Knowing the patterns of mortality and injuries associated with particular disasters can be most beneficial when providing training. This can result in effective preparedness and ensure better outcomes. It is important to bring this to the attention of nurses in developing counties especially that their countries at higher risk for disasters and causalities.
Infection control is an important strategy in eliminating infectious diseases (e.g. cholera, etc.). Nurses receive training in infection control during their undergraduate or as part of continuing education. Public education about preventive strategies in times where water is contaminated can be a determinant factor in eliminating any epidemic.
Disasters consequences range between short and long-term. Effective assessment can establish the base for appropriate actions. This can serve well in lessening the burden of disaster and enhancement of coping. Nursing education acknowledges mental wellness by itself an outcome , however, it is also looked as the key for physical well being.
Everyone has a role identity in family and community; when they lose everything and are then taken care of with emergency assistance, they may be turned intopassive receivers and lose that role identity. We can help themrecover their sense of purpose and worth along with helping themexpress and process the loses.
College of nursing, university of Hyogo: http://www.coe-cnas.jp/english/index.html
Captures pictures in 36 wavelengths.adjusted in terra satellite of nasa.
DISASTER MANAGEMENTDr. Rajan Bikram RayamajhiJunior ResidentSchool of Public Health and Community MedicineB. P. Koirala Institute of Health SciencesDharan, Nepal2012
Contents• Introduction• Disaster Types• Victims and Survivors• Second Disaster• Disaster Management Cycle• Disaster syndrome• Nuclear Disaster• Floods• Earthquake• Law/Acts in Nepal• Data on disasters in Nepal• Activities in Nepal• Few recent advances
International Day for Disaster Reduction is celebratedevery year on October 13Making Children and Young People partners for Disaster RiskReduction( 2011Theme)
The word disaster is derived from Middle French désastre andthat from Old Italiano disastro, which in turn comes fromthe Greek Pejorative prefix δυσ-, (dus-) "bad" + ἀστήρ (aster),"star".The root of the word disaster ("bad star" in Greek) comes froman astrological theme in which the ancients used to refer to thedestruction or deconstruction of a star as a disaster
INTRODUCTION: A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a societycausing widespread human, material, economic or environmentallosses which exceed the ability of the affected community or societyto cope using its own resources . Disasters are not totally discrete events. Their possibility ofoccurrence, time, place and severity of the strike can be reasonablyand in some cases accurately predicted by technological andscientific advances. It has been established there is a definite pattern in their occurrencesand hence we can to some extent reduce the impact of damagethough we cannot reduce the extent of damage itself.
Disaster management usually refers to the management of naturalcatastrophes such as fire, flooding, or earthquakes. Related techniques include crisis management, contingencymanagement and risk management. Disaster/emergency management is the discipline of dealing with andavoiding risks. It also involves preparing for a disaster before it happens, disasterresponse (e.g. emergency evacuation, quarantine, massdecontamination, etc.)as well as supporting, and rebuilding societyafter natural or human-made disasters have occurred.
Effective emergency management relies on thoroughintegration of emergency plans at all levels of government andnon-government involvement. Activities at each level (individual, group, community) affectthe other levels. It is common to place the responsibility for governmentalemergency management with the institutions for civil defenseor within the conventional structure of the emergency services
Emergency Management which has replaced Civil defense, canbe seen as a more general intent to protect the civilianpopulation in times of peace as well as in times of war. Civil Protection is widely used within the European Union andrefers to government approved systems and resources whosetask is to protect the civilian population, primarily in the eventof natural and human-made disasters.
Crisis Management is the term widely used in EU countriesand it emphasizes the political and security dimension ratherthan measures to satisfy the immediate needs of the civilianpopulation. Disaster risk reduction An academic trend is towards using theterm is growing, particularly for emergency management in adevelopment management context. This focuses on themitigation and preparedness aspects of the emergency cycle
TYPES OF DISASTERS: Natural Disasters. Man-made Disasters. Natural DisastersA. Natural Phenomena beneath Earth‟s Surface: Earth Quake Tsunamis Volcanic EruptionsB. Natural Phenomena at Earth‟s Surface: Land Slides Avalanches
C. Natural Phenomena above Earth‟s Surface: Metrological (Hydrological) Phenomena: Windstorms ( Cyclone, Typhoon, Hurricane) Tornadoes Hailstorms or Snow Storms Sea surges Floods Droughts Biological Phenomena Epidemics of disease Locust swarms ( group of insects/bees)
Man Made Disasters Caused by Warfare Conventional Nuclear Biological Chemical Caused by accidents Vehicular-air crafts, train, ship, four/two wheelers Drowning Collapse of building Explosions Fires Biological Chemicals including Poisoning
HURRICANE The primary health hazard from hurricanes or cycloneslies in the risk of drowning from the storm surgeassociated with the landfall of the storm. Most deathsassociated with hurricanes are drowning deaths. Secondarily, a hazard exists for injuries from flyingdebris due to the high speed of winds. Health prof. can be instrumental in providing directemergency care to drowning and head injuries.
TORNADOES The primary hazard from a health perspective in a tornadois the risk for injuries from flying debris. The high windsand circular nature of a tornado leads to the elevation andtransport of anything that is not fastened down. Most victims of tornadoes are affected by head and chesttrauma due to being struck by debris or from a structuralcollapse. Some individuals are injured while on the ground. Othersare lifted into the air by the tornado and dropped at anotherlocation.
FLOOD Floods may originate very quickly following a quick rainstorm, or they may develop over a short period following anextended period of rain or quick snow melt. The primary hazard from flooding is drowning. Longer term health concerns from flooding is the damage ofinfrastructure followed by development of disease fromcontaminated water and lack of hygiene.
EARTHQUAKE A significant global concern. The primary health concern:Injuries arising from structural collapseMost injuries occur amongst individuals trapped at thetime of the earthquake Well known prevention strategy is to prevent buildings fromcollapsing. There is a recognized need to develop better rescue strategiesfor retrieving individuals from collapsed buildings
EXAMPLES MAY-JULY, 1999 INDO PAKISTAN WAR. SEP 11, 2001: WORLD TRADE CENTERDESTROYED, USA. DEC 26, 2004: INDIAN OCEAN EARTHQUAKE ANDTSUNAMI, MAG. 9.3,KILLED-2,80,000. AUG 29,2005: HURRICANE KATRINA IN NEWORLEANS. JAN 12, 2010: EARTHQUAKE IN HAITI-KILLED3,10,000, MAG. 7.0
VICTIMS AND SURVIVORSAlmost everyone in the population is affected by a disaster. No one isuntouched by it.Those who suffer damage are called victims. The victims may die or live.Those who manage to live are called survivors. These survivors can beclassified as: Primary survivor – One who is exposed to the disaster first-hand andthen survives. They are called ‘survivor victims’. Secondary survivor – One who grieves the loss of primary victims.Example, a mother who lost her child, or a man who lost his friend.
Third level survivor – The rescue and relief personnel. Thesepeople are also affected due to the disaster as they are at thesite of disaster and undergo almost the same mental trauma asthe other victims. Fourth level survivor – Reporters, Governmentpersonnel, traders, etc. Fifth level survivor – People who read about or see the eventin media reports.
Disaster phase – The phase during which the event of the disastertakes place. This phase is characterized by profound damage to thehuman society. This damage / loss may be that of human life, loss ofproperty, loss of environment, loss of health or anything else.In this phase, the population is taken by profound shock.
Response phase – This is the period that immediately followsthe occurrence of the disaster. In a way, all individuals respondto the disaster, but in their own ways. The ambulances and medical personnel arrive, remove theinjured for transportation to medical camps or hospitals andprovide first aid and life support. The public also take part inrelief work. One can even find injured victims help other injured ones.Almost everyone is willing to help.The needs of the population during this phase are immediatemedical help, food, clothing and shelter
Recovery phaseWhen the immediate needs of the population are met, when all medicalhelp has arrived and people have settled from the hustle – bustle of theevent, they begin to enter the next phase, the recovery phase which is themost significant, in terms of long term outcome.It is during this time that the victims actually realize the impact ofdisaster. It is now that they perceive the meaning of the loss that theyhave suffered.
During this phase, they need resources and facilities so as toenable them to return back to their own homes, pursue theiroccupation, so that they can sustain their life on their own, asthe help from the government and other non governmentalorganizations is bound to taper in due course.Thus, they are provided with a whole newenvironment, adequate enough to pursue a normal or at leastnear normal life. This is called Rehabilitation.
Risk reduction phaseDuring this phase, the population has returned to pre disaster standardsof living. But, they recognize the need for certain measures which maybe needed to reduce the extent or impact of damage during the nextsimilar disaster.This process of making the impact less severe is called Mitigation.
Preparedness phase – This phase involves the developmentof awareness among the population on the general aspects ofdisaster and on how to behave in the face of a future disaster.This includes education on warning signs of disasters, methodsof safe and successful evacuation and first aid measures.
THE SECOND DISASTERThe actual disaster results in a lot of damage to the population in terms ofloss of life and property-„first disaster’.The impact of the first disaster sends another wave of damage triggeredby chain of events relating to the first disaster by means of cause-and-effect, resulting in indirect damage to people remote from the originaldisaster.This can be called the ‘second disaster’.
Tsunami had caused loss in terms of life, damage to houses, etc.This is the first disaster.The losses suffered by these industries results in lower wages andsalaries to those involved in the fishing business.These people cannot repay their loans, resulting in losses tomoney lenders, and so on.Such events can also result in higher incidences of heartattacks, strokes, suicides and homicides.This is called „second disaster‟ and can be in greater magnitudethan the ‘first disaster’. Proper rehabilitation and care of thevictims of first disaster can break the chain of events leading tothe second disaster.
PATTERNS OF MORTALITYAND INJURY Disaster events that involve water are the mostsignificant in terms of mortality. Floods, storm surges, and tsunamis all have a higherproportion of deaths relative to injuries. Earthquakes and events associated with high winds tendto exhibit more injuries than deaths. The risk of injury and death is much higher indeveloping countries – at least 10 times higher becauseof little preparedness, poorer infrastructure.
DISPLACEMENT OF VICTIMS Mass Shelters Shelter management:• Organized team (chain)• Sleeping area and necessities• Water and food handling• Sanitation (toilets, showers)• Special care to children and elderly• Health services (physical, mental)
DISASTER AND HEALTH In a major disaster water treatment plant, storage & pumpingfacilities, & distribution lines could be damaged, interrupted orcontaminated. Communicable diseases outbreak due to:– Changes affecting vector populations (increase vector).– Flooded sewer systems .– The destruction of the health care infrastructure and– The interruption of normal health services geared towardscommunicable diseases.
Injuries from the event Environmental exposure after the event (no shelter) Malnutrition after the event (feeding the populationaffected) Excess Communicable Disease mortality following adisaster Mental health (disaster syndrome)
INCUBATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASESIncubation periods of illnesses in returned travelers(Adapted from CDC Health Information for International Travel 2010)Incubation Period Etiologies< 2 weeks Malaria, dengue, typhoid, acute HIV, hepatitis C, hepatitis E,acute diarrheal syndromes (E.coli, Campylobacter sp.,salmonellosis, shigellosis), influenza enteroviruses, bacterialand viral pneumonias, sinusitis, measles, mumps, rubella,varicella, bacterial or viral meningitis, leptospirosis, anthrax,arbovirus encephalitis2 – 6 weeks Malaria, typhoid, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B,hepatitis C, hepatitis E, acute HIV, amebic liver abscess,leptospirosis, arbovirus, encephalitis> 6 weeks Malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis E,HIV, filariasis, amebic liver abscess, rabies
DISASTER SYNDROMEThis is an observed disorder that can be identified in disaster victims. Asa matter of fact, about 75% of the population of the population isaffected, immediately following the disaster (Duffy, 1998).By the 10th week, there is a significant drop, and by the end of the firstyear, it drops to about 30 – 40% of the disaster affected population. It isalso observed, that there is a 17% higher occurrence of long-termsequelae in the disaster affected population, as compared to other controlpopulations (Roubonis, 1991).
The observation by Duffy of the widespread occurrence ofsymptoms following a disaster (75%) implicates that they are anormal reaction to an abnormal event .The ensuing drop in the prevalence of symptoms in the followingyear shows that they are resolving „on the own‟.The rest who suffer continual symptoms may be the victims of afailure of resolution of the normal reaction.The logical deduction from the observations of Duffy andRoubonis implicates that facilitation of the resolution can bringabout lower psychiatric morbidity in the disaster affectedpopulation.
MENTAL WELLNESS In any major disaster, people want to know where theirloved ones are, nurses can assist in making links. In case of loss, people need to mourn: Give them space Find family friends or local healers to encourageand support them Most are back to normal within 2 weeks About1% to 3%, may need additional help
Little attention is paid to the children. Listen attentively to children without denying theirfeelings. Give easy-to-understand answers to their questions. In the shelter, create an environment in which childrencan feel safe and secure (e.g. play area).
NUCLEAR DISASTERThe problem with accidents/leaks with nuclear installation is thatradioactive material might get discharged into the environment. Thisradioactive material could then enter human bodies.The primary ways for these radioactive materials to enter human-bodiesare: through breathing of contaminated air through eating of contaminated food (including livestock animals –which might have inhaled/eaten contaminated air/food) – includingmilk from a cow which has grazed on contaminated grass!! through drinking of contaminated water through pores of skin etc. – which might be in contact withcontaminated air or water. This is very small enough to be considered asnegligible.
First of all, stay indoors (unless, specifically asked toevacuate). By staying indoors, you are trying to reduce thelevel of your exposure to radio-active material.Similarly, bring your pets and livestock indoors/their stalls. Prepare for possible evacuation. Arrange for iodine tablets. Do Not consume freshly harvested food products – because, itmight have been contaminated. Do not use water which was outside, as it might have beencontaminated.
Unless you are competent and authorized to be working on the disasterrelief/mitigation, do not drive/venture into the zone having risks. First ofall, by entering into this area, you could be endangeringyourself, and, secondly, you could be hampering other efforts whichcould include: movement of rescue vehicles, disaster responseteams, and, maybe possible evacuation. Remember, a nuclear accident isnot a show-item, that you have to watch. Stay away. Care should be taken that you should be able to continue to receivefurther information that might be provided by the disaster managementteam.
While staying indoors, try to stay in closed rooms – away fromdoors and windows, in basements etc. All mechanisms of air-circulation should be turned off. Once again, the idea is toavoid contamination from radioactive material, which is therein the atmosphere and air. For this purpose, when you buildyour house, it should be so constructed, such that all openingsshould be totally coverable – to prevent the entry ofcontaminated air into your house. The material chosen forbuilding should also be such that it can effectively screencontaminated material, e.g. timber is very poor in its ability toscreen radiation. So, timber houses would be very risky – interms of contamination.
One of the most active action that one can take is: take Iodinetables. Iodine tables actually saturate the thyroid glands, andthus, they prevent radio-active iodine (released due to theaccident) from getting accumulated into the thyroid gland.Considering that, you might not want to get outdoors – duringa disaster, to collect iodine tablets – it might be prudent tohave a supply of such tablets, if you are staying in anarea, which has a risk of seeing nuclear accident. It should beunderstood that ability to have uncontaminated proper food ismore effective than having iodine. So, if uncontaminated foodcan be consumed, that should be given the first preference.
Iodine tablets also have severe side-effects. Hence, anoverdose of iodine tables is not advisable. In general, olderpeople should avoid iodine tables. The side-effects on themcould be more harmful than the advantages that it mightprovide. Similarly, children and pregnant women should take alower dosage.
If evacuation is to be involved, it should be done before the formationof the radioactive clouds. However, there is only so much that onecan do in his/her individual capacity – in the sense that we wouldneed to depend on the disaster management authority to advise as towhen should we start evacuating.However, when evacuating, try to do so in an orderly manner, withoutclogging the roads etc. Once again, try to stay tuned to sources oftraffic information, so that you can use the least congested routes toevacuate. If you are not contaminated, you should NOT crowd the emergencycenters and/or hospitals. As it is, dealing with nuclear radiation needsspecialized knowledge, and, you don‟t want to overburden thesystem, which would be already too stretched in case of a nuclearincident.
As soon as you are out of the effected area, or, are entering a non-contaminated area, you should:– Discard your contaminated clothing (so that the virgin area doesnot get further contaminated)– Wash those areas of your body, which were exposed, e.g. hands,face etc. If needed, take a bath. Needless to say, this step needsto be done using uncontaminated water. Imagine, you are justentering your house – from outside. Since the water stored inoverhead tanks could also be contaminated, there is only alimited supply of decontaminated water.Hence, you should use your judgment, as to whether to take awhole-body wash, or, just washing the uncovered areas of yourbody.
Dosage of Iodine (WHO recommendation)Check your local centers for exact recommendation suitable for your locality Adults - older than 12 years: 1 tablet per day. Children aged 3 to 12 years: ½ tablet per day. Infants aged 1 month to 3 years: ¼ tablet per day. Neonates up to one month: one dose 1/8 tablet. Pregnant and breast-feeding women: two doses of 1 tablet each. Older people should not be given iodine tablets. They risk much more severeside-effects, mostly due to hyperthyroidism – specially, if they have been stayingin thyroid deficient regions. For pregnant women, this dosage offers protection to her as well as her unbornchild. However, after the birth of this child, the intake of iodine tables should beinformed to the doctor, so that the doctor can pay special attention to the child‟sthyroid. For breast-feeding women, their breast-milk contains some amount ofiodine. However, this amount might not be sufficient for the breast-fed child.Hence, the child should be given his/her own dosage.Tablet means: 100 mg iodine tablet, or, 130 mg potassium iodide
EARTHQUAKE DUCK and COVER during the event.Instructions for evacuating buildings after the shaking hasceased a list of safe sites where people living in areas threatenedby landslides during secondary tremors could be relocated means of caring for young, elderly, sick, or infirm peopleprocedures for the safe shutdown of any machinery orprocessesprocedures for extinguishing any potential fire sources andmaking hazardous situations safer
a protocol for checking personnel and accounting for anymissing personsa plan for dispensing first aid and dealing with distressedpeopleprocedures for checking and reporting damage damage limitation measures procedures for informing the workforce of whether andwhen it is safe to return to work or go homeThere never are enough rescuers or medical providers in majordisasters, communities vulnerable to earthquakes should establish ongoingprograms to teach the public what to do when an earthquake occurs, suchas first aid education, basic rescue training, fire drills. Simulationexercises can be carried out jointly by volunteer groups, local firebrigades, and hospitals. This training also might help to improvebystanders responses during everyday emergencies.
FLOOD Coastal floods: Caused by severe sea storms, or as a resultof another hazard (e.g. tsunami or hurricane) Catastrophic floods: Caused by a significant and unexpectedevent e.g. dam breakage, or as a result of another hazard(e.gearthquake or volcanic eruption)Muddy floods: it is generated by run off on crop land.
The damage due to flood may vary with respect to the magnitude of theflood.Thus we can classify the effects as:Primary effects: Physical damage can range anywhere frombridges, cars, buildings, sewer systems, roadways, canals and anyother type of structure. Casualties: People and livestock die due to drowning. It can also leadto epidemics and diseases.
Secondary effects: Water supplies, contamination of water,Clean drinking waterbecomes scarce. Diseases: Unhygienic conditions & spread of water bornediseases. Crops and food supplies: Shortage of food crops can be causeddue to loss of entire harvest.Tertiary/long-term effects: Economic: rebuilding costs, food shortage leading to priceincrease , temporary decline in tourism etc.
NEPAL Nepal is a landlocked country lying between India and China-147,181 km2. Divided into 3 ecological regions: „Terai‟ in thesouth, the „Hills‟ in the middle and „Mountains‟ in the north. The Terai region is low-lying and highly prone to hydrologicaldisasters and similarly the hills and mountain areas are highlyvulnerable to landslides and earthquakes. From geographic perspective Nepal is located in the middle portionof the Hindu-Kush Himalayan Region. Nepal displays extremevariations in natural environment ranging from tropical plain toalpine heights with decreasing elevations from north to south. It has a unique altitudinal variation from 60 meters from mean sealevel at Jhapa in the south to 8,848 meters at Mt. Everest in the north– big variation within a short horizontal distance of only 90 to 120km
The Himalaya is the most active and fragile mountain range inthe world as is still rising and its rocks are under constantstress as the northward –moving Indian Plate pushes againstthe more stable Tibetan block. This pressure forces theHimalaya to rise and move horizontally southward alongmajor thrusts. The active nature of the range is also manifestedby frequent earthquakes. Triggering factors such as rainfall and earthquakes make themountains highly vulnerable to landslides.
There are more than 6,000 rivers and streams in Nepal. Eachyear, flood causes immense damage to agricultural land, crops,human settlements and other physical properties. According to a report from (ICIMOD), glacier lakes in themountains are becoming very large due to melting of glaciers. There are more than 20 potentially dangerous lakes in Nepalthat can affect tens of thousands of people severely in themountains and down-stream areas.
Not only socio-economic factors but also thegeological, topographical and climatic conditionsexpose Nepal to multiple hazards, most prominentlyearthquakes, floods, landslides, fires, thunderbolts, windstorms, hailstorm and avalanches. According to official disaster statistics, out of the total numberof affected families floods & landslides and windstorms &hailstorms have affected most followed by fires andepidemics.
LAW/ACTS IN NEPAL The legal framework for disaster management has a longhistory in Nepal with the Natural Calamity (Relief) Act 2039promulgated in 1982. This Act allocated the responsibility forpreparing and responding to disasters in Nepal to theGovernment. The Act, for the first time in history of Nepal, provided for adisaster management administrative structure in the country. National Action Plan on Disaster Management 2005 waspresented at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction heldin Kobe, Japan from 18-22 January, 2005
Nepal is fortunate to have started two very important initiativesrecently, namely a) formulation of the National Policy forDisaster risk Management and, b) preparation of a newlegislation for Disaster risk Management to replace the existingNatural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982.Both these initiatives are focused on internalizing the shift from aresponse-based national system to emphasizing the disaster riskreduction and effective preparedness approach.It is hoped that this National Strategy on DRM will be able toguide the review process for ensuring the required level ofconsensus among the three policy documents.
At the central level, it constituted the Central Disaster Relief Committee(CDRC) with the Minister of Home Affairs as the Chair.The apex body for disaster management comprises the Secretaries of theministries ofFinance DefenseLocal Development Physical Planning and WorksHealth and Population Agriculture and CooperativesEducation and Sports Environment, Science and TechnologyLand Reform and Management Industry Commerce and SuppliesForeign Affairs Water ResourcesInformation and Communication Forest and Soil ConservationWomen, Children and Social WelfareandRepresentatives fromNepal Army Nepal PoliceNepal armed Police Nepal Red Cross SocietyNepal Scout Social Welfare CouncilDepartment of Mines and Geology Department of Water-Induced DisastersDepartment of Hydrology and Meteorology.
Following a disaster, the CDRC meets and when necessary toaddress the needs of the affected population and on mattersrelated to all sectors (e.g. food, health, shelter, water &Sanitation, etc.). Because of the devastating effects of theannually recurrent floods, CDRC has been meeting regularly atleast twice a year - before the floods to take stock of the floodpreparedness status and to augment it, and immediately after toevaluate the response.
The Natural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982 provides for theestablishment of regional committee as and when required.During the 1988 earthquake affecting eastern Nepal and the 1993floods in south-central Nepal.Regional Service Centre was established respectively atBiratnagar and Simara that provided relief coordinationdemonstrating the usefulness of setting up regional committees tocoordinate relief activities related to more than one district.However, these centers were closed after the emergencyoperations were over.CDRC IN REGIONAL LEVEL
CDRC IN DISTRICT LEVELDistrict Disaster Relief Committee (DDRC) is a permanent outfit atthe district level to coordinate relief and preparedness.DDRC is chaired by the Chief District Officer who is the mainadministrative functionary to maintain law and order at the districtlevel.Other members to DDRC are the representatives of the district leveloffices of the various public sector agencies such as district watersupply office, district education office and district health office.The Local development Officer– the district level officer of theMinistry of Local development, who coordinates development workswith the elected bodies at the district level, is the member-secretary ofDDRC.
NATURAL DISASTERS IN NEPALFROM 1980-2010No. of events 78No. of people killed 11,112Average killed per year 358No. of people affected 51,65,810Average affected per year 1,66,639Economic damage (US $ x 1000) 13,51,229Economic damage (US $ x 1000) 43,588
TOP 10 NATURAL DISASTERSDISASTER DATE KILLED (NO. OF PEOPLE)EPIDEMIC 1991 1,334FLOOD 1993 1,048FLOOD 1996 768EARTHQUAKE 1988 709FLOOD 1981 650EPIDEMIC 1992 640EPIEMIC 2002 472EPIDEMIC 2009 314FLOOD 1998 260EPIDEMIC 2000 250
DesInventar is a disaster inventory software produced by the NationalSociety for earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET) with financial supportfrom United. The UNDP and UN/OCHA jointly assisted the preparation of DistrictDisaster Management Action Plan for Chitwan district.It is a pilot project and Chitwan district was especially chosen because ofits vulnerability to natural disasters such as earthquake and flood. UNDP Nepal to establish a systematic data inventory of natural disasterevents in Nepal. It is expected to serve as a tool for disaster risk mitigationstrategy for the country. It is designed to deploy at very short notice (12-24 hours) to the fieldanywhere in the world. It also aims at strengthening national and regionaldisaster response capacity.ACTIVITIES IN NEPAL
Recently Imaging instruments like ASTER, MODIS and MISRare used by NASAs Terra space platform, each offer a uniqueview of disaster zone.Together, these views produce complementary multispectral andmultiangular sets of data valuable for evaluating damage andplanning for reconstruction.Picture taken from ASTER which shows the flood in Honduras
ASTER: The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and ReflectionRadiometer (ASTER) is an imaging instrument onboard Terra, theflagship satellite of NASAs Earth Observing System .It is a cooperative effort between NASA, Japans Ministry ofEconomy, Trade and Industry (METI), and Japan Space Systems .ASTER data is used to create detailed maps of land surfacetemperature, reflectance, and elevation.The coordinated system of EOS satellites, including Terra, is a majorcomponent of NASAs Science Mission Directorate and the .The goal of NASA Earth Science is to develop a scientificunderstanding of the Earth as an integrated system, its response tochange, and to better predict variability and trends in climate, weather,and natural hazards.
MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer isa key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOSAM) satellites. These data will improve our understanding of global dynamicsand processes occurring on the land, in the oceans, and in thelower atmosphere.MODIS is playing a vital role in the development of validated,global, interactive Earth system models able to predict globalchange accurately enough to assist policy makers in makingsound decisions concerning the protection of our environment.
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