Edit451 holistic design[1]


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Edit451 holistic design[1]

  1. 1. WANTED: Alternative to Traditional Learning Quote from Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer “all learning tasks [should] differ from each other on all dimensions that also differ in the real world, such as the context…in which the task is performed, the way in which the task is presented, the saliency of the defining characteristics, and so forth. This allows the learners to abstract more general information from the details of each single task.” (http://www.daveswhiteboard.com/archives/1899) Presented By : Alyssa Berry, Kimberly Perry, Arkova Scott
  2. 2. Theorist: Jeroen J.G. Van Merrienboer (A.K.A "JVM") Van Merrienboer is a professor from the Netherlands whose research interests are in instructional and multimedia design by developing the Holistic Design approach. He authored the four main components of the learning blueprint called 4c/ID.
  3. 3. The Key Features of the Holistic Design model are: • Knowledge Skills & Attitude: From KS&A to Professional Competences o Addresses: Compartmentalization • Scaffolding: From Single to Integrated Objectives o Addresses: Fragmentation • Mathemagenic Methods: From Teaching for the test to teaching for transfer o Addresses: Transfer Paradox Holistic Design Approach Defined
  4. 4. Why Holistic Approach? The Argument • Complex tasks are reduced into simple elements are not well suited to perform complex learning tasks. • Holistic approach prevents piecemeal instruction • Holistic instructional design allows students to coordinate multiple objectives
  5. 5. Diagram A
  6. 6. 4C/ID  Model: Four components of Instructional Design    How to teach complex skills for real world application    
  7. 7. Holistic Design Approach Using a holistic design approach solves three common problems in education, namely: • Compartmentalization- the tendency in traditional education to teach knowledge, skills, and attitudes separately • Fragmentation- teaching the objectives piece-by-piece without paying attention to the relationships between pieces • Transfer Paradox- the use of instructional methods that are highly efficient to reach specific learning objectives, measured by real world performance ability. Reference:http://www.scitopics.com/four_component_instructional_design_4C_ID.html
  8. 8. Inspiration for Holistic Approach Bloom's Taxonomy• Three types of learning: Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective. • Bloom's Taxonomy is referring to the Cognitive domain. • The Lower order thinking skills "knowledge" require learners to provide basic recall information • The Higher order thinking skills "Evaluation" require learners to provide a solution and justify it.
  9. 9. Inspiration Cont. Gagne's Taxonomy Gagne makes distinctions between verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes and psycho motor skills (KS&A) Intellectual Skills • 1. Discrimination- Distinguishing distinct parts of the same class • 2. Concrete Concepts-Seeing the essential similarity among a class of objects • 3. Rule Using-states the relationship among concepts • 4. higher-order rules (problem solving)- combining lower level rules to solve problems ** When intellectuals skills are taught, it is imperative that foundations skills are taught first**
  10. 10. KS&A--Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes Definition  • Cognitive: Mental Skills (Knowledge) • Affective: Growth in Feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) • Psychomotor: Manual or physical skills (Skills)  
  11. 11. This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of the learning process.” After a sequence of instruction or training, the learner should have acquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes. KS&A--Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes Application
  12. 12. Scaffolding Whole-Task Performance Definition The holistic design model suggests scaffolding as en effective alternative. Scaffolding is when support is provided for a performance and then slowly faded away. ex. First, working on projects with the solution given in its entirety. Then, transition into filling in the missing parts of an incomplete project. Finally, work on conventional tasks with no support.
  13. 13. From Single to Integrated Objectives Application In Prior instructional design methods, the learner is taught one or a very limited number of constituent skills (problem solving skills) at the same time. Breaking down complex tasks into small elements does not allow learners to transfer their knowledge to other situations. Holistic Design model replaces a part-task with a whole-task paradigm. The parts or skills being taught need to be coordinated with higher level strategies from the beginning of the instruction. Single objectives should no longer function as basis for the of instructional. The basis for instructional should be on the result of a tasks analysis which may take a variety of forms.
  14. 14. Mathemagenic Methods Definition Mathemagenic deals with two key concepts; Cost and Transfer The concept is the higher the cost (investment-time learning tasks) the higher the knowledge of transfer and adversely the low cost yield low transfer of learning. This speaks to the idea that traditional learning teaching for test yielding low competency vs. teaching for transfer that yields high competency. "Give Birth to Knowledge"
  15. 15. The best instructional method under Holistic design approach includes learning objectives: Integrated learning goals = Transfer of Learning = Transfer Paradox Transfer Paradox - a design approach aimed at high transfer performance for complex tasks. "Teaching complex rather than simple tasks: balancing intrinsic and germane load to enhance transfer of learning" Transfer paradox consist of complex learning skills and constituent skills There are two types of constituent skills: Recurrent Constituent Skills-(performance objective)schema-based problem solving and reasoning. The objective is to improve performance and that consist of observable steps. NonRecurrent Constituent Skills- Abstract knowledge (general) “The fundamental problem facing the field of instructional design these days is the inability of education and training to achieve transfer of learning.” Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer
  16. 16. For those of you who are teachers or educators, What do you think of this concept of transfer learning?
  17. 17. Transfer Paradox ... In recent years, Educators have been held accountable to the "No Child Left Behind" law, which includes but is not limited to state standardized test scores remaining at a certain level. In many classrooms educators feel forced to teach to the test. What in the holistic design approach does JVM suggest that teaching to the test prohibits? How can you avoid this in your own life as an educator/ professional?
  18. 18. KS & A Questions and Discussion 1. What are some of the activities you could up with when trying to reinforce information to your learner: A. Comprehension B. Knowledge C. Evaluation D. Synthesis E. Applicaton F. Analysis
  19. 19. Scaffolding When teaching elementary students basic algebra a teacher might follow this sequence : 1. 5 + 2 = 7 2. _ + 2 =7 3. _ + _ =7 What are some of ideas of ways you can think of to provide a scaffold in your teaching ? or - As a professional how can you provide support (scaffolding) for your staff as they learn new tasks/skills?
  20. 20. References van Merriënboeri, J. G. (2008). The Four-Component Instructional Design Model: Multimedia Principles in Environments for Complex Learning. THE CAMBRIDGE HANDBOOK OF MULTIMEDIA LEARNING, NEW YORK: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. Reiser, R. A., Dempsey, J. A. Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology p.72-91. First principles of Instruction: A synthesis van Merriënboeri, J. G, Kirschner, P. A., Kester, L. (2008). Taking the Load off a Learner's Mind: Instructional Design for Complex Learning. Sweller, J. ,van Merrienboer, J. G., Paas3, Fred G. W. C.(1998). Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design. Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 10, No. 3 van Merriënboeri, J. G. (2010). Training complex cognitive skills: a Four- Component Instructional Design. Retrieved from http://www.daveswhiteboard.com/archives/2056