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  1. 1. PERSONALITY Presented by : Mahes Jym
  2. 2. <ul><li>Aren’t you curious of your personality? </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of the personality </li></ul><ul><li>individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>consistent and enduring </li></ul><ul><li>Formed in childhood </li></ul><ul><li>can alter but usually only due to </li></ul><ul><li>extreme trauma </li></ul><ul><li>exhibited by behaviour </li></ul>
  3. 3. Structuring Personality <ul><li>In the early 1900, Sigmund Freud defined that the human personality can be divided into three main parts </li></ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><li>Super-ego </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Id <ul><li>is the raw part of the personality </li></ul><ul><li>consists of the instinctual cravings </li></ul><ul><li>the drives are fuelled by ‘psychic energy’ </li></ul><ul><li>operates according to the pleasure principle </li></ul>
  5. 5. The ego <ul><li>is the ‘executive’ of personality </li></ul><ul><li>makes the decisions </li></ul><ul><li>the seat of higher cognitive abilities </li></ul><ul><li>operates according to the reality principles </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Super-ego <ul><li>final personality structure to develop </li></ul><ul><li>represents the right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>has two components; the conscience and the ego-ideal </li></ul>
  7. 8. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>Indicates that there is always unconscious emotions and thoughts harbored in us. </li></ul><ul><li>These uncomfortable memories remain in our conscious so that it doesn’t affect/disturb us. </li></ul><ul><li>Results in defense mechanisms which are unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the sources from themselves and others. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Freud’s Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Repression - unpleasant impulses are pushed back into unconsciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement - redirection of an unwanted feeling towards a weaker individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Denial - refusal to accept anxiety producing information </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation - Diversion of unwanted impulses to socially approved thoughts, behaviours. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The BIG-5 Personality Traits <ul><li>Eventually, researches (Goldberg, John and Wiggins) came out with a new theory that is the ‘big five theory’ where it is said that personalities can be described by a set of specific traits that seem to be constant across the population </li></ul><ul><li>The specific traits are; </li></ul><ul><li>extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>neuroticism </li></ul><ul><li>openness </li></ul>
  10. 11. Trait #1: Extraversion <ul><li>Are you </li></ul><ul><li>Sociable or retiring? </li></ul><ul><li>Fun loving or sober? </li></ul><ul><li>Affectionate or reserved? </li></ul><ul><li>Your answers to these questions determine how this trait manifests in your personality </li></ul>
  11. 12. Trait #2: Agreeableness <ul><li>Are you. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Soft hearted or ruthless? </li></ul><ul><li>Trusting or suspicious? </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful or uncooperative? </li></ul>
  12. 13. Trait 3#: Conscientiousness <ul><li>Are you </li></ul><ul><li>Organized or disorganized? </li></ul><ul><li>Careful or careless </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined or impulsive? </li></ul>
  13. 14. Trait #4: neuroticism <ul><li>Are you </li></ul><ul><li>calm or anxious? </li></ul><ul><li>Secure or insecure? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-satisfied or self-pitying? </li></ul>
  14. 15. Trait #5:Openness <ul><li>Are/Do you. . . </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative or practical? </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer variety or routine? </li></ul><ul><li>Independent or conforming? </li></ul>
  15. 16. TEST 1 – The Interview <ul><li>You went to interview for a new job. When you arrived in the designated office, the interviewers were already there, all seated. You noticed, , however, that there was no chair for you. What would you do? </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>A Decide to do the interview standing. </li></ul><ul><li>B Say to the interviewers: &quot;May I have a chair, please.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>C Say nothing and go out to get a chair. </li></ul><ul><li>D Say to the interviewers: &quot;We need one more chair. Should I go find one?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>E Bend you knees and lower your body as if you sat in an imaginary chair. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>A:You appear to be passive and timid. </li></ul><ul><li>B:You're willing to speak out, but do not seem to have enough self-motivation to solve the problem yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>C: While your initiative is commendable, the lack of communication and coordination with others may make you appear wilful and intractable. </li></ul><ul><li>D: You suggest a solution and clear it with others. A resourceful person who is also willing to cooperate with others. </li></ul><ul><li>E: Funny. They'd either consider you a heck of a guy or just crazy. </li></ul>
  18. 19. TEST 2 - The Wrong Turn <ul><li>You and your partner were going somewhere in a new city. Your partner led the way and you followed. It soon turned out, however, that you were lost. </li></ul><ul><li>What would you likely say? </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;I thought you knew how to get there.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>B &quot;It's ok. We need a walk anyway.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>C &quot;I should have paid attention. When we made that left turn, I wanted to ask you about it but didn't. My fault.&quot; </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>A: Not a very forgiving person, you are quick in assigning responsibility to others. Hidden in the accusatory tone is also anger or dissatisfaction that may or may not be related to the incidents per se. </li></ul><ul><li>B: Easygoing and understanding in your attitude, you generally consider your partner equal to yourself. The readiness with which you tolerate your partner's errors indicates a desire to be treated the same way in similar situations. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>C: Self-effacing and self-accusatory, you demonstrate a tendency to bending over backwards to accommodate your partner. The relationship may be a truly sweet one, but possibly hidden in the attitude is also certain amount of insecurity. </li></ul>
  21. 22. TEST 3 - Sleeping-Posture and Personality <ul><li>It is said that the posture one normally assumes while asleep tells about the person's personality. What is your case? </li></ul><ul><li>1. I sleep sideways. </li></ul><ul><li>2. I sleep face-down. </li></ul><ul><li>3. I sleep face-up. </li></ul><ul><li>4. I sleep in the fetal position. </li></ul><ul><li>5. I sleep &quot;tied-up&quot; -- limps crossed, body-twisted . . . </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Sleeping Sideways </li></ul><ul><li>Those who sleep sideways are calm and peaceful people. They are not overly excitable nor are they particularly sensitive. They are steady, do what they are expected, and get the most they can out of life, but they do not drive themselves crazy while attempting to &quot;get ahead.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping Face-down </li></ul><ul><li>People who sleep face-down are serious and stubborn. They hold strong beliefs and try to have everything done precisely the way they want them. They are tense and focused, and they do not give ground easily. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Sleeping Face-up </li></ul><ul><li>Those who sleep face-up are confident and optimistic. Concerns and worries that wear others down have little effect on these people. Their attitude is “happy go lucky,&quot; and they are not particularly keen on planning or scheming. Occasionally such an attitude render them vulnerable to unpleasant surprises and setbacks. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping in the Foetal-Position </li></ul><ul><li>Those who sleep in the foetal position are trusting, natural, and communal. They tend to look at the world in rosy colours, and treat people kindly. They do not want to see and think about the darker side of life, and above all they long for security, intimacy, and joy. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Sleeping &quot;Tied-up&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Those who sleep all tied-up are experiencing stress. They are under constant pressure, either to survive crises or to move forward. It is strenuous struggle, and they often feel that they are falling short. The tension will either wear people down or convince them of the uselessness of anxiety and introduce a new beginning. </li></ul>