Biodiesel Fleet Maintenance


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Biodiesel Fleet Maintenance

  1. 1. Maintaining your Diesel Fleet for Biodiesel National Biodiesel OEM Technician Training Program
  2. 2. Today’s Topics <ul><li>Biodiesel Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Key Properties of Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel System, Air Intake, & Lubrication </li></ul><ul><li>Starting, Charging, Cooling, & Vacuum systems </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust & Emissions Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biodiesel Defined <ul><li>Biodiesel , n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, meeting ASTM D 6751, designated B100. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Blend , n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This tight definition was needed in order to secure vehicle, engine and fuel injection equipment company support for biodiesel, as well as to secure ASTM specs </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Biodiesel (B100) Attributes <ul><li>High Cetane (avg. over 50) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Low Sulfur (avg. ~ 2 ppm) </li></ul><ul><li>High Lubricity, even in blends as low as 1-2% </li></ul><ul><li>High Energy Balance (3.5 to 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable, Sustainable, Domestically Produced </li></ul><ul><li>Increases overall fuel production capacity in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces HC, PM, CO in existing diesel engines </li></ul>
  5. 5. Enhanced Lubricity <ul><li>Equipment benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior lubricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2 has up to 66% more lubricity than #2 Diesel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA required sulfur reduction in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>No overdosing concerns vs. other lubricity additives </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cold Weather Performance <ul><li>Pure biodiesel does freeze faster than most petrodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Your B20 supplier should provide blends of B20 that will not cause any cold flow issues in the winter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exactly the same way they do with #2 diesel fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are a variety of tools at the disposal of distributors to improve the cold flow operability of #2 petrodiesel and biodiesel blends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blending with #1, cold flow additives, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B20 has been used successfully in climates below -20 º F </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biodiesel Fuel Stability <ul><li>The biodiesel specification contains parameters for insuring adequate fuel stability for normal applications </li></ul><ul><li>The shelf life of biodiesel blends is recommended by NBB as 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Stability additives available on the open market </li></ul>
  8. 8. Solvency Effect <ul><li>B20 & Under </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor filters, less than 2% need to be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Mild cleaning effect </li></ul><ul><li>Storage tanks may need to be cleaned, or keep extra filters on hand at start up </li></ul><ul><li>Housekeeping protocols for generic diesel equally important prior to blending </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fuel System <ul><li>Material compatibility is key for higher blends </li></ul><ul><li>Repair Fuel leaks to prevent impact to other systems! </li></ul><ul><li>From the fuel sending unit in tank to injectors </li></ul><ul><li>-primary & secondary fuel filters </li></ul><ul><li>-Fuel lines (sending & return) </li></ul><ul><li>-High pressure or </li></ul><ul><li>low pressure injectors </li></ul><ul><li>- o-rings </li></ul><ul><li>-transfer & injection pumps </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lubrication System <ul><li>Change oil as recommended by Engine manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Use OEM recommended engine oil </li></ul><ul><li>API, CI rating </li></ul><ul><li>Regular oil analysis maintenance program </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect dipstick for biodiesel smell </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lube Oil Contamination <ul><li>Current ongoing research, SAE CI Engine Performance with Alternative Fuels, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>A concern of engine manufacturers. </li></ul><ul><li>Same mechanism for the oil dilution for heavier fractions of diesel fuel as for biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to high boiling point of biodiesel, the fuel is slower to vaporize after injection into the cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining compounds will be deposited on the cylinder wall where they can be pulled into the crankcase by the normal scraping action of the piston's oil control rings. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Air Filtration <ul><li>In a diesel engine, the amount of air remains constant while fuel amount is varied for speed and power control </li></ul><ul><li>Lean mixture at idle ( 80:1 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rich mixture under load (20:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor </li></ul><ul><li>VW TDI EGR/ Intake design </li></ul><ul><li>Diesels thrive on air, lots of it, any air restriction will cause performance problems </li></ul>
  13. 13. Starting & Charging System <ul><li>Properly charged battery </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Starter or Alternator </li></ul><ul><li>Fouled glow plugs can cause hard starting </li></ul><ul><li>Glow plugs factory recalls </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Battery system </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vacuum System <ul><li>Older diesel maintenance issue </li></ul><ul><li>Leaky & Inoperative vacuum system can affect: </li></ul><ul><li>Brakes, Fuel shutoff, & transmissions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cooling System <ul><li>Cooling system helps your engine warm up & cool down </li></ul><ul><li>Operating at optimum temperature helps </li></ul><ul><li>fuel economy & engine life </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling system hoses are not always biodiesel compatible, repair fuel leaks immediately to prevent damage to other systems </li></ul>
  16. 16. Exhaust & Emissions Controls <ul><li>EGR: exhaust gas recirculation </li></ul><ul><li>Catalytic converters </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Particulate filters </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Oxidation Catalyst </li></ul><ul><li>SCR: selective catalyst reduction (Urea) </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions regulations dictating changing engine and fuel injection design </li></ul>
  17. 17. Are you Smoking? <ul><li>Black smoke: injectors, air inlet restriction, engine timing, internal engine timing, injection pump failure </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Smoke: insufficient fuel, contaminated fuel, </li></ul><ul><li>High or low oil consumption, air in the fuel </li></ul><ul><li>White smoke: bad glow plugs, plugged return fuel line, insufficient fuel supply, low compression, air in fuel, injector or pump problem, engine timing </li></ul><ul><li>White smoke can be normal in cold weather before engine warms </li></ul>
  18. 18. Miscellaneous <ul><li>NOx Emissions see: </li></ul><ul><li>NREL’s “NOx solutions for Biodiesel” </li></ul><ul><li>Cold weather Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Timing belts & chains- replace at recommended intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Educate your fellow technicians </li></ul><ul><li>Bosch & Stanadyne & FIE/OEM statement </li></ul>
  19. 19. OEM Warranty Statements and Biodiesel <ul><li>All major U.S. OEMs support B5 and lower blends, provided they are made with biodiesel meeting ASTM D 6751, the existing ASTM International standard for pure biodiesel (B100) </li></ul><ul><li>Many are progressing toward support for B20due to recent approval of a new ASTM standard for B20 blends </li></ul><ul><li>Use of blends higher than B5 will not necessarily void existing warranties </li></ul><ul><li>For a complete listing of OEM position statements on biodiesel , visit: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. NBB Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Bulletin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Videos Available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line Database & Spec Sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Quality Certification Program for Accredited Producers and Certified Marketers </li></ul></ul>