Chapter 13 the south


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The South in the early 1800s, the cotton development, transportation, slavery, plantation,

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Chapter 13 the south

  1. 1. Southern Society Chapter 13
  2. 2. Growth of the Cotton Industry  Before the American Revolution three crops dominated southern agriculture o Tobacco o Rice o Indigo  After the Revolution prices for those crops fell, in an effort to protect their incomes farmers had to find a different crop to grow….. Cotton.
  3. 3.  Cotton had been growing in the New World for centuries but it was never profitable. o Before cotton could be spun into cloth the seeds had to be removed from the fibers. o Removing seeds from cotton was painstakingly difficult; it would take a worker an entire day to remove seeds from one pound of cotton.
  4. 4.  Demand for cotton began to grow when the new textile factories need for raw cotton increased. o It got to the point that the American cotton producers couldn’t keep up with the high demand from the factories o They needed a machine that could remove the seeds from the cotton quickly.
  5. 5. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin  A northern name Eli Whitney patented such a machine in 1793.  Whitney’s machine was called “cotton gin” o A machine that removes seeds from short- staple cotton o “Gin” is short for engine
  6. 6. o The machine used a hand-cranked cylinder with wire teeth to pull cotton fibers from the seeds o Whitney tried to keep the machine a secret but it worked so well that others started to copy it. o The Cotton Gin revolutionized the cotton industry  Planters- large scale farmers who held 20 or more slaves, built cotton gins that could process tons of cotton much faster than hand processing.
  7. 7.  Soon Cotton was the new cash crop and other farmers would abandon their old crops and would start growing cotton, the “cotton belt” or the area of high cotton production developed in the south. o 1791- 2 million pounds o 1860- 1 billion pounds
  8. 8. Cotton Belt  Advantages as a cash crop o Cost little to market o Could be stored for a longer period of time o Cost less to transport (since it didn’t weight that much)
  9. 9.  Disadvantage oCotton rapidly used up the nutrients in the soil  After a few years the soil would be useless  Farmers started to rotate the crops grown on different fields
  10. 10.  Cross-breeding o Scientist started to try and improve the crops by cross breeding with other types of cotton. This resulted in a stronger type of cotton that helped the cotton industry expand.  Increase of slave labor, though it was illegal to import slaves after 1808, the slave trade within the United States continued to grow.
  11. 11. Cotton Trade  “Cotton is King!” – James Henry Hammond: U.S. Senator o He believed that the south’s cotton was one of the most valuable resources in the world
  12. 12. o The Cotton boom made the south a major player in the world trade.  Great Britain became the South’s most valued foreign trading partner.  This growing trade led to the growth of such major cites as Charleston, SC, Savannah, GA and New Orleans, LA.
  13. 13. In the cities crop brokers called factors managed the cotton trade. o Farmers would sell their cotton to merchants; merchants would then make deals with the factors who would arrange for the transportation aboard the trading ships. o Roads were poor in the south however and many farmers had to turn to the rivers to ship their cotton to the ports by using steamboats.
  14. 14. Other Crops and Industries  Corn- Primary southern food crop o Other food crops included: rice, sweet potatoes, wheat and sugarcane.  Tobacco- The south’s first major cash crop o Very times consuming  Leaves had to be cured and dried before they could be shipped to market. o In 1839 a slave discovered a way to improve the drying process by using heat from burning charcoal.
  15. 15. • Hemp and Flax- Fibers were used to make ropes and sack cloth.
  16. 16. Industry o Most of the first factories in the south were built to serve farmers needs, such as processing crops. o The first steamed power sawmill was built in Donaldsonville, Louisiana. o Cotton mills started popping up in the 1840s
  17. 17. oTredeger Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia One of the most productive iron works in the nation  Only factory to produce bridge materials, cannons, stream engines and other products.
  18. 18. Southern Society  During the first half of the 1800s only about 1/3 of white southern families had slaves. Even fewer had plantations. o However the plantation owners had a powerful influence over the South  Many served as political leaders
  19. 19. Planters: Wealthiest members o Many lived in mansions; others would save all their money to buy more land. o Men would run the farm and the women would run the house o Marriages would be ranged according to business interests
  20. 20. Yeomen and Poor Whites: Most white southerners o Yeomen- owned small farms, and a few slaves or none at all.  Took pride in their farms, worked long days o Poorest of the white southern lived on the land, hunting, fishing, raising small gardens and doing odd jobs for money.
  21. 21. The Slave System  Most plantation owners used the gang-labor system o All field hands worked on the same take at the same time.  Sunup to sundown  Men, women and children over 10  Sickness and poor health rarely stopped the work
  22. 22.  Some slaves worked in the Planters homes as butlers, cooks or nurses. o Tended to be treated slightly better in terms of food, clothing and shelter.  Worked longer hours…. Aka 24 hours a day
  23. 23.  Skilled workers o Some African Americans worked at skilled jobs such as blacksmithing or carpentry.  Planters would often let these slaves sell their services to other people, they would take a portion of what earned as well.
  24. 24. Living Conditions o Housed in dirt floor cabins with few furnishing and leaky roofs o Clothing was simpler and make of cheap course fabric o Some slaves were allowed to keep their own gardens for veggies and chickens for eggs to help improve on the poor food rations that they were given.
  25. 25. oPlanters would often punish one slave in front of the others as warnings against disobedience. Many states passed strict laws called slave codes.  Prohibited states from traveling far from their homes.  Literacy laws: prohibited the education of slaves, like reading and writing.
  26. 26. Slave Culture o Many enslaved Africans found comfort in their community and culture. o Family was the most important aspect of the slave communities.  Many feared separation more than they feared punishment
  27. 27. Folktales: stories with morals  To teach lessons about how to survive under slavery  Many would have clever animal characters called a trickster.
  28. 28. Religion  By the 1800s many slaves were Christians.  They viewed themselves much like the Hebrews in the Old Testament, hoping that they too would find freedom one day.  Some slaves sang spirituals or emotional Christian songs that blended African and European music
  29. 29. Seeds of Rebellion o In some way slaves would resist on a daily basis… working slowly. o Some would run away
  30. 30. Nat Turners Rebellion: The most violent slave revolt in the country occurred in 1831. Nat Turner a slave from Southhampton County, Virginia  Turner led a group of slaves in a plan to kill all of the slaveholders and their families in the county.
  31. 31. oThey killed about 60 white people in the community. oMore than 100 INNOCENT slaves were killed in an attempt to stop the rebellion. oTurner himself led authorities on a chase around the countryside for six weeks oTurner was executed on November 11, 1831
  32. 32. • After the rebellion many states strengthened their slave codes.