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Ac. ch. 1


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Ac. ch. 1

  1. 1. The Science of Biology What is science? -Investigate and understand -Explain events -Make predictions
  2. 2. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Science deals only with natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy is essential and used to organize </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists must be able to test proposed explanations </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Thinking like a scientist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative- non-numerical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative- numerical </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scatter Chart </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pie Graph= percent data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Histogram or bar graph= discreet data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Line graph= Continuous data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Scatter Chart <ul><li>This is a way of representing a two dimensional data sequence. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Scatter Chart
  7. 7. Line Chart <ul><li>Shows how two continuous variables are related to each other, especially changes in one variable over time. Time is normally shown on the horizontal. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Line Graph
  9. 9. Bar Charts <ul><li>Suitable for data vectors with only one numerical value being shown for different groups. They can be used to indicate the momentary status or last measured value of a parameter </li></ul><ul><li>Bar charts can also be used to show the breakdown of total figures by splitting each bar up into segments </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bar Charts
  11. 11. Pie Chart <ul><li>Suitable for showing the relationship or proportions of parts with regard to a whole. They represent only a single row of data. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Using data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferences- apply findings to derive logical conclusions or interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictions- Based on experimental data logical predictions can be made </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Biology is NOT a series of facts but an ongoing quest for understanding the living world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of our understanding is still developing and changing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Search is more for how and why answers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Human Beliefs & Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary by culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary by location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary by personal belief system </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Galileo Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Italian) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered to have established modern scientific method </li></ul></ul>                                              .
  16. 17. The Science of Biology <ul><li>The Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of question; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis; “EDUCATED” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Based on the data the hypothesis was/was not SUPPORTED” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Key Experiments and why they are repeated! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Francesco Redi (Italian) 1668 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous generation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Francesco Redi <ul><li>Redi's Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Where do maggots come from? Hypothesis: Maggots come from flies. </li></ul><ul><li>Redi put meat into three separate jars. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jar 1 was left open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jar 2 was covered with netting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jar 3 was sealed from the outside </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Francesco Redi <ul><li>Jar-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Left open Maggots developed </li></ul><ul><li>Flies were observed laying eggs on the meat in the open jar. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Francesco Redi <ul><li>Jar-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Covered with netting. </li></ul><ul><li>Maggots appeared on the netting. </li></ul><ul><li>Flies were observed laying eggs on the netting. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Francesco Redi <ul><li>Jar-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Sealed No maggots developed. </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Science of Biology <ul><li>What is a controlled experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a manipulated variable? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the experiment that Redi designed. What was the result? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the experiment that Pasteur designed. What was the result? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the experiments of Redi and Pasteur prove? </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Science of Biology <ul><li>John Needham (English) mid 1700’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiled gravy and left flask open. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flasks developed microorganisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: had to have come from gravy. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Lazzaro Spallanzani (Italian) Late 1700’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Needham’s experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed off top of one flask after boiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results only open flask grew life forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Life forms were coming from air. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Louis Pasteur (French) 1864 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment let in air but no dust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swann neck flask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results- No growth even with air entering but no dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion: dust contained microorganisms </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Louis Pasteur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The germ theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nature of contagious diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>laboratory manipulations of infectious agents can be used to immunize people and animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the inventor of the process of pasteurization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Louis Pasteur
  28. 29. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Exceptions to Experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolph Hitler </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Theories- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed from well tested and supported hypothesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally accepted concepts in science. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life originates from life “Theory of Biogenesis” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. The Science of Biology <ul><li>BIOLOGY- The study of life and living things </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Characteristics of all living things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All living things are made of at least 1 cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular= 1 cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multicellular= many cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 33. The Science of Biology <ul><li>All living things reproduce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction only takes one parent. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>offspring are typically genetically similar to their parent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The lack of genetic recombination results in fewer genetic alternatives than with sexual reproduction. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. The Science of Biology <ul><li>All living things reproduce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fertilization , involving the fusion of two gametes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Living things are based on a universal genetic code. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA & RNA carry out the same function in all living things. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. The Science of Biology <ul><li>All living things grow and develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth= physical increase in size. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development= changes in physical structure maturation. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Living things need energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs= photosynthesis or chemosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs= cellular respiration </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Living Things Respond to their Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some response is immediate some are very slow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus is the environmental factor that triggers response. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response may be visible or internal. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Maintain Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RESULTS of inbalance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEVER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SICKNESS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACHING </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 40. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Populations of Organisms Evolve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals can NOT evolve. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Branches of Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture - study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy - the study of the animal form, with an emphasis on human bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Branches of Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Biology - the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entomology - the study of insects </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Branches of Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethology - the study of animal behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics - the study of genes and heredity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ichthyology - the study of fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrobiology - the study of biology on the level of the macroscopic individual (plant, animal, or other living being) as a complete unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine Biology - the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. The Science of Biology <ul><li>LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-atomic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proton, neutron, electron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic -Basic unit of matter that maintains the qualities of that element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular -Combined atoms in a specified ratio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O NaCl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 HCl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Because a water molecule has a slight positive charge on one end and a slight negative charge on the other...the attraction of the opposite charges, (electro-static charges) creates what is called surface tension, the weak attraction is called a hydrogen bond. </li></ul>
  45. 46. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Cellular -Smallest unit representing life. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues - Groups of similar cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle, vascular, mesentary etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organs - Groups of tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach, intestine </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Organ system- Groups of organs with similar function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism - Groups of organ systems carrying out life’s functions </li></ul>
  47. 48. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Population - Groups of the same organism in a defined area in a defined time. </li></ul><ul><li>Community - Populations living together in a specified area. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem - Communities and their nonliving surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere - Part of the Earth that contains all ecosystems. </li></ul>
  48. 49. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Everyday Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental issues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Challenges of Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike most classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture/Reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad coverage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 51. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Common ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SI units (Metric) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meter – Length   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liter – Volume   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gram – Mass/Weight   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celsius – Temperature   </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 52. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Prefixes- </li></ul><ul><li>Kilo – Thousand </li></ul><ul><li>Milli-   Thousand </li></ul><ul><li>Centi – Hundred   </li></ul><ul><li>Deci – Ten </li></ul>
  52. 53. The Science of Biology <ul><li>Tools of Biology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light microscopes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 cell thick </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum magnification 1,000X </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Microscope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission electron microscopes (TEM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning electron microscopes (SEM) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surface or Internal observation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum 1,000,000X </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 54. The Science of Biology <ul><li>LAB Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Cultures -Growing cells from 1 cell under controlled environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Fractionation –To study individual cell parts by breaking apart cells (lysing) then separating their parts by using a centrifuge. </li></ul></ul>