVENTS 3
    4. 4. Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data VITAL STATISTICS 4   “Vital statistics is defined as that branch of biometry which deals with data and the law of human mortality, morbidity and demography” vital events are collected, compiled and the resulting statistics are known as Vital Statistics Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data
    5. 5. 5 SOURCES OF POPULATION DATA     Census Registration of vital events Sample registration Survey Institutional records
    6. 6. CENSUS 6   “ the total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time or times, to all persons in a country or delimited territory".(United Nations) ‘Census’ comes from the Latin world ‘Sensere’ means value or tax.  10 year interval  Important source of health information
    7. 7. Method of census taking 7 1. 1. De facto census(in fact, whether by right or not) : the method is to list all persons present in the household or other living quarters at midnight of the census day or all who passed the night there. De jure census(by right): all persons who usually live in the household are listed on the form whether they are present or not. Visitors who have a usual residence elsewhere are excluded from the listing but are counted at their usual residence.
    8. 8. Modern census 8  Each individual is enumerated separately and characteristics of each persons are recorded separately.  The census covers a precisely defined territory and includes every person present or residing within its scope.  Population is enumerated with a well defined time and date is in terms of a well defined reference period.  The census is taken at regular intervals.
    9. 9. Uses of census 9     Is the primary sources of basic national population data required for administrative purposes and many aspects of economic and social planning and research. Provides information on: trends in population growth. change in age and sex structure cause of fertility, mortality, migration and urbanization. Useful for estimating, calculating birth and death rates Provides information on :  Changes in the national occupational and industrial composition
    10. 10. 10        Religion, languages and caste/ethnic composition Analysis of economic development. Future trends of population growth. National, local, public and private planning. Estimating school going population, military and economic manpower. Future growth of cities and requirement of food, water, housing and health services. Number of voters- present and future and many more. Thus census is contributing to a revolutionary expansion of global econom ,sociological and ic dem ographic knowledge.
    11. 11. Census in Nepal 11     The first population count was carried out in the year 1911 , since then censuses are being carried out at an interval of more or less 10 years. The first scientific census with the technical assistance from UN was conducted in 1952/54 1961 census is regarded as the first scientific census of Nepal in terms of internationally accepted definitions of census. The latest census was carried out in 2011.
    12. 12. Information in census 12   Household Information Individual Information
    13. 13. Analysis of Vital Data 13 Measurement of Population Mid year population : (a) Natural increase method Pt =Po +(B-D) +(I-E) where, Po = total population at last census region B = total nos. of birth D = total nos. of death I = total nos. of immigrants into the E = total nos. of emigrants from the region
    14. 14. 14 b) Geometric progression method Pt =Po (1+r) t r= ( Pt/Po) -1 1/ t where, r = growth rate t = time in years
    15. 15. Rate and Ratio 15  Rate of the vital events is defined as the ratio of the total numbers of occurrences of the events to the total numbers of person exposed to the risk of occurrences of that events.  Sex ratio= Male population X 100 Female population child women ratio Nos of child<5 yrs X 100 Total female pop 15-49 yrs 
    16. 16. Measurement of Mortality 16 (a) Crude Death R (CDR ate ) = Total death in a given year X 1000 Average or mid year pop. of a year (b) Age-specific Death rate (AS ) DR Nos. of death at age ’a’ _X 1000 Mid-yrs pop. of a given year at age ’a’ Crude rate is based on total population while a specific rate is based on the basis of age, sex, cause etc
    17. 17. 17 (c) Infant M ortality rate (IM ) R = Nos. of infant death in a year X1000 Nos. of live birth in the year    Sensitive indicators Reflect the socio-economic status of the country Also reflect the medical and health facilities in a population
    18. 18. Two parts IMR 18 1) Neonatal M ortality R ate = Death under one months X 1000  Nos. of live birth It occurs basically due to the endogenous factors of death 2) P ost-neonates M ortality R ate = Death between 1st and 11 complete months X1000  Nos. of live birth It is affected by the exogenous factors (environments, sanitation, health facilities, etc)
    19. 19. 19 (d) Cause-specific death rate = Deaths due to the cause I (di) Total nos. of death (D)  X1000 Useful to analysis the death by cause (e) Case fatality rate = Death due to the specific disease X100 total nos. of illness due to that disease
    20. 20. 20 (f) M aternal M ortality R (M R ate M ) nos. of death of mother due to the cause related to maternity X 100000 Total nos. of live birth  Sensitive and important indicator of maternal health
    21. 21. Fertility? Fertility? The age of The age of fertility? fertility? Measurement of Fertility 21 (a) Crude B irth R (CB ) ate R total nos. of birth in a year Mid year pop. in that year (b) General F ertility R (GF ) ate R Total nos. of birth in a year Average nos. of women in reproductive age group X 1000 X 1000
    22. 22. 22 (c) Age-specific fertility R (AS R ate F) Nos. of birth to women aged “x” X 1000 Nos. of women aged ”x”  Useful for family planning programme point of view (d) Age-specific M arital fertility R (AS F ) ate MR Nos.of birth to women aged ”x” Nos. of married women aged ”x” X1000
    23. 23. 23 (e ) Total fertility R (TF ) ate R 49 ΣASFR x x=15  The physical meaning of TFR is that it is the expected number of children that a women will bear in her life time, passing through the reproductive age and bearing children according to fixed schedule of fertility
    24. 24. 24 (f) Gross R eproduction R (GR ) ate R  is a measure of population which describe the rate of increase of population over a generation  Defined as the average number of daughter among birth cohort of women, which they will bear in their life time, passing through the reproductive age and bearing children according to fixed schedule of fertility, if they survive to the end of child bearing period
    25. 25. 25 (g) Net R eproduction R (NR ) ate R  Measure of number of daughters which a cohort of girl infant will bear as grow to adulthood and pass through the child period, provided that as they pass through each age they bear children at the rate indicated by a current schedule of age specific fertility rates and from birth till the end of the child bearing period they are subjected to mortality as per life table
    26. 26. Population statistics of Nepal 26 Population growth rateSize of household ElectricitySafe drinking waterToilet facilityLiteracyTFRGFR 1.4% / annum 4.7 persons 51% household 90% - urban, 80% - rural 50% household 77%- M, 51%- F 2.6 births / women 96 births/1000 Women aged 15-44 years CBR 24.3 births/1000 population Age at 1st marriage- Female-17.2yrs Male 20.2 yrs
    27. 27. CPR27 49.7%(any method) 43.2%(any modern method) IMR46/1000 live births Under 5 MR54/1000 live births Neonatal Mortality33/1000 live births Child Mortality9/1000 live births Immunization coverage: i. BCG96.2% ii. DPT391.4% iii. POLIO3 92.2% iv. Measles 87.7% v. All 86.6% vi. None 2.9%
    28. 28.   28     MMRANC – TT2 Delivery – 281/100000 live births 58% (Health professionals) 82% 36% babies attended by Skilled provider 28% in a health facility Nutrition – Children Under Five Stunting (low height for age) — 41% Wasting (low weight for height) — 11% Underweight (low weight for age) — 29% Exclusive Breastfeeding – 69.6%
    29. 29. 29 Table A1: Items Covered in the Schedule 1 of the 2001 Population Census Questionnaire Schedule 1  Household Information  1. Type of housing unit occupied by the household  2. Tenure of housing unit  3. Whether any land operated for agriculture  4. Area of agricultural land operated  5. Whether any livestock/ poultry raised  6. Number of livestock/ poultry on the holding  7. Whether any female member owned any house/land  - Area of land owned
    30. 30. 30  8. Whether any female member owned any livestock       - Number of livestock (big and small head) 9. Whether household was engaged in small scale nonagricultural activities 10. Main type of small scale activity (other than agriculture) 11. Whether any person absent from household and living abroad 12. Information on the absentee Sex, age, duration, and reason
    31. 31. Individual Information 31            1. Serial number of household member 2. Full name of the household member 3. Male/Female 4. Age 5. Caste/Ethnicity 6. Relationship to the household head 7. Religion 8. Language spoken- Mother tongue, - Second language 9. Citizenship 10. Type of disability
    32. 32. Table A2: Items Covered in the Schedule 2 of the 2001 Population Census Questionnaire Schedule 2 32            Household Information 1. Main source of drinking water 2. Main fuel used for cooking 3. Main source of light 4. Toilet facility 5. Household conveniences 6. Whether any death in the household 7. Information on the deceased person(s) 8- Sex, age, date, and cause 9. Level of education
    33. 33. 33             10. Whether currently attending any school 11. Marital status 12. Age at first marriage 13. No. of children ever born alive 14. Any live births during last 12 months 15. Work usually done during the last 12 months 16. No. of months worked during the last 12 months 17. Occupation (type of usual work) 18. Industry (place of usual work) 19. Employment Status 20. Reasons for usually not working 21. Living arrangements of children below 16 years
    34. 34. Individual Information 34         1. Serial number of household member 2. Full name and sex of the household member 3. Age 4. Place of birth 5. Duration of stay at the present place 6. Reason for staying in this district 7. Residence five years ago 8. Whether able to read and write