The Green Bay SagaResearch for Management of a Freshwater Estuary<br />Emeritus Professor H.J. “Bud” Harris<br />Universit...
GREEN BAY<br />Where in the world is Green Bay, Wisconsin?<br />MADISON<br />
Green Bay drainage basin<br /><ul><li>Inputs 25% of Lake Michigan’s water
40,500 sq km
Land uses: Forest & agriculture
Six major rivers</li></li></ul><li>Green Bay waters of Lake Michigan<br />Length:190 km<br />Width: 37 km<br />Area: 4,250...
Runoff varies with land use<br />Sub-basin of Lower Fox River<br /><ul><li>52% Ag/Rural
29% Urban/Dev.
10% Forest
4% Wetland</li></li></ul><li>Timeline of Environmental Decline and Recovery for the Fox River/Green Bay<br />Peak #paper m...
1920’s<br />Citizen groups organize for changes after massive fish kills and river stink increases<br />1st statewide wate...
1927:What was the cause of the fish kills?  Low dissolved oxygen<br />
1930s<br />1938 water quality study of Green Bay reported 90% of BOD loading from pulp-paper mills<br />Blue-green algae l...
Blue-green algae Aphanizomenon (# per L @ 6ft)<br />Green Bay 1938-39<br />
1940’s/1950’s<br />Freshwater “dead zone” persists <br />Commercial fisheries decline <br />Green Bay (lake herring)<br />...
Benthic surveys: Hexagenia<br />1938 : 16 of 51 stations<br />1952 : 1 of 27 stations (Surber & Cooley)<br />1956 : 1 of 9...
Policymaking and enforcement<br />1972 – US Clean Water Act Amendments<br />1972 –Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement betw...
Major questions of 1970-7314 Sea Grant projects on Bay, most ‘observational’<br />“Is the patient already dead?”<br />What...
Chemical correlates of water mass movement <br />Modlin & Beaton, 1970<br />Arnsbach & Ragotzkie, 1970<br />Conductivity d...
1970’s: Early modeling in anticipation of new rules<br />Late 60s: WI begins modeling effort <br />BOD absorption Fox Rive...
1970s: Paper industry & wastewater treatment plants install equipment<br />
Average Total Discharge of BOD Material to the Lower Fox River and Summer DO Averaged from 8 Sites Across the Lower Bay<br...
Year Species First Caught in Lamprey Trap at the De Pere Dam<br />
Parallel efforts 1978-86:research & planning for implementation<br />GLERR : Great Lakes Ecosystem Rehabilitation & Restor...
1978 GB Research Workshop”blueprint”  to guide research agenda for 80s<br />Trophic interactions: Paul Sager <br />Environ...
Blueprint-recommended research priorities* led to 25 studies over 8 yrs, $2.1 million<br />Fisheries (stock assessment) 31...
Designing a plan for rehabilitation of Green Bay-Great Lakes Ecosystem Restoration & Rehabilitation<br />Green Bay I - 197...
Designing a plan for rehabilitation<br />Green Bay I – 1979<br />Ranking critical stressors<br />Green Bay II – 1980<br />...
Apply 8 yrs of research and GLERR experience<br />1984: Wisconsin ordered by EPA to act on AOC’s via Remedial Action Plan ...
1986: GBMSD starts monitoring Bay <br />16 sites, 9 parameters<br />
“Take action” = RAP<br />Remedial Action Plan (RAP)<br />Based on prior work for GLFC and GLERR<br />1987 Key Actions iden...
RAP High Priority Key Actions, 1987 <br />Eliminate Toxicity of Industrial and Municipal Point Source Discharges<br />Redu...
1988: Rising concern about PCBs and other toxics<br />PCB impact on birds supported by evidence<br />Green Bay RAP first t...
Green Bay Mass Balance Study1989-90: USEPA & WDNR-sponsored<br />Coupling river-to-bay transport models<br />Planning 1988...
Sources and Fate of Toxic SubstancesStart with inventory, leads to Green Bay Mass Balance Study<br /><ul><li>Victor Bierma...
Joseph DePinto, Univ of Buffalo
Thomas Young, Clarkson University
Paul Rogers, Limno-Tech, Inc.</li></ul>Role of Mass Balance Modeling in Research and Management of Toxic Chemicals in the ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Green Bay Saga: Research for Management of a Freshwater Estuary

1,481 views

Published on

Review of 40 years of research on the ecosystem of Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA; prepared primarily by HJ "Bud" Harris, emeritus professor of ecoystems analysis, Univ of Wisconsin-Green Bay, with help from Paul A. Wozniak, Fox River historian

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,481
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Draft of June 11 2009
  • (center) Edmund S. Muskie served as a U.S. Senator from 1959 to 1980. During his 22 years in Congress, Muskie was a member on the Environment and Public Works Committee, the Foreign Relations Committee, and the Governmental Affairs Committee. In addition, he chaired the Senate Committee on the Budget, the Air and Water Pollution Subcommittee (later known as the Environmental Pollution Subcommittee), and the Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee. He was active in writing new laws, including the early environmental protection legislation of 1963 and 1966, and sponsorship of numerous acts, including the Intergovernmental Relations Act (1959), the Model Cities Act (1966), the Clean Air Act (1970), the Clean Water Act (1972), and the Budget Reform Act (1974). Muskie’s legislative record is long, complex, and vitally important to understanding his historical contributions to environmentalism, budgetary reform, fiscal responsibility, and myriad other aspects of 20th century politics in the United States.
  • 14 separate projects spanning the features of the Bay, most observational/descriptive.
  • Patterson 1980 describes start of modeling on river’s ability to absorb BODManhattan College, a Catholic school in Bronx, developed the QUAL models.
  • Bay of Quinty rehab didn’t have research basis of Green Bay; dropped bec of comparability problems and replaced with Erie’s Long PointRehabilitating Great Lakes Ecosystems, TechReport37, 1979, GLFC – can we rehabilitate large scale ecosystems like the Great Lakes?Green Bay in the Future-A Rehabilitative Prospectus, ed by Harris, Talhelm, Magnuson, Forbes TechReport28, GLFC was test of affirmative answer to aboveGet logos, graphic of humanfigureSystems dynamics - Magnuson, Harris, Wenger Brought in other universities, including Canadian instituions
  • Sept 1978 Each task force had 10-15 industry, academic, govt repsInformally referred to as “The Blueprint” WIS-SG-78-234
  • Scan, paste cover of Green Bay in the Future booklet from GLFCDriving Q: What will get people&institutions to act?“Green Bay in the Future-A Rehabilitative Prospectus” (1982)1979-81 workshops
  • GLERRScan, paste systems diagram from booklet page15
  • Buzz B asks SG for help, proposal by Bud rejected by SG as offending stakeholders, too management oriented. But DNR Wise wanted management orientation. Technical Advisory Committee of RAPLetter Llewellyn, DNR“Ecosystem Rehab: Shift toward different paradigm, Papers from Estuarine Management Practices Symposium 1985, Natl SeaGrant College Prgm, Baton Rouge LAJake Rose approached for funds for RAP Key Actions workshop and documentThe GB RAP Summary PUBL WR 243-91
  • Remedial Action Plan (RAP)Based on prior work for GLFC and GLERROutput Jan87 Key Actions doc by GBRAP Citizens Advisory Committee
  • Remedial Action Plan (RAP)Based on prior work for GLFC and GLERROutput Jan87 Key Actions doc by GBRAP Citizens Advisory Committee
  • Done in 1991 and used in RAP Update, but published later as A Method for Assessing…Harris, Wenger, Harris & Devault, Env Risk Assmt 1994 18(2):295-306
  • The Green Bay Saga: Research for Management of a Freshwater Estuary

    1. 1. The Green Bay SagaResearch for Management of a Freshwater Estuary<br />Emeritus Professor H.J. “Bud” Harris<br />University of Wisconsin-Green Bay<br />& Paul A. Wozniak-river historian<br />
    2. 2. GREEN BAY<br />Where in the world is Green Bay, Wisconsin?<br />MADISON<br />
    3. 3. Green Bay drainage basin<br /><ul><li>Inputs 25% of Lake Michigan’s water
    4. 4. 40,500 sq km
    5. 5. Land uses: Forest & agriculture
    6. 6. Six major rivers</li></li></ul><li>Green Bay waters of Lake Michigan<br />Length:190 km<br />Width: 37 km<br />Area: 4,250 sq km<br />Depth: 20 meters<br />Deepest = 53 meters<br />Chemistry: steep N-S trophic gradient<br />Biology: High primary and secondary production <br />60% of Lake Michigan’s commercial catch<br />
    7. 7. Runoff varies with land use<br />Sub-basin of Lower Fox River<br /><ul><li>52% Ag/Rural
    8. 8. 29% Urban/Dev.
    9. 9. 10% Forest
    10. 10. 4% Wetland</li></li></ul><li>Timeline of Environmental Decline and Recovery for the Fox River/Green Bay<br />Peak #paper mills 1870 <br />Chemical Era <br />post 1945 <br />1970s to Present<br />1980s to Present<br />Fur Era<br />?<br />Fish Era<br />1700’s to 1800’s<br />Mgt of NonPoint Source Pollution<br />Lumber Era<br />PCB Remediation and Point Source Control<br />1800’s to 1900’s<br />Max Cut 1870 <br />Industrial and Agricultural Era<br />Present<br />Environmental Decline<br />Environmental Recovery<br />Chemical Era<br />BOD Waste Load Allocation <br />1970’s<br />
    11. 11. 1920’s<br />Citizen groups organize for changes after massive fish kills and river stink increases<br />1st statewide water pollution survey of major rivers in1925<br />1927 report published<br />River ice harvest ends due to gross filth<br />But whose pollution is to blame? Canneries, creameries, foundries?<br />
    12. 12. 1927:What was the cause of the fish kills? Low dissolved oxygen<br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14. 1930s<br />1938 water quality study of Green Bay reported 90% of BOD loading from pulp-paper mills<br />Blue-green algae linked to organic and nutrient discharge of Fox River<br />But which nutrients?<br />
    15. 15. Blue-green algae Aphanizomenon (# per L @ 6ft)<br />Green Bay 1938-39<br />
    16. 16. 1940’s/1950’s<br />Freshwater “dead zone” persists <br />Commercial fisheries decline <br />Green Bay (lake herring)<br />Lake Michigan (lake trout) <br />Poor water quality closes city swimming beach in Green Bay permanently <br />Little statutory authority to respond to deteriorating conditions!!!<br />
    17. 17. Benthic surveys: Hexagenia<br />1938 : 16 of 51 stations<br />1952 : 1 of 27 stations (Surber & Cooley)<br />1956 : 1 of 99 stations (Balch, industry-state survey)<br />1967 : 0 of 73stations (Howmiller & Beaton)<br />
    18. 18. Policymaking and enforcement<br />1972 – US Clean Water Act Amendments<br />1972 –Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between US-Canada<br />1974 – International Joint Commission names Green Bay a problem spot on Great Lakes<br />Senator Muskie 1972<br />
    19. 19. Major questions of 1970-7314 Sea Grant projects on Bay, most ‘observational’<br />“Is the patient already dead?”<br />What are the nutrient inputs to Bay?<br />What are the levels of Nitrogen-fixation in Bay and are they related to algal blooms?<br />Are there organic chemicals with unknown but potentially dangerous impacts?<br />Do people who use the bay know about the pollution? Do swimmer decisions on where to swim correlate with health risk data?<br />Does the local economy really need a port for large ships (with associated dredging)?<br />
    20. 20. Chemical correlates of water mass movement <br />Modlin & Beaton, 1970<br />Arnsbach & Ragotzkie, 1970<br />Conductivity distribution<br />
    21. 21. 1970’s: Early modeling in anticipation of new rules<br />Late 60s: WI begins modeling effort <br />BOD absorption Fox River only<br />First EPA model tried but found inappropriate for Fox River<br />1973-74: Data collection to calibrate QUAL models of (O’Connor, Manhattan College, NYC)<br /> Fox River BOD wasteload allocation for permits<br />
    22. 22. 1970s: Paper industry & wastewater treatment plants install equipment<br />
    23. 23. Average Total Discharge of BOD Material to the Lower Fox River and Summer DO Averaged from 8 Sites Across the Lower Bay<br />From State of the Bay Report, 1990<br />
    24. 24. Year Species First Caught in Lamprey Trap at the De Pere Dam<br />
    25. 25. Parallel efforts 1978-86:research & planning for implementation<br />GLERR : Great Lakes Ecosystem Rehabilitation & Restoration<br />ecosystem research<br />Understanding structure & function of “ecosystems green”<br />ecosystemrehabilitation<br />Holistic approach <br />Identify critical stressors<br />Biophysical dimensions<br />Socioeconomic context<br />
    26. 26. 1978 GB Research Workshop”blueprint” to guide research agenda for 80s<br />Trophic interactions: Paul Sager <br />Environmental Contaminants & Human Health: Anders Andren<br />Water Movement & Mass Transport: Clifford Mortimer<br />Influences of Land Use: Daniel Bromly<br />Water Use Implications: Jack Day<br />“Green Bay Research Workshop Proceedings” WIS-SG-78-234<br />
    27. 27. Blueprint-recommended research priorities* led to 25 studies over 8 yrs, $2.1 million<br />Fisheries (stock assessment) 31%<br />Physics/Chemistry (water mass movement, transport) 30%<br />Trophic (interactions, dynamics) 18%<br />Watersheds (runoff, land use-remote sensing) 7%<br />Outreach 10%<br />Socioeconomics (people issues) 4%<br />
    28. 28. Designing a plan for rehabilitation of Green Bay-Great Lakes Ecosystem Restoration & Rehabilitation<br />Green Bay I - 1979<br />Green Bay II - 1980<br />Green Bay III - 1981<br />
    29. 29. Designing a plan for rehabilitation<br />Green Bay I – 1979<br />Ranking critical stressors<br />Green Bay II – 1980<br />Defining elements of rehabilitation<br />Technical<br />Socioeconomic<br />institutional<br />Green Bay III – 1981<br />Structuring the plan<br />Digraph of Green Bay stressors <br />
    30. 30. Apply 8 yrs of research and GLERR experience<br />1984: Wisconsin ordered by EPA to act on AOC’s via Remedial Action Plan (RAP)<br />GB is 1 of 42 RAPs in Great Lakes<br />WDNR asks UW-Sea Grant for help on RAP<br />1986: Workshop integrates Sea Grant research and GLERR management experience for RAP<br />Organized by WDNR’s Llewellyn & Harris<br />Coupling Ecosystem Science with Management: A Great Lakes Perspective from Lake Michigan, USA. Environmental Management 11(5): 619-625<br />
    31. 31. 1986: GBMSD starts monitoring Bay <br />16 sites, 9 parameters<br />
    32. 32. “Take action” = RAP<br />Remedial Action Plan (RAP)<br />Based on prior work for GLFC and GLERR<br />1987 Key Actions identified by Technical Advisory Committees<br />LIST OF 100+ POSSIBLE ACTIONS<br />REDUCED TO 11 KEY ACTIONS <br />“RAP Update”1993<br />
    33. 33. RAP High Priority Key Actions, 1987 <br />Eliminate Toxicity of Industrial and Municipal Point Source Discharges<br />Reduce Availability of Toxic Chemicals from Contaminated Sediments<br />Reduce Phosphorus Inputs to the River and Bay from Point and Nonpoint Sources<br />Reduce Input of Sediment and Suspended Solids<br />Create an Institutional Structure for Plan Implementation<br />Increase Public Awareness of, Participation In and Support for River and Bay Clean Up<br />
    34. 34. 1988: Rising concern about PCBs and other toxics<br />PCB impact on birds supported by evidence<br />Green Bay RAP first to be approved by IJC <br />GB Mass Balance Study creates model with potential application to Great Lakes management<br />
    35. 35. Green Bay Mass Balance Study1989-90: USEPA & WDNR-sponsored<br />Coupling river-to-bay transport models<br />Planning 1988, data collection starts 1989<br />Multi-agency, $13 million<br />Assess feasibility of mass balance<br />Calibrate model for Green Bay<br />List PCB sources, rank priorities<br />Improve methodology for mass balance studies<br />
    36. 36. Sources and Fate of Toxic SubstancesStart with inventory, leads to Green Bay Mass Balance Study<br /><ul><li>Victor Bierman, Univ of Notre Dame
    37. 37. Joseph DePinto, Univ of Buffalo
    38. 38. Thomas Young, Clarkson University
    39. 39. Paul Rogers, Limno-Tech, Inc.</li></ul>Role of Mass Balance Modeling in Research and Management of Toxic Chemicals in the Great Lakes: The Green Bay Mass Balance Study, Great Lakes Research Review, July 1994<br />
    40. 40. Ecological Risk Assessment 1991 – Ranking Stressors on GB Ecosystem Values and Services<br />
    41. 41. 1999: Four action prioritiespre-climate change <br />Remediate contaminated sediments<br />Reduce nutrients and solids loading<br />Protect wetlands & ecological services<br />Prevent further exotic species introduction<br />
    42. 42. 2003: Lower Fox River Watershed Monitoring Program<br /><ul><li>Multi-year water monitoring & assessment program
    43. 43. Established in 2003
    44. 44. Connects university and agency scientists with teachers and their students</li></li></ul><li>March Snowmelt<br />2004: Loads are seasonal and event driven<br />Loads are seasonal and event driven.<br />During dry years, 45-65% of annual load occurred in March. <br />
    45. 45. 2007: Future basin-wide load reduction scenarios<br /> built on SWAT model supported by robust monitoring.<br /> Laura Blake and Sandra Brown, The Cadmus Group, Inc., and others, 2007.<br />
    46. 46. How has research informed management?<br />

    ×