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Chapter 1 Ethics


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Chapter 1 Ethics

  1. 1. Ethics Datuk Dr. Ahmad Tajudin Jaafar PJN,DSDK,KMN,MBBS,MHP(NSW), AM (Malaysia )
  2. 2. Definition of Ethics <ul><li>Greek word ‘ethickos’ meaning character, manners and morals. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford dictionary defines ethics to include : </li></ul><ul><li>Science of morals. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Science of human duty . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose of Ethics <ul><li>To guide the conduct of a person before an act is undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>Define what is considered an honorable behavior. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Medical Ethics <ul><li>Application of general ethical principles to the morals problem of medical profession. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Medical Ethics <ul><li>Plato : physician judge action of another physician. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle : penalty only on the reputation of physician. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates : created an oath regarding medical ethics. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hippocratic Oaths <ul><li>Need for proper instruction and registration of doctors. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors is for benefit of patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform to the best of ability and refrain from harm. </li></ul><ul><li>Euthanasia and abortion proscribed. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of doctor & patient relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of confidentiality. </li></ul>
  7. 7. H.O (further development) <ul><li>1948 – Declaration of Geneva by the World Medical Association. </li></ul><ul><li>1968 – Amended in Sydney and led to the International Code of Medical Ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>1981 – International Organization of Islamic Medicine adopted “Oath of a Muslim doctor”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ethics Theories <ul><li>Consequentialism </li></ul><ul><li>an action is right if and only if it promotes the best consequences. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethics Theories <ul><li>2. Utilitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>consequences of an action does matter. </li></ul><ul><li>the best consequences are those in which human happiness is maximized. </li></ul><ul><li>“the greater good for the greater number”. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ethics Theories <ul><li>3. Duty-bound or Deontology </li></ul><ul><li>focus on the duties rather from the consequences </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethics Theories <ul><li>4. Virtue ethics </li></ul><ul><li>developed by Aristotle on 4B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>focus on the character and a habits of a person. </li></ul><ul><li>places better value upon moral character rather than acts or outcome of acts </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ethical Principles <ul><li>1.Beneficence </li></ul><ul><li>positive duty to do good. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Paternalism </li></ul><ul><li>“doctor knows what is best for patient”. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ethical Principles <ul><li>3.Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>self determination </li></ul><ul><li>autos(self) + nomos(governance) </li></ul><ul><li>special liberty, where individual are free to choose and implement their own decision, free from deceit, duress, constraint and coercion. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ethical Principles <ul><li>4.Non-maleficence </li></ul><ul><li>A duty to do no harm, i.e. obligation not to inflict harm intentionally. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Justice </li></ul><ul><li>- Deals with equitable distribution of benefits and burdens. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ethical Principles <ul><li>6.Fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>Obligations to keep promises and not deceive. </li></ul><ul><li>7.Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Information regarding his patient confidential aspect of trust. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ethical Principles <ul><li>Veracity </li></ul><ul><li>Need for truth-telling in the doctor - patient relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual trust and confidence. </li></ul>